Jan. 19, 2022

Making Stars Out of Bubbles

The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 25 Episode 8
Listen to SpaceTime on your favourite App with our universal listen link: https://link.chtbl.com/spacetime
*Making stars out of bubbles
A new study has found...


The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 25 Episode 8
Listen to SpaceTime on your favourite App with our universal listen link: https://link.chtbl.com/spacetime
*Making stars out of bubbles
A new study has found the local bubble – a region of the galaxy through which the Sun, Earth and solar system are now travelling -- may have triggered the birth of thousands of new stars.
*A new model to explain the lunar dichotomy
A new study supports the idea that a massive cosmic impact billions of years ago could account for the vast differences between the near and far side of the Moon.
*Chinese space station to be completed this year
Beijing says it will complete construction of its Tiangong or Heavenly Palace space station this year.
*Japan launches new hybrid telecommunication satellite
The largest and most sophisticated commercial telecommunications satellite ever launched – the Inmarsat-6 F1 has blasted into orbit aboard an H2A rocket from the Tanegashima Space Centre 40 kilometres south of Kyushu.
*The Science Report
The past seven years have been the hottest on record globally.
The largest ichthyosaur ever found in the United Kingdom.
Olive oil linked to a lower risk of dying.
Alex on Tech wraps up CES the world’s biggest consumer electronics show.:
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The Astronomy, Space, Technology & Science News Podcast.

Transcript

SpaceTime S25E08 AI Transcript

[00:00:00] Stuart: This is space-time series 25 episode eight, four broadcasts on the 19th of January, 2021, coming up on space, time, making stars out of bubbles and new muddle to explain the lunar dichotomy, why the two sides of the moon look so different and Beijing says China's new space station will be completed this year or that, and more coming up on Space Time.

VO Guy: Welcome to Space Time with Stuart Gary

A new study has found that the local bubble, a region of the galaxy through which the sun earth and solar system currently traveling may have triggered the birth of thousands of new stars. A report in the journal nature shows how young stars and staff for me regions within 500 light years of the earth appear to be sitting on the surface of this expanding bubble, which was generated by a series of exploding stars or supernova.

The local bubble is a relative cavity in the interstellar medium in the Iran arm of the Milky way. Galaxy. It contains our closest celestial neighbors, including the local interstellar cloud, which contains the solar system. The neighboring G cloud is a major moving stellar group and the hate open cluster.

Around a thousand light years across and defined by its neutral hydrogen density of around 0.05 atoms per cubic centimeter. The local bubble has just one 10th. The average density of the Milky way's interstellar medium, which is 0.5 atoms per cubic centimeter. It's also around a sixth at the local interstellar cloud in which we're currently sitting, which is around 0.3 atoms per cubic centimeter.

Well, astronomers have known about the local bubbles existence for decades. This new work allows them to see and understand its beginnings and impact on the surrounding interstellar gas. The study's lead author, Katherine Zucca from the Harvard Smithsonian center for astrophysics. It's just a research reconstruct the evolutionary history of the local galactic neighborhood and shows how a chain of events beginning 14 million years ago led to the creation of a vast bubble.

That's responsible for the formation of all nearby young stars. The data shows how blast waves from the supernova pushed the interstellar gas outwards, creating the bubble like structure with a buildup of material along the bubbles edge, triggering Starburst. That is the birth of new stars today. Seven well-known star forming regions or molecular clouds that is dense regions in space with star skin form a sitting on the surface of the.

Zuki says her calculations suggest around 15 supernova. They have gone off over billions of years in order to form the local bubble as it is today. And this oddly shaped bubble isn't dormant, but continues to solely grow and expand at a rate of around six kilometers per second. However Zika says it's pretty well lost most of its oomph now, and it's pretty much plateaued out in terms of speeds.

The expand and spit of the bubble as well as the past and present trajectory. So the young stars forming on its surface were all derived using dead or obtained from the European space agencies, guy or observatory. When the first supernovae that created the local bubble ignited the sun earth and solar system was still far away.

We only entered the bubble about 5 million years ago as we continue and our orbit around the Milky ways galactic center. But right now, the sun earth and solar system are almost directly in the bubble center. So today as humans, peer out into space from near the sun, we have a front row seat to the process of staph formation occurring all around us on the bubble surface, strong first theorize.

That super bubbles would have been pervasive through the Milky way around 50 years ago. And the new data provides proof of that after all. What are the chances that we'll be smack bang in the middle of one of these things? If there weren't lots of them around. This report from the space telescope science Institute and the Harvard Smithsonian center for astrophysics.

Where did we come from? Not humans, but the sun and nearby stars. How did our galactic neighborhood and come to look the way it does new research reveals that 14 million years ago. Powerful supernova started exploding, blowing out a bubble of hot gas called the local bubble. As millennia passed the bubble expanded, sweeping up clouds of interstellar gas and Dustin its surface.

Over time. These clouds collapse to form thousands of new stars. Our sun was far away when the bubble first started forming and about 5 million years ago, the sun's path. I see, took it into the bubble, looking out from inside the 1000 light year wide bubble today, we see star formation all around us stars are forming on the bubble surface, but amazingly not inside it.

This discovery supports a 50 year old theory that supernova bubbles from dine stars can sweep up gas that gives birth to new. And leads astronomers to wonder how bubbly the rest of the galaxy, maybe this space time still to come. And you muddled to explain the lunar dichotomy, why the two halves of the moon looked so different and Beijing says China's new space station will be completed this year or that a more static.

Um, space time,

a new study supports the idea that a massive cosmic impact billions of years ago could account for the vast differences between the near and far sides of the moon. Known as the lunar dichotomy. The difference between the moons near and far sides is fascinated scientists ever since the first images, the fast side of the moon were captured showing that it's vastly different from the near side of the moon.

The one which always faces the earth, the near side is dominated by vast planes of solidified magma. Well, the far side features are far thicker crust, at least 20 kilometers thicker, and it's covered with many smaller cranes. When you study reported in the journal nature, geoscience describes a new model which tries to explain this lunar symmetry.

Astronomers generally agree. The moon was formed four and a half billion years ago when the Mars sized planet, which astronomers call theor collided with the early predator worth turning birth bodies into a magma Morrow. While most of the multimaterial are created onto the earth. Some object that was flying into orbit around the earth and eventually coalesced to form the moon.

Now, this should have resulted in a uniformly differentiated structure with a symmetrical crust, mantle and core yet, for some reason, the crust on the lunar far side is at least 20 kilometers thicker than that. On the near side, something must have happened after the moon formed to change things. Now previous studies have all focused on the giant eight can basin a massive impact, created the moon south pole, which has produced some 4 billion years ago.

And this is where the new studies ideas come in. It hypothesizes that the impact created gravitational instability and enough hate to trigger colossal melting convection of material around the impact site and deep into the lunar interior. The author's claim this then induced thermochemical instabilities that drove the dense potassium, rare earth elements and phosphorus, collectively known as creep towards the moon's near side inducing the lunar geochemical asymmetry.

We see today, of course, it's only an idea and there will be many more. This is space time. Still the calm Beijing space station. It be completed this year and Japan launches a new hybrid telecommunication satellite into orbit or that, and more still to come on space time.

Beijing says it will complete construction of its TN gong or heavenly palace space station. This share the teANN he or harmony of the heavens call module. The opening outpost was launched into a 340 kilometer high orbit in April last year with two more modules plan. Once completed that yang gong will have a massive between 80 and a hundred times, roughly a fifth them as to the international space station.

And about two thirds, the size of the old Russian MySpace space station. China is piling more than 40 orbital launches during the year, including at least six missions to their new space station. These will include at least two shins your man missions and to Tianjin cargo flights, as well as the space stations, two additional modules, main Tiana.

And when Tianne core module provides a life support in medications and living quarters for three crew members includes a galleon toilet, as well as housing, the guidance, navigation, overall orientation and propulsion systems and controls a service section and a document. The first of the two science laboratory modules, the Wang TRM is sled in for launch in may followed by its near identical twin.

The main Tiana in August, the current six months, Shinji 13 mission of bothered. Tiani called module is China's longest man space flights. They put their first humans into space back in 2003 becoming only the third nation after Russia in the United States to achieve man space. The Shenzhou 13 crew have already conducted several space walks and they've carried out tests using the space stations, robotic arm, which successfully you latched onto the TNG two cargo ship, undocking it, and then re docking the vehicle this space time still to come.

And you study confirms that the past seven years have been the seven hottest on record, or that are more stored. Space time.

The largest, the most sophisticated commercial telecommunication satellite ever launched by Japan. The Inmarsat six F1 has blasted into all, but about an age to a rocket from the tenant Ashima space center, 40 kilometers south of . The Inmarsat six F1 was delivered by air from Toulouse, France, and then to Tanika Chammas space center.

Following the arrival at the space center, the functions of the satellite were checked and tested. It was then fitted to the payload, attach, fitting, and encased within the payload. Finally the Ferring was transported into the vehicle assembly, building VAB and installed on the H two, a launch vehicle after completing the final launch preparations in the vehicle assembly building early this morning, H two, a flight number 45 was moved to the launch.

Approximately 480 meters away. And the vehicles fuel loading and final check or performed at the launch pad, H two a is currently preparing for the countdown you guys had to be initiated.

the 5,470 kilograms said light was built by Airbus defense and space using you're a star 3000 IL bus. The spacecraft is fitted with both L and K band antennas and uses an electric propulsion system. Your band payload supports a very low cost mobile communications network while the K band payload augments existing satellite telecommunications and high-speed broadband networks.

The MRSS six F one will be supported from a ground station in Western Australia. The launch is the first of seven plan for Inmarsat by 2024. This is space, time

and time out to take another brief. Look at some of the other stories making using science this week with a science report, the European union's climate monitoring service is reporting that the past seven years have been the hottest on record globally by a Claremont. The findings by the Copernicus climate chain service confirm that 2021 joined and unbroken warm streak.

Going back to 2015, it found that last year was the fifth warmest on record globally based on data, going back to the mid 18 hundreds, the annual average temperature last year was between 1.1 and 1.2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels as measured between 1850 and 1900. And that increase in temperature comes despite the cooling effect of the Nina weather pattern, which we're now going through global average atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

I now already well above 416 pats per million, but the new figures also show a shopping crease in record concentrations of atmospheric methane. Now at 1,876 parts per billion, that's more than double the average annual growth rates seen over the previous 17 years. It means that increases in both planet warming, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and methane.

I show no signs of slowing down. Meanwhile, new data from NASA and the national oceanographic and atmospheric administration has confirmed that melting ice. The expanding water due to hate has seen global average sea levels increased by 3.4 millimeters per year, since 1993. Now based on current trends, that 1.5% temperature increased.

So under the Paris agreement is simply unachievable with 2.7%. Now, looking far more likely scientist have uncovered the largest XDS so ever found in the United Kingdom. Xes sows looked like reptilian versions of dolphins for 10 meter, long fossilized skeleton dates back some wonder 90 million years.

The unprecedented discovery was made on the floor of a drained lake bed in the Midlands town of Rutland researchers from the list to share in Rutland, wildlife trust, uh, carrying out the excavation and you study shows that consuming at least half a teaspoon of olive oil a day has been linked to a lower risk of dying over 28 year period.

The study reported in the journal of the American college of cardiology looked at some 90,000 people finding that those with the highest intake of olive oil had the lowest risk of dying from cardiovascular disease, cancer, Euro, degenerative disease, or respiratory disease. It seems replacing 10 grams per day of margarine butter, mayonnaise, and dairy fat.

With the equivalent amount of olive oil was also linked to a lower risk of dark. However substituting olive oil for other vegetable oils, such as canola corn, safflower and soybean did not reduce the risk. And so LinkedIn editorial suggests that vegetable oils may produce the same health benefits as Oliver.

Well, we've got a bit of a sneak preview last week. Now let's again, joint technology editor, Alex, Sahara of Roy from ity.com. As he wraps up the world's largest consumer electronics show CES 2022. In Las Vegas.

[00:17:05] Alex: The first thing you noticed was that there were a lot of gaps on the sharp flaws here and there.

Obviously there were not as many as 10 days in 2020, the last time it was on, in full, there were 4,400 exhibitors. This time there was 2,300 back then in twenty twenty two, one hundred and seventy 1000 at 10 days. And this time there were 40,000. You definitely could say that there was a lucky few of people.

And now that had spaced out the stands, but even, so there was still the Eureka park section, which was all the startups and all the delegations from Italy in the UK, in Korea and France and the U S all sorts of other places to do with startups. I mean, it was packed. Look, obviously you have the BMW color-changing car.

Now, interestingly, that is changing from black to white in effectively. So it's not paint. It's the same sort of eating to find in a Kindle reader to sit on the outside of the car and to be able to take the punishment that hate will give now BMW gave some examples of where this could be useful in that you would have a black in winter or at nighttime when it's called and you would have a watch in summer, but you could have different patterns, but just like in the age of black and white TV, I mean, eventually they'll figure out how to.

You'll be able to have whatever color scheme you want.

[00:18:17] Stuart: There are prismatic paints, which you can buy for your car if which will make it look one color from one angle and another color from a different angle. But that's based on the physical properties of the molecules and the paint itself. This is different than well it's,

[00:18:31] Alex: it's effectively eating of the same sort that you have with your.

Rita. And you know, one of the things I sold from TCL, which is the company that makes televisions smartphones by, and also last year, they had the TCL next way, which was a pair of glasses. You put on that you plug into your friend with USB-C. They had their TCL next fusion tablet. Now this tablet originally, when I showed it last year, it didn't have a backlight because the idea was it would use the reflected lights from the environment.

And it'll be very friendly to your eyes. Now worked on that tool all of last year. And I have included the backlog because it just was too fiddly, not to have a backlight in there, but the screen itself looks like a full color eating screen. So you don't have that glare of the led backlight shining in your eyes.

It looks different, but it's the full resolution. It's the same sort of display, but it's more math rather than glossy. And so I imagine that, uh, you know, the next. Of the car colors. We'll, we'll have this sort of more matte looking color display because the technology does exist, but when they'll have it so that you could have this bright cherry red that looks really glossy or something else.

But I mean, also you saw with mobile phones, Huawei, and others have launched mobile phones with that same sort of prismatic kind of pink color, where you could look at it and as you move it around, the colors do change, but you have no control effectively over that. Whereas with the BMW you have full control and.

You could program logos to appear. I mean, the graphical touches as it changed from one call to the other were very detailed. So that's an exciting thing. Now, other things that we sold that, I mean, I did see the version two of the TCO next way. It's about 30% lighter at the front of it looks more like a pair of Ray-Ban glasses could have one that was C3 that you could actually see the world behind the projected image of the phone or laptop is looking at.

You can up to 140 inch screen from about four feet away. You could easily take off the glasses. One was blackouts of more sort of for VR effect. The other one was see-through. But then from the front I look more like regular glasses, but I looked like this giant headset, which, you know, the region sort of headsets.

I've never, never taken. Ridiculous. But these ones you could easily wear them on the bus. And most people just think you've got a pair of sunglasses. Whereas instead you were be looking at your phone or you plug into your laptop

[00:20:50] Stuart: now or are they are

[00:20:51] Alex: they're coming. They're coming later to see, I mean, the original ones were at and what they're trying to do with the second.

What they did with the first one, which was to bundle in Australia, bundle six months of up to sport. So they're trying to recreate that kind of deal because it helps us sell it. I mean, the original pay was $899. So it's not a cheap purchase, but it's not really expensive either. And they also had the AI glass.

Which were more in the concept. I just saw the video in a previous briefing where they were sort of imagining how these AI blasts work and it sort of how you'd imagine apple AR glasses might work. But the trick of course, is that these need to be wireless. Then that batteries then have a process of any, to have 5g and 4g and 3g and the need to.

Y a ton of not custom thousands of thousands of dollars. I mean, another thing that TCO had made was a foldable bendable mobile phone call was Chicago or codename Chicago, which looked very much like the Samsung galaxy three. And whilst it still had a crease in the middle of the screen, Galaxy, as it flipped through the crease was much less noticeable.

It was still good, but much less noticeable. And they reasonably haven't decided to launch it because they want to get the price down to about six to $700 us, which would be right about a thousand dollars Australian, which would be about two thirds of the price of the Samsung galaxies at flip three. So they've been able to prove that I can do it, but it's just a case of wanting them, wanting to get the price down and because.

Actually Mike's around displays. It's something that they working on very hard to do. Now, there was also ASIS that had a 17 inch. Uh, which actually was able to fall into about the size of a knife or sheet of paper, and it had a separate keyboard. So it's this 17 inch beautiful display that you can fold in half and you could have it as a big display, or you could have it.

So that one Halford you can laptop configuration, but then. The lower part would be as a virtual keyboard or just being in that particular configuration. And so we're going to see lots more folding displays over the course of this year. Uh, I also saw a gadget called a Vajra warn that this was a little it's about the size of one of those little small fan heaters that you can buy for about 20 bucks from Coles or Woolies if when it's winter time and this particular unit can detect COVID in the year, but they more interesting, more, um, applicable to the world really was a gadget that it looks a bit like an oxygen.

Whatever your face, mouth and nose, and as a handle and the threat two to $300 us, and you can just breathe into it and they can instantly tell you whether or not you have COVID and it has a little $39 us cartridge. That's good for 200 uses. So. The rapid antigen test obsolete. Um, they have to actually, well, later this year, later this year, it'll be, uh, clearly, you know, a great hit because instantly you can tell whether you've got COVID or not dumped to wait 15 minutes and you can use it for 200 times.

So

[00:23:42] Stuart: how sensitive

[00:23:43] Alex: they obviously say that it's amazing. And look, I will have the video of that. . Vajra warn V I R a w a R N. You can watch the video with one of the viral warn representatives talking about their, um, freestanding COVID detection, gadgets, and the one that you can put on your face. I saw different applications of wireless power.

These are the companies that we heard about in the last decade that were able to send power over the edge charge or. And although that is something that will come later, this decade, the initial applications are

[00:24:21] Stuart: well, it was,

[00:24:22] Alex: yeah. And already we saw Motorola slash Lenovo, which is now the same company, at least for the mobile phone side of things.

Companies, it makes all the radios for police and for first responders, that side of the company . But, um, when I have a Motorola shut off and as he gave me a, uh, the ability to transmit what power over the air to charge your phone, but it was very slow. And if you walked in front of what I put something in front of it, the power would stop, but the applications for wireless power, uh, that you can present.

You'll shelf at the supermarket. You can have a little display, put no battery inside whatsoever. It's receiving power from what looks like a little wifi terminal sitting on the wall, and it is able to power these devices, which can then update prices in real-time D interim stock takes. You can also have.

RFID style tag, except with this technology. And cyber can tell you where the items are in a store influenced stock tax. Again, if someone's paying them some quotes into a change room, you know which items I have, how many of them have, and if you walk out the door and you're a member of theirs that can just charge you automatically.

So they were showing me the chipsets. And so there's one company called Acia and other company called it just, and I'll have the video interviews with them. Representatives from this company is up that people can say, look, those look, there was lots of cool stuff there. I mean, another gadget was a telescope from a French company that was on Kickstarter.

They had a previous model, but they've got a new model. That's small, it's controlled by your phone. It's got a 50 times zoom. So the whole idea is you can take photographs and you can track the sky or the planet as you're moving and you can get these closeups. Nebula and satin or the moon or Jupiter. And, uh, you know, me, it was really cool.

It's battery powered. Obviously you can't leave him on a little stand and this telescopes connect to an app on your phone and it's just tracking whatever it is in the notch car you want to track. So that's just the tiniest bit. I took dozens and dozens of these. We just have ity CES 20, 22 into Google.

You'll find all the different videos, a lot of the generalists, there's only four Australian journalists there, and one of the us journalists didn't turn up. And so a lot of the jealous were just covering press relations. I took a sort of more serendipitous path through CBS and way too much to see if I had a hundred of myself with.

Uh, know I friends and a hundred road microphones because I was using the right microphone. I probably still couldn't have covered the whole thing. It was just timing much this, but another great thing that wasn't a T I took with me was my road microphones. I had lapel my trip onto me. I had another wireless microphone inside of there.

Handheld microphone,

[00:26:56] Stuart: microphone.

[00:26:58] Alex: And well, yeah, I mean, they're a great company. Well, I've got the road, my kind of plugs in the side of my iPhone and that's a shotgun directional mine. So that was perfect for when I was filming people, giving presentations on screen, but without the right microphone, I mean, previously I used the iPhone used to be quite directional itself, but now there are 360 degrees.

To really be able to hear yourself. And of course we were all speaking through masks as well. Everyone was messed up. It really made a big difference to have these road microphones there that will connect it to my iPhone through the little wireless go to adapt to that plugs in by lightening it to this side of the iPhone.

And it merged the audio recordings from two separate marks into the one video. So that was hugely beneficial,

[00:27:47] Stuart: especially with COVID.

[00:27:50] Alex: So besides the viral wound, which helps to detect whether you've got COVID or not, was the razor razor, the gaming company made a mask last year that has a see-through panel and they had these two fans, uh, and we filtered so one for breathing in once a week.

'cause riser does all of this RGB color schemes and crushing cows. So you could have the ring of RGB color and launch a new version called the razor pro, um, which won't come up to let it be C a, but originally rise. It was claiming that the filtration was in 95. And it turns out that it's not in 95 class.

So, um, that was a bit of a disappointment in that, you know, people are expecting a certain

[00:28:32] Stuart: level. That's actually quite bad. That's not just a disappointment. That's well, that's

[00:28:36] Alex: bad. And they had to remove the fact that the client who was in 95 life went on. I mean, I guess in Vegas, you know, a little gambles at the way, technical risk.

What's one more. Well, I look forward to 2023 and I think barring any more crazy variance of the

[00:28:53] Stuart: high grade glasses. That's right. Yeah.

[00:28:55] Alex: Well, I might have to start again

[00:28:57] Stuart: the hire of Roy from ity.com.

and that's the show for now? The space-time is available every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday through apple podcasts, iTunes, Stitcher, Google podcast, pocket casts, Spotify, a cast, Amazon music bites.com. YouTube your favorite podcast, download provider. And from time with Stewart, gary.com space times also broadcast through the national science foundation on science own radio and on both iHeart, radio and tune in radio.

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Alex Zaharov-Reutt

Technology Editor

Alex Zaharov-Reutt is iTWire's Technology Editor is one of Australia’s best-known technology journalists and consumer tech experts, Alex has appeared in his capacity as technology expert on all of Australia’s free-to-air and pay TV networks on all the major news and current affairs programs, on commercial and public radio, and technology, lifestyle and reality TV shows.