Feb. 3, 2023

S26E15: Milky Way More Unique Than Thought // Boeing Starliner Calypso // World’s Biggest Magnets

S26E15: Milky Way More Unique Than Thought // Boeing Starliner Calypso // World’s Biggest Magnets

SpaceTime Series 26 Episode 15 *Milky Way found to be more unique than previously thought A new study has found that the Milky Way galaxy is too big for its cosmological wall – something not yet seen in any other galaxy. *Boeing Starliner Calypso to...

SpaceTime Series 26 Episode 15 *Milky Way found to be more unique than previously thought A new study has found that the Milky Way galaxy is too big for its cosmological wall – something not yet seen in any other galaxy. *Boeing Starliner Calypso to fly in April The Boeing CST-100 Starliner Calypso is now expected to carry its first human crew to the International Space Station in April. *The world’s biggest magnets One of the World's most powerful magnet is being slowly assembled at heart of ITER -- the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor -- world's largest fusion reactor project now being built in southern France. *The Science Report Study says people with schizophrenia may have abnormal activity in 12-hour cyclic genes. Leading scientific journals have formally ban ChatGPT from authoring scientific papers. Does your dog understand your intentions? Skeptics guide looks at COVID vs the flu death counts. Listen to SpaceTime on your favorite podcast app with our universal listen link: https://spacetimewithstuartgary.com/listen For more SpaceTime and show links: https://linktr.ee/biteszHQ If you love this podcast, please get someone else to listen to. Thank you… To become a SpaceTime supporter and unlock commercial free editions of the show, gain early access and bonus content, please visit https://bitesz.supercast.com/ . Premium version now available via Spotify and Apple Podcasts. For more podcasts visit our HQ at https://bitesz.com Sponsor Details: This episode of SpaceTime is brought to you with the support of NordVPN…The world’s leading VPN provider. Making your online data unreadable to others. Get our Complete Security discount offer, plus one month free, plus you get to help support SpaceTime… visit www.nordvpn.com/stuartgary or use the coupon code STUARTGARY at checkout. Thank you…
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The Astronomy, Space, Technology & Science News Podcast.

1 00:00:00,250 --> 00:00:12,446 This is Spacetime Series 26, episode 15 for broadcast on the 3 February 2023 coming up on Spacetime the Milky Way found to be more unique than previously thought. 2 00:00:12,628 --> 00:00:19,866 Boeing's starliner Calypso ready to fly in April, and we look at some of the world's biggest magnets. 3 00:00:20,058 --> 00:00:23,520 All that and more coming up on Space Time. 4 00:00:24,530 --> 00:00:27,474 Well, to space time with Stuart. 5 00:00:44,030 --> 00:00:53,338 A new study has found that the Milky Way galaxy is too big for its cosmological war, something not yet seen in any other galaxy. 6 00:00:53,514 --> 00:01:05,230 The large scale cosmic weblike structure of the universe is composed of filaments connecting nodes of gas galaxies and galaxy clusters all surrounding vast nearempty voids. 7 00:01:05,390 --> 00:01:11,102 A cosmological wall is the flattened arrangement of galaxies that border on these voids. 8 00:01:11,246 --> 00:01:18,130 For some reason, the voids seem to squash galaxies together into a pancake like shape, resulting in a flattened arrangement. 9 00:01:18,290 --> 00:01:38,346 The new findings reported in the Journal of the Monthly Notices, the Royal Astronomical Society, suggest that the wall environment, in this case called the Local sheet, influences how the Milky Way and other nearby galaxies rotate around their axes in a more organized way than if they were, say, in a random place in the universe without a nearby wall. 10 00:01:38,528 --> 00:01:44,010 Typically, galaxies located next to a cosmological wall are physically a lot smaller. 11 00:01:44,170 --> 00:01:50,750 But by comparison, the Milky Way is surprisingly massive, and that makes it a rare cosmic occurrence. 12 00:01:51,090 --> 00:01:55,090 The new findings are all based on state of the art computer simulations. 13 00:01:55,590 --> 00:02:03,646 The study's authors simulated a volume of the universe of nearly a billion light years across a region containing millions of galaxies. 14 00:02:03,838 --> 00:02:17,810 And they found that only a handful, about a millionth of all the galaxies in the simulation were as unique as the Milky Way, meaning they were both embedded in a cosmological war like the Local Sheet, and they were as massive as our own galaxy. 15 00:02:17,970 --> 00:02:33,118 The authors say the findings mean it may be necessary to take into account the special environment around the Milky Way when running future simulations in order to avoid a Socalled Copernican bias in making scientific inferences from galaxies around us. 16 00:02:33,284 --> 00:02:44,798 This bias describes the successive removal of our special status in the nearly 500 years since the astronomic Copernicus first demoted the Earth from being at the center of the cosmos. 17 00:02:44,974 --> 00:02:54,062 Since then, this bias has described the successive removal of our special status assuming that we reside in a completely average place in the universe. 18 00:02:54,206 --> 00:03:03,846 See, to simulate observations, especially on a cosmological scale, astronomers sometimes assume that any point in the universe in the simulation is as good as any other. 19 00:03:04,028 --> 00:03:11,286 But what the team's findings indicate is that it may be really important to use very precise locations when making such measurements. 20 00:03:11,478 --> 00:03:20,394 The study's lead author, Maguille Aragon from the National Autonomous University of Mexico, says the findings indicate that the Milky Way galaxy is different. 21 00:03:20,592 --> 00:03:31,086 He says the Earth's very obviously a special place because it's home to the only known life forms in the universe, but it's not the center of the universe or even the center of the solar system. 22 00:03:31,268 --> 00:03:36,750 And the sun is just an ordinary star among billions in the Milky Way galaxy. 23 00:03:36,910 --> 00:03:44,190 Even our galaxy seemed to be just one spiral galaxy among billions of other galaxies in the observable universe. 24 00:03:44,350 --> 00:03:48,110 The Milky Way does have a particularly special mass or type. 25 00:03:48,280 --> 00:03:56,450 There are lots of spiral galaxies that look very similar to it, but now we know it becomes rare once you take into account its surroundings. 26 00:03:56,610 --> 00:04:07,740 If you could see the nearest dozen or so large galaxies easily in the sky, you'd see that they all nearly lie on a ring embedded in the Local Sheet that's a little bit special in itself. 27 00:04:08,190 --> 00:04:19,198 What the authors have discovered in their simulation is that other walls of galaxies in the universe, like the Local Sheet, very seldom have a galaxy inside them as massive as the Milky Way. 28 00:04:19,364 --> 00:04:32,126 Aragon says you might need to travel half a billion light years from the Milky Way, past lots of galaxies to find another cosmological wall and a galaxy that's the same as the Milky Way in comparison to its companions. 29 00:04:32,318 --> 00:04:37,250 And that's a couple of hundred times further away, the nearest large galaxy around us. 30 00:04:37,320 --> 00:04:40,180 Andromeda this is space time. 31 00:04:40,490 --> 00:04:45,394 Still to come, Boeing's starliner Calypso ready to fly in April. 32 00:04:45,522 --> 00:04:48,162 And we look at the world's biggest magnets. 33 00:04:48,306 --> 00:04:51,820 All that are more still to come on Space Time. 34 00:05:07,170 --> 00:05:11,674 Okay, let's take a break from our show for a word from our sponsor, NordVPN. 35 00:05:11,802 --> 00:05:19,662 Are you looking for a reliable and secure virtual private network? Well, you need look no further than NordVPN. 36 00:05:19,806 --> 00:05:26,834 With NordVPN, you get to keep your online activities safe from hackers, ISPs and government surveillance. 37 00:05:26,962 --> 00:05:34,882 Plus, with the great value deals we have available for you today, it's never been easier or more affordable to stay connected securely. 38 00:05:35,026 --> 00:05:40,266 NordVPN really is the perfect choice if privacy is important to you. 39 00:05:40,368 --> 00:05:51,020 It encrypts all your Internet traffic using the strongest encryption protocols available, making it so that no one can track or monitor the websites or services that you're accessing online. 40 00:05:51,390 --> 00:06:04,238 Now, what this means is that even if someone was able to intercept your data packets as they made their way across the Internet, they still wouldn't be able to read them because they're all encrypted by NordVPN technology before they're sent out on the Web. 41 00:06:04,404 --> 00:06:21,334 In addition to providing topnotch security features like this, NordVPN also offers fast speeds so that streaming videos won't buffer and browsing websites will remain snappy and responsive, regardless of how far from homebase server location you might be at any given time. 42 00:06:21,532 --> 00:06:36,438 Moreover, customers who sign up today not only get access to Nord's wide network of servers, but they also receive additional benefits, like an automatic kill switch, which ensures user safety when the connection drops out unexpectedly. 43 00:06:36,534 --> 00:06:47,226 And of course, there's also a 24/7 customer support team ready, willing, and able to answer any questions you might have regarding either the setup process or any related user queries. 44 00:06:47,338 --> 00:06:54,934 And of course, by signing up through a special Spacetime URL, you'll get some great value subscription plans at really huge discounts. 45 00:06:55,002 --> 00:06:58,034 Plus there are bonus gifts and a whole range of payment options. 46 00:06:58,152 --> 00:07:02,050 And of course, it all comes with a 30 day money back guarantee. 47 00:07:02,470 --> 00:07:07,410 Just go to Nordvpn.com Stuartgarry for all the details. 48 00:07:07,570 --> 00:07:08,886 That URL again. 49 00:07:08,988 --> 00:07:12,290 Nordvpn.com stuartgarry. 50 00:07:12,450 --> 00:07:21,302 So why wait? Sign up today and enjoy peace of mind for both you and your family, knowing that your personal information will always be protected. 51 00:07:21,446 --> 00:07:25,994 And of course, you'll find those URL details in the show notes and on our website. 52 00:07:26,192 --> 00:07:28,620 And now it's back to our show. 53 00:07:29,070 --> 00:07:42,902 You're listening to Spacetime with Stuart gary Boeing's CST 100 Starliner Calypso is now expected to carry its first human crew to the International Space Station in April. 54 00:07:43,066 --> 00:07:50,110 The trouble plague program is years behind schedule, with software glitches coming close to destroying the spacecraft. 55 00:07:50,270 --> 00:07:59,254 Once operational, Starliner will join SpaceX's Dragon in transporting crew to the space station as part of NASA's Commercial Crew program. 56 00:07:59,452 --> 00:08:09,974 The Reusable capsule was mated to its new service module inside Boeing's Commercial Crew and cargo processing facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida last week. 57 00:08:10,172 --> 00:08:24,442 Next, the combined spacecraft will be integrated on top of the United Launch Alliance Atlas Five rocket in coming weeks prior to final checkouts, and then its rollout to Space Launch Complex 41 at the Cape Canaveral Space Force Station in Florida. 58 00:08:24,586 --> 00:08:31,006 NASA and Boeing recently completed a full start to finish mission dress rehearsal for the crew flight test. 59 00:08:31,188 --> 00:08:42,398 The rehearsal took several days at Boeing's Avionics and Software Integration Lab in Houston, testing software and computer systems as well as crew systems along with operations teams. 60 00:08:42,574 --> 00:08:51,618 The all important crew test flight follows two unmanned orbital test flights, the first of which, in December 2019, was a total disaster. 61 00:08:51,794 --> 00:09:07,962 Problems began when the mission clock triggered an orbital insertion burn at the wrong altitude, and that caused the attitude control thrusters to consume more fuel than planned, leaving the spacecraft too low to reach the space station safely and forcing the mission to be aborted early. 62 00:09:08,096 --> 00:09:26,750 However, while they were orbiting the Earth waiting to return, two more software issues were uncovered, one of which would have prevented the spacecraft from docking to the space station anyway, but the other would have affected the thruster firing sequence needed to safely jettison the service module prior to the crew capsule reentering the atmosphere. 63 00:09:26,910 --> 00:09:34,510 Instead of maneuvering the service module away from the capsule, it would have caused it to collide into the capsule, destroying both spacecraft. 64 00:09:34,670 --> 00:09:43,090 Luckily, the issue was rectified before reentry, and the spacecraft did eventually land safely at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. 65 00:09:43,250 --> 00:09:51,222 A major mission review identified 80 issues, which needed to be modified before another unmanned test flight could be held. 66 00:09:51,366 --> 00:10:05,578 By August 2021, Boeing were ready to try again, but further delays and bad weather somehow caused moisture to interact with the propellant, triggering corrosion in 13 propulsion system valves in the service module. 67 00:10:05,754 --> 00:10:15,938 Attempts to repair these on the launch pad were unsuccessful, and it was decided to return the launch vehicle to the assembly building and then strip down the spacecraft to better access the issue. 68 00:10:16,104 --> 00:10:22,974 However, the problem was so bad, boeing eventually decided to replace the entire service module, further delaying the test flight. 69 00:10:23,102 --> 00:10:27,730 The Orbital flight test two mission finally launched on May 19, 2022. 70 00:10:27,800 --> 00:10:35,750 Docking with the space station on May 22 and the rest of the mission also went smoothly, including a perfect touchdown at White Sands. 71 00:10:36,170 --> 00:10:38,760 Now it's time to get people on board. 72 00:10:39,070 --> 00:10:47,318 Starliner is compatible with the Atlas Five rocket, as well as the Delta Four Falcon Nine and the future Vulcan Centre launch vehicle. 73 00:10:47,494 --> 00:10:52,558 The Delta Four has now been retired and the Atlas Five will retire next year. 74 00:10:52,724 --> 00:10:58,298 The United Launch Alliance says they've allocated seven Atlas five boosters for Starliner missions. 75 00:10:58,394 --> 00:11:02,750 That's enough for the upcoming crew test flight, as well as six operational missions. 76 00:11:03,090 --> 00:11:07,680 After that, Starliner will transfer to Vulcan central boosters instead. 77 00:11:08,130 --> 00:11:09,840 This is space time. 78 00:11:10,150 --> 00:11:13,198 Still to come, we look at the world's biggest magnets. 79 00:11:13,294 --> 00:11:22,310 And later in the Science report, does your dog understand your intentions? We'll find out all that and more, still to come on Spacetime. 80 00:11:38,190 --> 00:11:51,310 One of the world's most powerful magnets is slowly being assembled at the heart of ita the International thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, the world's largest fusion reactor project now being constructed in southern France. 81 00:11:51,650 --> 00:12:00,994 Sustained nuclear fusion could open the door to unlimited renewable energy, slashing carbon emissions, and pretty well ending climate change. 82 00:12:01,192 --> 00:12:09,560 Estimated to cost over $150,000,000,000, the projects described as the most expensive scientific experiment of all time. 83 00:12:09,930 --> 00:12:15,570 It dwarfs the Square Kilometer Array project now being built in Australia in South Africa. 84 00:12:15,650 --> 00:12:18,082 It's bigger than the Large Hadron Collider. 85 00:12:18,226 --> 00:12:28,326 It'll be the most complicated engineering project in human history, and one of the most ambitious human collaborations since the development of the International Space Station. 86 00:12:28,518 --> 00:12:41,050 When it goes online sometime around 2027, ITER's massive reactor will fuse hydrogen isotopes to Tumin tritium plasma in a special magnetic donut shaped vacuum chamber called Tokamac. 87 00:12:41,210 --> 00:12:46,158 The Tokimac will heat the plasma to over 150,000,000 degrees Celsius. 88 00:12:46,254 --> 00:12:49,154 That's ten times hotter than the core of the sun. 89 00:12:49,352 --> 00:13:00,710 At this temperature, the plasma will undergo fusion, giving off large amounts of energy, which can then be used to create electricity by heating water and creating steam to spin turbines. 90 00:13:01,050 --> 00:13:06,726 The ultimate aim is to produce ten times more energy than what's needed to power the system. 91 00:13:06,908 --> 00:13:22,778 ITER's thermonuclear fusion reactor will use over 300 electrical power to cause the plasma to absorb 50 thermal power, creating 500 heat from fusion for periods of between 400 and 600 seconds. 92 00:13:22,954 --> 00:13:28,842 At the heart of the facility will be the world's largest magnet, known as the Central solenoid. 93 00:13:28,986 --> 00:13:35,290 When fully assembled, the central solenoid will be 18 meters tall and some 4.3 meters wide. 94 00:13:35,450 --> 00:13:39,950 It will be capable of producing a magnetic field measuring 13 tesla. 95 00:13:40,030 --> 00:13:44,242 That's around 280,000 times stronger than the Earth's magnetic field. 96 00:13:44,376 --> 00:13:49,298 In fact, it'll be strong enough to lift an aircraft carrier weighing 100,000 tons. 97 00:13:49,474 --> 00:13:57,122 Built by General Atomics, the central solenoid will be the largest and most powerful pulsed electromagnet ever constructed. 98 00:13:57,266 --> 00:14:03,910 It's actually made up of six individual solenoid modules, which will be stacked inside the center of the tokamac. 99 00:14:04,070 --> 00:14:09,890 The entire magnet will be as tall as a four story building and weigh roughly 1000 tons. 100 00:14:10,070 --> 00:14:17,834 Each individual module is essentially a humongous coil containing around 5.6 kilometres of steel jacketed neobium. 101 00:14:17,882 --> 00:14:19,898 Ten superconducting cable. 102 00:14:20,074 --> 00:14:28,318 Faraday's Law of Induction tells us that electricity passing through a wire generates a magnetic field perpendicular to the wire. 103 00:14:28,494 --> 00:14:38,014 When that wire is coiled into a circle, the electric current produces a circular magnetic field and each coil amplifies the magnetic field strength. 104 00:14:38,142 --> 00:14:41,880 A solenoid is created by coiling a wire many times. 105 00:14:42,330 --> 00:14:53,450 The central solenoid will create powerful magnetic fields, physically pinning the superheated plasma in place and preventing it from touching and vaporizing the tokamax walls. 106 00:14:53,790 --> 00:14:59,450 But as impressive as this all sounds, it isn't the biggest, almost powerful magnet ever built. 107 00:14:59,600 --> 00:15:09,710 That on it goes to the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, MagLab, which has just received over $195,000,000 in funding from the National Science Foundation. 108 00:15:10,050 --> 00:15:20,430 MagLab's facilities are spread over three campuses, including Florida State University, the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and the University of Florida. 109 00:15:20,590 --> 00:15:30,818 Nearly 2000 scientists from around the world use Maglev's facilities each year, undertaking groundbreaking research across multiple scientific disciplines. 110 00:15:30,834 --> 00:15:45,318 In magnetic field research, these include condensed matter, physics, biology, bioengineering, chemistry, geochemistry, biochemistry, material science, power generation and environmental studies. 111 00:15:45,494 --> 00:15:53,882 To facilitate the research, MagLab has a wide array of different types and sizes of magnets, including some of the world's biggest and most powerful. 112 00:15:54,026 --> 00:16:02,954 Florida State's Mag Lab in Tallahassee currently holds the record for the world's most powerful magnet, a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. 113 00:16:03,082 --> 00:16:14,110 The 33 tones connected hybrid magnet set the record in a series of experiments in 2016 when the instrument reached its full field of 36 Tesla. 114 00:16:14,270 --> 00:16:25,282 Its sister facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico hosts a pulse field facility which provides researchers with experimental capabilities for a wide range of experiments and measurements. 115 00:16:25,346 --> 00:16:33,866 In nondestructive pulse fields up to 101 Tesla, pulse filled magnets create high magnetic fields, but only for fractions of a second. 116 00:16:34,048 --> 00:16:42,938 Power comes from a pulse power infrastructure, which includes a 1.43 megawatt motor generator and 564 megawatt power supplies. 117 00:16:43,114 --> 00:16:55,502 The 1200 ton motor generator sits on a 4800 ton inertia block, which rests on 60 springs to minimize Earth trimmers and is the centerpiece of the pulse field laboratory. 118 00:16:55,646 --> 00:17:03,234 The facility's magnets also include a 60 tesla long pulse magnet, which is the most powerful controlled pulse magnet in the world. 119 00:17:03,432 --> 00:17:05,658 It's all very impressive. 120 00:17:05,854 --> 00:17:09,670 This report from the National Science Foundation's, Mars O'Brien. 121 00:17:10,090 --> 00:17:11,254 That from you. 122 00:17:11,292 --> 00:17:14,614 Here is the sound of science at work. 123 00:17:14,812 --> 00:17:19,642 It's coming from magnets, some of the most powerful in the world. 124 00:17:19,776 --> 00:17:22,022 So we are indeed a world class facility. 125 00:17:22,086 --> 00:17:29,922 There are many different kinds of magnets superconducting magnets, big resistive electromagnets, pulsed magnets. 126 00:17:30,006 --> 00:17:42,750 With support from the National Science Foundation, the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory mag Lab, as it is called, is a mecca for groundbreaking research across scientific disciplines. 127 00:17:43,270 --> 00:17:58,260 So I direct a very unique laboratory to bring high magnetic fields to researchers who come to our lab every year to study important research topics in the areas of materials, of energy and of life. 128 00:17:59,450 --> 00:18:07,762 The magnets here are of a different kind altogether, millions of times more powerful than anything you would stick on your fridge. 129 00:18:07,906 --> 00:18:18,342 You should think of a high field magnet, a powerful magnet, as a research tool, much like a high powered laser is being used by scientists, much like an atom smasher. 130 00:18:18,406 --> 00:18:19,820 We're a research tool. 131 00:18:21,730 --> 00:18:29,070 Analytical chemist Amy McKenna is a staff scientist working on the ion cyclotron residence magnet. 132 00:18:29,570 --> 00:18:36,558 She's all about oil, how to refine it more efficiently and how to better clean it up when it spills. 133 00:18:36,734 --> 00:18:40,174 Every crude oil in the world is unique. 134 00:18:40,302 --> 00:18:47,586 It is a function of the temperature, the pressure, and the organisms that died and created that mixture. 135 00:18:47,698 --> 00:18:51,522 Petroleum is what's called a complex mixture. 136 00:18:51,666 --> 00:18:57,182 Think on the order of 40,000 different chemical compounds in every drop. 137 00:18:57,346 --> 00:19:07,722 We analyze the compounds in crude oils, in dissolved organic matter, in water, and we measure their mass very accurately to do it. 138 00:19:07,776 --> 00:19:11,882 This magnet functions as a highly precise molecular scale. 139 00:19:12,026 --> 00:19:16,650 In order to measure molecular weight, you need these types of scales. 140 00:19:16,730 --> 00:19:25,330 And that's what we do here, is we measure a fundamental property of molecules very accurately to six decimal places. 141 00:19:27,110 --> 00:19:39,410 In another part of the Mag lab, physicist Cory Dean is using the DC field facility to research the properties of a relatively newly isolated material called graphene. 142 00:19:39,570 --> 00:19:45,026 It's a flat sheet of carbon molecules laid out in a chicken wire shaped pattern. 143 00:19:45,138 --> 00:19:47,618 It's unique in almost every metric that you can define. 144 00:19:47,714 --> 00:19:49,410 It's been called the strongest material. 145 00:19:49,490 --> 00:19:53,606 It's the thinnest conductor, it has one of the best thermal transport properties. 146 00:19:53,718 --> 00:19:59,770 It's so unusual, in fact, that physicists are still trying to figure out the basics of how it works. 147 00:19:59,920 --> 00:20:07,514 One of the things that we want to know is when we put this device in the presence of a very large magnetic field combined with very low temperatures, both of these things are critical. 148 00:20:07,642 --> 00:20:16,714 Can we access what we call the quantum properties of this material? That level of understanding is needed before engineers can really start making things out of graphene. 149 00:20:16,842 --> 00:20:30,022 We can discover, for example, new electronic behaviors which to a physicist might be very interesting, but to an engineer means that you can design a brand new material that maybe solves a problem that is facing challenges for how to make a better computer. 150 00:20:30,076 --> 00:20:40,106 For example, Dean is one of nearly 2000 scientists from institutions around the world who use the Mag lab facilities every year. 151 00:20:40,288 --> 00:20:52,410 Magnetic field testing can benefit many fields of research petroleum and materials for sure, but also human health and medicine batteries, biofuels, and much more. 152 00:20:52,560 --> 00:21:02,186 So we know how to bring in newcomers to high magnetic field research, help to make their experiments successful so they can then publish their results and get the information they're seeking. 153 00:21:02,298 --> 00:21:06,622 Visiting scientists don't even need to have experience working with magnets. 154 00:21:06,766 --> 00:21:09,460 All they need to bring is a worthy project. 155 00:21:09,830 --> 00:21:13,458 Experts like Jamie McKenna are on hand to help. 156 00:21:13,624 --> 00:21:16,862 That's the crux of a successful user facility. 157 00:21:17,006 --> 00:21:27,778 You've got to have the magnets, you've got to have the instrumentation, but most of all, you've got to have the talented people putting the power of high magnetic fields to work, breaking through the boundaries of scientific knowledge. 158 00:21:27,874 --> 00:21:45,150 And in that report by the National Science Foundation's Mars O'Brien, we heard from National High Magnetic Field Laboratory director Greg Bobinger, ion cyclotron resonance facility scientist Amy McKenna and Corey Dean from the Dean Lab in Experimental Condensed Matter Physics at Columbia University. 159 00:22:02,850 --> 00:22:03,866 and time matter. 160 00:22:03,908 --> 00:22:09,240 Take another brief look at some of the other stories making news in science this week with the Science Report. 161 00:22:09,930 --> 00:22:17,090 A new study suggests that people with schizophrenia may have abnormal activity in twelve hour cyclic genes. 162 00:22:17,250 --> 00:22:32,026 The findings, reported in the journal Plus Biology are based on evidence of twelve hour cycles in gene activity in the human brain and signs that some of these twelve hour cycles are either missing or altered in the brains of schizophrenic people. 163 00:22:32,208 --> 00:22:40,650 Researchers search for twelve hour rhythms in gene activity in the brains of people who were recently deceased, focusing on areas of the brain associated with abnormalities. 164 00:22:40,730 --> 00:22:57,922 Normally seeing people with schizophrenia, they found gene activity levels related to building connections between neurons tended to peak in the afternoon or night or those related to mitochondrial function, and therefore cellular energy supply tended to peak in the morning and evening. 165 00:22:58,066 --> 00:23:01,570 But this wasn't the case for people with schizophrenia. 166 00:23:01,730 --> 00:23:10,302 The brains of people with schizophrenia had fewer genes with twelve hour activity cycles and genes related to neural connections were missing entirely. 167 00:23:10,466 --> 00:23:15,500 They also found that the genes that were present didn't reach PEC activity at the normal times. 168 00:23:15,950 --> 00:23:29,630 The authors say further studies are now required to determine if these abnormal rhythms underlie behavioral abnormalities in people with schizophrenia or whether they result from medications, nicotine use, or sleep disturbances. 169 00:23:30,770 --> 00:23:42,174 The publishers of some of the world's leading scientific journals have formally banned Chat GPT from authoring scientific papers, the Artificial Intelligence Chatbot. 170 00:23:42,222 --> 00:23:47,586 Chat GPT has so far been listed as a co author on four papers and preprints. 171 00:23:47,698 --> 00:23:56,390 The decision to ban AI authorship is based on the simple fact that Chatbots can't take responsibility for a paper's content or integrity. 172 00:23:56,730 --> 00:24:06,010 Some publishers say that Chatbots use, however, should be documented in the Methods or Acknowledgements section, and that not doing so could be considered plagiarism. 173 00:24:07,070 --> 00:24:15,338 Does your puppy dog understand your intentions? Well, a new study suggests that they probably do, at least to some extent. 174 00:24:15,514 --> 00:24:25,822 The findings, reported in the journal of the royal society B, are based on tests to see whether dogs were able to distinguish if people were unwilling or unable to give them treats. 175 00:24:25,966 --> 00:24:42,022 During the study, dogs encountered a human who would regularly give them treats, but sometimes the food transfer failed, either because the human acted as if she was unwilling by pulling back on the treat in a teasing manner, or because she was unable by clumsily dropping the treat. 176 00:24:42,076 --> 00:24:53,370 Instead, the author's computer analyzed the dog's reactions, finding that dogs tended to react more impatiently to actions signaling unwillingness rather than those signaling an inability. 177 00:24:54,910 --> 00:25:05,630 Scientists have confirmed that despite the claims commonly appearing on social media and made by some conspiracy theorists, the flu is not more deadly than COVID-19. 178 00:25:06,050 --> 00:25:16,538 David Muscatillo, associate professor in infectious diseases epidemiology at the university of New South Wales, says COVID has never had a survival rate greater than the flu. 179 00:25:16,714 --> 00:25:30,134 Meanwhile, Alan Chang, professor of infectious diseases epidemiology at Monash university, also says the claim was false and that covert always had a higher mortality rate than influenza, except for very young children. 180 00:25:30,332 --> 00:25:37,410 Claims that the figures included people dying with COVID as opposed to those dying of COVID are also untrue. 181 00:25:37,570 --> 00:25:45,830 Tim Mendenham from Australian skeptic says the first six months of last year alone saw COVID killed 27 times more people than the flu. 182 00:25:45,910 --> 00:25:49,574 The fact checking shows that COVID is more deadly than the flu. 183 00:25:49,622 --> 00:25:50,502 Surprise, surprise. 184 00:25:50,566 --> 00:25:53,450 Yeah, all the people who were the early days of COVID were saying, oh, it's just bad. 185 00:25:53,520 --> 00:26:00,634 Flu is wrong, because the, the numbers bear out that the impact of COVID is far, far worse than the impact of the flu. 186 00:26:00,682 --> 00:26:09,854 Just in the first six months of 2022 in Australia, there were 6651 COVID deaths, compared to 252 flu deaths. 187 00:26:09,902 --> 00:26:15,646 That part of that might be that you could say it was that people aren't being tested for flu at this stage because they're all being tested for COVID. 188 00:26:15,678 --> 00:26:27,954 But a death is a death, and if you know the reason for the death, then that shows that even in a particularly severe flu season, which there was a few years ago, 2017, I think there was only 1255 death due to influenza. 189 00:26:28,002 --> 00:26:32,042 So already the COVID number is six times that for the half a year. 190 00:26:32,096 --> 00:26:45,226 So the numbers just show pretty clearly, without any necessarily need to prevaricate on it, that the COVID is far, far more deadly than the flu, and it affects people who have been vaccinated and those who haven't been vaccinated. 191 00:26:45,258 --> 00:26:54,042 Although the higher death rate is amongst the unvaccinated, quite significantly, someone was suggesting that about 40% of people who die of COVID are unvaccinated. 192 00:26:54,106 --> 00:27:01,506 Seeing as only the adult population, only about two or 3% of people who have been unvaccinated, that indicates that the vaccination works pretty well. 193 00:27:01,608 --> 00:27:02,894 Not entirely perfectly. 194 00:27:02,942 --> 00:27:04,258 No vaccination does. 195 00:27:04,344 --> 00:27:16,034 But yes, the issue is that COVID is far more deadly than the flu of multiples of deaths, and that the people who are unvaccinated are more inclined to die than those who are vaccinated that's timendum. 196 00:27:33,570 --> 00:27:35,614 and that's the show for now. 197 00:27:35,812 --> 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