May 24, 2021

Volcanic Activity On Mars

The Astronomy, Technology and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 58
*Volcanic activity on Mars
A new study claims there’s evidence of recent volcanic activity on Mars showing that eruptions could have taken place on the red planet ...

The Astronomy, Technology and Space Science News Podcast.

SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 58

*Volcanic activity on Mars

A new study claims there’s evidence of recent volcanic activity on Mars showing that eruptions could have taken place on the red planet within the past 50,000 years – which is present day in geological time.

*Red China rover lands on Mars

Following in the wake of America’s latest success with its Mars Perseverance rover which has now commenced science operations on the red planet’s Jezero Crater – China has now landed its own rover on Mars.

*Rocket lab launch failure

Rocket Lab has blamed a possible engine problem for the failure of its latest Electron mission.

The failure occurred during the ignition of the second stage of the Running Out Of Toes mission – the 20th for the company and the second failure in the past year.

*New nano thin radiation shielding

Scientists at have developed new ultra-thin nano materials that can reflect or transmit light on demand -- opening the door to technology that could help shield astronauts in space from harmful radiation.

*The Science Report

RNA from the COVID-19 virus could have found a way to insert itself into the human genome.

Drought and hot weather blamed for Australia’s infamous black summer bushfires

Paleontologists identify a new species of hadrosaur dinosaur in northern Mexico.

Requirements for increasingly complex website passwords leading to poor password security.

Skeptic's guide to the power of religion and faith in Australia.


See for privacy and opt-out information.


SpaceTime S24E58 AI Transcript

[00:00:00] This is time series 24 episode 58, four broadcast on the 24th of May, 2021. Coming up on space, time, evidence of recent volcanic activity on Mars, China lands a Rover on the red planet and rocket lab blames engine problems for the failure of its latest electron mission. Oh, that in mole coming up on space time.

Welcome to space time with Stuart, Gary.

A new study claims. There's evidence of recent volcanic activity on the red planet, Mars with images showing eruptions that could've taken place within the past 50,000 years, which is pretty much the present day in geological time. [00:01:00] The findings reported in the journal acres are based on satellite observations, showing geologically recent explosive volcanism in the Elysium planaria region, which will be the youngest known volcanic eruption on Mars.

Most volcanism on the red planet is thought over curve between three and 4.6 billion years ago with some smaller eruptions in isolated locations, continuing, perhaps as recently as 3 million years ago. But until now there's been no evidence to indicate where the Mars could still be. Volcanically active today.

Then you study's lead author. David Horvath from the planetary science Institute says new images show a mysterious dark deposit, covering an area slightly larger than the city. He says it has a high thermal inertia and includes high calcium pyroxene rich material and is distributed symmetrically around a segment of the Serbia's first say Fisher system on the Elisa implantation.

They're all typical of Aeolian or wind-driven deposits or VAT says the feature looks similar to [00:02:00] dark deposits on the moon and mercury suggested to be explosive volcanic eruptions. He says it may well be the youngest volcanic deposit yet documented on the red planet. Well, there are numerous examples of explosive volcanism on Mars.

The majority of the red planet's volcanism consists of lava flowing across the surface. However, this Elisa implemation deposit appears to be very different. The new feature overlays the surrounding lava flows and appears to be a relatively fresh deposit of Ash and rock representing a different style and time period of eruption compared to previously identified pyroclastic features.

He estimates the eruption could dispute Ash as high as 10 kilometers into the Martian atmosphere, or that says Alicia planaria hosts some of the youngest volcanism on Mars getting to around 3 million years ago. So it's not really entirely unexpected. He says it's possible that these sorts of deposits were more common, but have been eroded or buried.

The side of the eruption is about 1,600 [00:03:00] kilometers from NASA's Mars insight Lander, which has been studying tectonic activity on the red planet since its arrival in 2018 to Mars. Quakes identified by insight have been localized to the region around Serber as fossa and recent work has suggested the possibility that these could well be due to the movement of magma depth.

But it's the apparent young age of this deposit, which absolutely raises the possibility that there could still be volcanic activity on Mars. And so it's intriguing that recent Mars quakes detected by the insight mission have been sourced to the same region. However, sustaining magma near the surface of Mars.

So late in marsh in history with no associated lava flows would be difficult. And so that suggests a deeper magnetic source would probably have been needed to create this eruption. Or that says about Canik deposits such as this also raises the possibility for habitable conditions near the surface of Mars in recent history, the interaction of ascending magma [00:04:00] and the IC substrate in this region could have provided favorable conditions for microbial life fairly recently, if such life ever existed on Mars.

And so it raises the possibility of existence life in this region. It's a fascinating possibility. This is space time still the calm red China lands a Rover on the red planet. And rocket lab is blamed the possible engine problem for the failure of its latest electron mission, all that, and much more still to come.

Um, space time.

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You'll find the URL details in the show notes and on our website, just visit the support page that’s forward slash Namecheap. And now it's back to our show. You're listening to Spacetime with Stuart, Gary. Following in the wake of America's latest success with its mass perseverance Rover at ingenuity helicopter, which have now commenced operations on the surface of the red planet's Jethro crater.

China has landed its own Rover on Mars. The Lander was deployed from the tango in one spacecraft, which has been orbiting Mars since February following a six and a half month journey from earth. Mission managers [00:07:00] spent several months scanning the red planet surface from orbit, looking for a suitable landing site.

Once they spotted a region, meeting all the conditions, they released the ladder and its attached Rover, which entered the thin Martian atmosphere at an altitude of 125 kilometers using both parachutes and then retro rockets that are send down to the surface once safely on the ground and the vast utopia Planitia lava plane and the marsh Northern hemisphere, the 240 kilograms Jurong Rover successfully rolled off its land of what's expected to be a three-month mission.

Jurong is named after a mythical Chinese fire. God. The six wheeled solar powered rovers design is a scaled down copy of NASA, highly successful spirit and opportunity rovers, which landed on opposite sides of Mars in early 2004, and continued operating for years beyond their plan. 90 day mission profiles.

Jurong science suite includes a ground penetrating radar, laser spectrograph and infrared spectrograph Amar spectrum camera [00:08:00] meteorological, sensors to monitor atmospheric temperature, wind speed in April. Sure. And as surface magnetic field detector, touchdown is considered a major milestone in China's ambitious space program.

This is time still the com rocket lab blames an engine problem for the failure of its lead, its electron mission and scientists at the ANU develop nano thin radiation, shielding, all that, and more still to come on. Space-time.

Rocket lab has blamed engine problem for the failure of its latest electronic mission. The problem occurred during the ignition of the second stage of the running out of toes mission, the 20th flight for the company and the second failure in the past year, the mission from rocket labs, Mihir peninsula launch complex on new Zealand's [00:09:00] north island.

East coast was carrying two black sky global earth observation satellites into a 430 kilometer high orbit. The earth observation satellites would have been the eighth and ninth for black sky providing monitoring of shipping and climate observations. Ms. Muriel baker. And I'm here at rocket labs, mission control center in Oakland, New Zealand.

This mission has a window of approximately two hours and we're expecting to launch right at the top of that window at 10:08 PM. New Zealand local time Blitzer on is fueled and ready for lift off from rocket labs. Pad eight, a launch operations team are not working. Any issues and with greens across the board, we're well set for an on-time launch.

Running out of toes is a significant mission for the team here at rocket lab as our next major recovery test for only the second time ever, we will attempt to bring electrons first stage back to earth under a parachute and splash it down gently in the ocean as part of our efforts to make a lecture on the world's first re-usable small launch vehicle.

Our recovery team is currently [00:10:00] stationed in the Pacific ocean, waiting for electron splash down so they can retrieve it and bring it back to our factory for inspection. However, weather conditions have deteriorated significantly in the splashdown zone, which means we have limited live communications with the recovery team.

Visibility at sea is also greatly reduced. So it may take some time to provide confirmation of a successful splashdown. Nonetheless conditions are optimal for launch. So we are proceeding with the count. All stations, LDS mission proceeding with a go-no-go sequence at the sun. Looking for your status to proceed for launch stage avionics running out of toes is our third mission for 2021.

And the first of several dedicated launches this year for black sky, which provides geospatial intelligence and global monitoring services. So they're low earth orbit constellation electron. We'll be launching two of these satellites at a 50 degree inclination tonight's launch will be the 20th time.

Electron leaves the pad powered by our 200th Rutherford engine. [00:11:00] It's incredible to think that we've built, tested and fired 200 of our unique 3d printed electric pump feed engines. Rutherford is the world's first 3d printed orbital rocket engine, a unique design that went against the grain of traditional rocket propulsion systems.

When we first introduced the idea, Rutherford also made space travel electric by replacing the traditional gas generator cycle with electric. Pumps powered by lithium polymer batteries, a chicken on how we're tracking to lift off the team are working no issues with the launch vehicle. Electrons, payload remains healthy, and the weather is looking clear for an on-time launch and T minus two minutes, the autonomous flight computers on electron will take over the count at around T minus one minute 30 seconds.

We should hear the call that locks loading is complete on electron. And then shortly after that, we can expect confirmation that they launch vehicles first and second stages. Uh, pressurized for launch followed by the ten second countdown to lift off with engine ignition at [00:12:00] T minus three seconds. Each video clips nominal, confirm LDS, go for lunch.

Hold, hold, hold, hold. Recycling team. Minus 12 minutes. GC confirm, uh, launch inhibit mode, uh, stolen prime mode confirmed, but at this time you hit it there for mission control in Oakland. Right now, electron has entered a hold. We are still sitting tight on the pad waiting for upper level winds to fall within bounds for launch the clock proceeding with the go-no-go poll for lunch Vic on LD mission.

Oh, you become confirmed flight computer as goes a green. I'll ask you a screen lock out of sequence and keep Kibera out of sequence locked. All stations we go for out of sequence. Start at T minus two minutes. This time LDS go for lunch. These are internal car stage power is disabled. If it was on internal box load, complete system insert re-circulation search warrant and search tanks oppressed two minus 10, nine eight seven six five four three.

[00:13:00] plus 30, the chickens into the mission. Electron is well on its way to space after its 20th liftoff from the pad at rocket lab launch complex, one of the power of those three engines. With electron clearing past 700 and very soon electron will approach max Q or maximum aerodynamic pressure. And this is the moment when the forces against the launch vehicle are at their peak during a scent.

So let's listen in for the call. That's what Victor, on his cleared that gets shipped runway XQ, VP discharge. Execute clear. And about a minute, we'll be coming up to three events that happen back to back during flight first it's main engine cutoff or Mico. This is when the nine Rutherford engines on electrons booster throttled down before shutting off completely to slow the rocket down before the second event.

That's when the first stage separates from the [00:14:00] rest of electron, as it continues with the third event ignition of the soul Rutherford engine that powers electron and the satellites to orbit. Would that stage separation electrons booster begins its journey back to earth. And so we'll begin. Our second electron recovery attempt stage one.

Propulsion is nominal Mico confirmed success is separation

recovery proceed with sequence 59 stage one recovery operations. As you've seen, we've had a successful Mikko and state. No, there's been no ignitions in case. So it looks like we've had a loss of telemetry data reviews suggest an engine computer on the second stage, detected an issue shortly after second stage engine ignition that caused the safety shutdown command to be issued resulting in the rocket and its payload tumbling out of the sky and crashing into the south Pacific ocean.

The running out of PTOs mission was also rocket lab. Second attempt to return electrons. [00:15:00] First stage back to earth in a controlled scent. It's part of ongoing efforts that of OPA reusable first stage launch vehicle. But unlike the earlier return to send a mission trial six months ago, this time is electrons.

First stage coasted Abergee following Mika or managing cutoff. The reaction control system reoriented the first stage 180 degrees. Placing it in an optimal angle for reentry. As well as being equipped with an evolved hate shield designed to protect it's nine Rutherford main engines and direct aerodynamic forces and plasma away from the rocket.

This change in positioning also helped the booster survive temperatures of up to 2,400 degrees Celsius. As it dropped back down into the thicker atmosphere at up to eight times, the speed of sound. As it reached its descent, max queue, maximum aerodynamic pressure. The first stage repositioned itself, engine first, hoping it slowed down to below Mac two, at which time it drug parachute was deployed to increase drag and further stabilize the booster as it [00:16:00] descended.

Then the main parachute was deployed during the last couple of kilometers, providing a software splashed down a recovery vessel with a portable strong back was able to retrieve the first stage, which is now being brought back for examination. This is space time, still the com and you Nana thin radiation shielding, and later in the science report.

And you study shows that RNA from the COVID-19 virus could have found a way to insert itself into the human genome, all that, and much more still to come. On space, time

scientists. I hope the new ultra thin nano material that can reflect a transmit light on demand. Opening the door to new technologies that could help protect astronauts in space from harmful [00:17:00] radiation. The technology could become a case step in ongoing research to shield astronauts on deep space missions, beyond the relative safety of low earth orbit, which subject them to higher levels of radiation and cosmic res that remains one of the main barriers on any human mission to Mars.

The technology is potential applications include protecting astronauts or satellites with an ultra thin film, which can be adjusted to reflect dangerous ultraviolet or infrared radiation significantly increasing the resistance threshold compared to today's technologies, which rely on absorbing radiation with thick filters.

A report in the journal of advanced functional materials claims the product could also be telephone. Other light spectrums, including visible wavelengths, which would open up an array of innovations, including architectural and energy saving applications, controlling the amount of light and heat entering a building by literally turning windows into reflective mirrors on demand.

Lead researcher, Dr. Motion. Ramani from the Australian national university. This is the materials. So [00:18:00] thin hundreds of layers could fit on the tip of a needle and it can be applied to any surface, including spacesuits. The flat optics is now is very hot area of research because not only are many other university, they are also trying and have done a lot of progress to using.

surface of nanoparticles, which can actually reproduce the function of different wall, key components, optical pump components, like lenses, mirrors, and so on. So what we have done, we have managed to change the optical. Properties of nanoparticles so that you can make your nano surface to have different functions because all other flat optics and surfaces, which I was speaking about before they bought statically, it means they can have one function.

They can go work and function as the. Mirror or ultra lens or as a priest and so on. But now, because we managed to change the optical properties, we can [00:19:00] adjust them to have different functions against different frequencies, and they can have, for example, both as a mirror or as a transparent surface or something in between, and what we do, we just change the temperature of those none of material.

And by controlling the temperature, they actually control the function. Those nanomaterials, it's how it's about. And this is the sort of material you can weave into a space for this particular case you have used, um, uh, Silicon, because we were mostly interested in the telecommunication wavelets and for that range, we call it the perfect material.

But if you want them to voting against. Different valence is different radiation and different frequencies. You need another design and you need to use other materials. For example, if you want to come to the visible range, you need to use maybe aluminum arsenide or gallium for spot. If you want to go to their names, you can use any color and so on.

You can. You can [00:20:00] cover, uh, this, uh, function and you can cover this capability from also violet to, uh, to meet medium for it by, by having different designs and different metrics. What happens in the ionizing radiation end of the spectrum, which is where one of the big problems we're going to have in space, especially with long distance missions to Mars and things like that.

Is the ability to protect crew from ionizing radiation, as well as cosmic rays, things like that. Sure. We believe that we have already developed the physics for it and because the physics actually works in the different frequencies and you need to have a defined design to work at different range. Like what you mentioned, maybe probably smaller than the vagueness is smaller than ultraviolet light, like it's rate and so on.

So the physics is the same. But the point is that at the moment we need, um, we need probably to wait a little bit more to get the technology, to fabricate smaller structures, because at the moment what we can, we can have it. We can cover the outside by let, to infer it easily. But in order to go to them, [00:21:00] uh, smaller lameness, like x-rays, uh, you just need to.

To have smaller structures, which have whose diamonds in the order of  speaking about the molecular level, which are still smaller than what you have fabricated. But I believe that very soon it will get, uh, we will get there because the physics is available. As soon as we can just manage to fabricate those small particles, we can solve this issue.

So right now, it's just a question of getting the nanotechnology, right. And until we do that, then we're still looking at huge water tanks on the sides of spaceships to act as a radiation barriers for trips to Mars. Things like, uh, at the moment at the moment, I have to say that, but I can for sure say that we are not really very far from that level.

We use nano to use nanotechnology technology to protect all these devices, satellite based ideation, against different kinds of radiation. The physics is available. They are working on that. And the, we believe that they have a solution for that, [00:22:00] but it's still not published. We are working on that, but I can tell you that we are not really far from that.

We are all working on this as photonic nano devices for different kinds of applications. But for this particular piece of research, we are working on two years to make it voice. So tell me about the applications you see for this application, which are, uh, Doable right now, which are feasible right now. Of course you need with, uh, with a little bit of investment is, um, uh, to have them, uh, to have to fabricate this nanostructure you can't because any kind of surface can have to get on your house windows.

You can have all your car windows and you can actually turn. Anything though, to, uh, to a mirror and vice versa on demand because you just need to control the, the temperature of those nano particles and what will achieve at the end. It just, um, on your hands and, uh, at will, you can change the function of your window.

It can have some application architecture, for example, uh, in the bathroom, your, your window, as we mentioned in the video [00:23:00] in the bathroom, you know, Uh, it can become a mirror or, uh, even, um, in the windows of houses, you know, if you have this, uh, , you can control the amount of light, which goes into your house in different seasons, which is very important for energy saving actually.

And, and, uh, uh, applications in the source, which are application, which are. Um, doable at the moment they are at the moment we are speaking with a few, uh, industrial partners is to get a decent investment, uh, which we are very hopeful and optimistic to get it because we got a large interest from the industry.

I believe that it may be just two or three years. We can see the first prototype of this kind of window, as well as protecting from Hayton and things like that. These, these surfaces will also provide oversee. So you can have privacy as well. You know, right now there are devices which do that. They work separately from the vices, which protect from hate.

Yes, actually, uh, uh, it is, uh, that at the moment we have some devices which can, [00:24:00] um, uh, we can make the, the, uh, glass OPEC, uh, it's based on the, based on the liquid crystal, which is already available, but it is the first time actually, which you can make a, uh, a glass of window. And the importance here is that when you, uh, started a mirror, the glass and meter, and then you make it glass, the mirror, actually it reflects all different radiation.

It doesn't observe it, observe it. But then for example, by liquid crystal, you make it, or you just observed all those radiation makes a big difference in the threshold because when you observe, of course you can observe until certain threshold, but when the reflect all those. Radiation, which you don't want.

You'll have a lot of more room and a lot of more threshold because you don't observe it and you just get rid of it. So it is the difference, which is our research. How far down the track are we from being able to use these materials for space flight, for human space flight? Uh, at the moment, uh, we believe that they are [00:25:00] still usable around the world, uh, because, uh, as you know, until a few Roddy after the heirs, uh, they still have this magnetic field of air.

That's why because of this magnetic field is still, we don't have much radiation in the x-ray and gamma and so on. Still the problem around our areas is that we are near in front. So at the moment this, uh, this research can be used in the, uh, Space station and all, all the areas around the board, because it's still within the shield of magnetic field off of the, of the ELLs.

Yes. But then we go further and we're like, but you mentioned to the Mars, you still need a little bit more, but I believe that it's not so long to have this nanostructures to protect against all kinds of harmful radiation. When you say all kinds, can nano structures be useful against things like gamma, rays and high energy.

X-rays. Uh, we believe so we believe so at the moment we are working, we are working on that. It's actually, it's very [00:26:00] exciting because they have found a way to do that by making some narrow selections. I can't say that by some kind of, um, a new physics, you can make the nanostructures to even Bork, uh, at, uh, maybe x-ray and gamma.

That's very exciting. We are very excited because our technology, which is published, it's just at the moment, it goes to UV, but in order to Goma and x-ray unit. We are hoping that we can make it happen. Motion Ramani from the Australian national university and this space time

and Tom had to take a brief look at some of the other stories, making news in science this week with the science report. A new study, warns that RNA from the COVID-19 virus could have found a way to insert itself into the human genome. The concerns centers around the prevalence of people testing [00:27:00] positive for COVID-19 in PCR tests, despite having long clear the active infection, retroviruses like HIV, do this through reverse transcription, the enzyme mediated synthesis of a DNA molecule from an RNA template.

But COVID-19, isn't a retro virus, so it could be using some other mechanism to achieve the same result, a report in the journal, the proceedings of the national academy of sciences claims researchers believe the mechanism could be a specific type of transpose on a small sequence or segment of chromosome that can undergo transposition jumping from one place to another.

These so-called jumping genes are often fan in bacteria, moving segments of DNA from one place on the genome to another. Humans also have transposons and the authors focused online one transposons, which make up a significant 17% of the human genome. The authors then tested the hypothesis by successfully inducing COVID-19 the human cell lines in laboratory tests.

[00:28:00] However, in 30% of cases, they couldn't confirm that this was indeed the mechanism taking place. So while they showed that it might be possible, they couldn't share that this is in fact what's happening. Over three and a half million people have now been killed by the COVID-19 virus with another 166 million infected since the deadly disease first emerged in Warhammer, China and was spread around the world.

And you study as conclude that the huge extent and severity of the devastating 2019 2020 Australian black summer Bush fires was most likely the result of unprecedented drought conditions and sustained hot windy weather during the fire season, rather than the logging history of the native eucalypt forests.

The findings reported in the journal nature looked at three regions covering around a third of the total area burned. Site is found that past logging activity and wildfire disturbance in the natural forests at a very low effect on severe canopy [00:29:00] damage. Instead, the most important factors were broad spatial features of the landscape, such as ridges and valleys and fire weather.

The study also found that 70% of the new south Wales timber plantations suffered severe canopy damage showing that this intensive means of wood production is extremely vulnerable. The Bush fire. The authors say that in the future fuel loads are likely to become less important than climate drivers in the terminating fire extent, severity making it increasingly difficult, if not impossible to lower fuel loads in a way that will limit the severity of Bush fires.

The black summer Bush fires burned at over 186,000 square kilometers of landscape killing more than 3 billion terrestrial, vertebrate animals, including many highly endangered species. Some of them were driven to extinction. The massive wildfires also destroyed almost 6,000 buildings, including 2,779 homes.

Killing at least 34 people paleontologist have [00:30:00] identified a new species of hadrosaur dinosaur in 72 million year old strata in Northern Mexico. A report in the journal courteous research says later losis Galora was a herbivore about 12 meters long. Scientists have unearthed about six meters of fossilized tail, as well as a FEMA, a shoulder, most of the skull and a 1.32 meter Bernie hollow crest, which is thought to have been used to communicate creating a sound, something like a trumpeting elephant, and you steady warns that requirement's are increasingly complex.

Website passwords are leaving users frustrated and can lead to poor password security. Researchers from James Cook university found website, password requirement, restrictions such as needing at least eight characters with a mixture of upper and lower case, as well as numbers and the other symbols makes passwords harder to remember.

And that's led up to 75% of participants using strategies to remember their passwords, which actually compromise security [00:31:00] such as using the same password for model sites. Well measures such as password managers and two factor authentication protocols do offer solutions to password management and securing privacy.

They still suffer from usability issues and demonstrate inconvenience to users. The authors say a better ID would be creating a long but meaningful password phrase. That's easy for users to remember, but long enough to hint at brute force hacking attacks. A survey of a thousand people has found that 48% of Australians, roughly half believe in ghosts, or at least the possibility that ghosts could exist while 69% of people believe in a soul.

Tim Mendham from Australian skeptic says the survey also shows that younger people are stronger believers in the old and women are much stronger believers. There's a group called the McCrindle research for the center for public Christianity. So it's a Christian group and they were surveying might say that a thousand people in livestream for their views on [00:32:00] ghosts and miracles and angels and a lot of spiritual stuff and the coast guard, et cetera.

Came up with a lot of numbers that were particularly CRO and a lot of these spiritual things by comparison, for instance, 48% of Australians said, I believe in ghosts or the possibility that ghosts exist, 69% say that the soul exists. And that might be a bit high compared to what you normally think of as says the breakdown of the Australian population, the largest single group within the census on the so not religion.

Not all I said has been for awhile. Not religion. And considering the numbers, they I'll be surprised if 69% of Australians believe in this old seamlessly, the numbers believing in angels and that sort of stuff. The guy says the strongest belief group, apart from the cell, pull those together to actually the ghosts souls angels is already talking about the same sort of.

I mean, there's a lot of thoughts, sort of almost put in a separate category, there's spirits and there's, you know, appearance of the people. But in many cases, the ghost stories don't have a link with any religion as such. Cause I mean, the [00:33:00] ghost stories that you hear about obviously a necessarily have a link with religion and religions.

Might have actually elements in them, but that one is a bit different, but miracles angels, God saw the meaning of life and life. After death generally have, have a link to religion. This survey being done by a religious group, they supposedly had an independent 1000 people they interviewed, but what they did find that was the strongest belief actually came from people who are 18 to 26.

Read that interesting 18 to 26 year olds were the most likely to be religious females, more than males as well. As well, the miles is actually pretty common across all age groups. And if you can figure that one out, that's the $64 million question as to exactly why older people, males are more skeptical.

Yes. But, uh, the, the question is why there is this gender breakdown in some cases is pretty minor, but in other cases it's quite significant. And if you figured out the reason for that, there are obviously people who put forward suggestions, but I think it's a very complicated issue, but the fact that young people are supposed to be believing these things more than older people, perhaps.

Because all the people have a lot more experience on this survey [00:34:00] said that the young people had a greater openness to the non-material. I think that might be wishful thinking. Although if you look at the number of young people following charismatic religions, the paint, the cost on that sort of stuff, they vary in favor of miracles and Angelus and packing all that sort of stuff.

Right. Literally that's where they're going to got the established church, which are more restrained. To a certain extent. I'm not as attractive to these more outgoing rock band, inspired churches, et cetera. They they're falling for that thing. It's a funny one. There was some doubts expressed about the survey itself and the fact that it came from a religious group rather than an independent a thousand papers.

Isn't really a decent survey size either. It's not a huge one. It's not bad. Right? I mean, there was certainly a lot worse, but yeah, it's not huge. And you end up, there's not a great indication as to where that thousand withdrawn from. It's supposed to be reasonable in calling terms that it's not a, an online you write in and you tell me sort of thing, which is normally rubbish, but it's an interesting result that I'd like to see a lot more in depth analysis.

All that political [00:35:00] surveys have at least 2000 people interviewed. Yes. I mean, as I say, you don't know exactly where this 1000 came from most political surveys. She ended also a drag, unless they're looking at a specific, specific electorate, they tend to draw them across a geographical area. That means you're going to end.

They got with a small number in each particular electorate. So the lower, the number, the worse, or the mobile unreliable, the policies that you'd really want. That's to Mendham from Australian skeptics.

And that's the show for now. The space-time is available every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday through apple podcasts, iTunes, Stitcher, Google podcast, pocket casts, Spotify outcast, Amazon music SoundCloud YouTube favorite podcast, download [00:36:00] provider and from space-time with Stewart, space times also broadcast through the national science foundation on science own radio and on both iHeart, radio and tune in radio.

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That's all one word and that's tumbler without the aid, you can also follow us through at Stuart Gary on Twitter at space-time with steward [00:37:00] Gary on Instagram. Through our space-time YouTube channel and on Facebook, just go to forward slash space time with Stuart, Gary and space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian sky and telescope magazine.

Your window on the universe. You've been listening to space-time with Stewart, Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from