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The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 25 Episode 7
*The Galaxy’s supermassive black hole maintains its...
The Astronomy, Space, Technology & Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime S25E07 AI Transcript
[00:00:00] Stuart: This is space time series 25 episode seven, four broadcast on the 17th of January, 2022. Coming up on space, time mysteries continue to surround the galaxy supermassive black hole discovery of one of the biggest structures in the Milky way. And Australia's largest rocket engine test declared a success, all that, and more coming up on space-time
VO Guy: Welcome to space time with Stuart Gary.
A new study has shown that Sagittarius a star supermassive black hole at the center of our Milky way. Galaxy is unpredictable erupting and flaring irregularly, not just from day to day, but also in the longterm. The findings reported in the journal of the monthly notices. The Royal astronomical society are based on 15 years of observational data.
Located some 27,000 light years away, the Sagittarius, a star supermassive black hole as over 4.3 million times, the mass of our sun, and is the anchor point around which our entire Milky way galaxy revolves astronomers have known for decades, Sagittarius a star flashes every day and sometimes gets up to 10 or even a hundred times brighter than.
It's a strong source of radio waves, x-rays and gamma rays with visible light being blocked by the intervening clouds of gas and dust to find out more about such Terry say stars, flares, astronomers search for patents in 15 years of data gathered by NASA swift gamma Ray space telescope, which has been checking the galaxy central black hole every three days since 2006.
This long data set has shown that between 2006 and 2008, the area near the black hole was flashing quite a bit, but then it quietened down between 2008 and 2012 before flares again began increasing tries. They might, scientists had been unable to distinguish any sort of pattern in the flaring. So exactly how these flares are occurring or why remains I'm clear.
Now the general consensus has always been that the flares are generated by gas, clouds or stars passing too close to the black hole and losing some of their material, which then falls onto an accretion disk or it's crushed and ripped apart before passing the black holes event, horizon to disappear forever as it falls into the singularity.
But some of the superheated material and energy is guided by powerful magnetic field lines, which shoot out into space and which we see as the flares and eruptions, but there's no real evidence supporting that hypothesis, nor is there any evidence for another hypothesis that the magnetic field properties of the surrounding gas and stars are themselves playing a role in the flaring activity?
So for now, at least Sagittarius, a stock gets to retain its mysteries. This space time, still the com discovery of one of the biggest structures in the Milky way. Galaxy and Australia's largest rocket engine test declared a success, all that and more stores. Um, space-time
astronomers have identified the piece to be a massive 3,900 light year long filament of atomic hydrogen. The discovery reported in the journal, astronomy and astrophysics could be a possible precursor to a staff or me molecular gas cloud philibert, which has been nicknamed Maggie could represent a link in the matter cycle of stars.
Measurement suggests that the atomic guests in this slide, it converges locally to form molecular hydrogen, which when compressed in large clouds is the material from which stars are eventually for. Hydrogen is the most widespread substance in the universe, but detecting individual clouds of hydrogen gas has been a demanding task, which makes research into the early phase of staff formation, quite challenging.
The study's lead author journalists sit from the max Planck Institute says that's why this discovery is so exciting. The massive filler mode extend some 1600 light years below the Milky way. It's galactic plane sit at MITs is yet to determine exactly how it got. But the radiation from the hydrogen, which is shining at the 21 centimeter wavelength clearly stands out against the background, making the filament easy to identify the observations, allowed sitting colleagues that determined the cloud's velocity in comparison to the average velocity of the Milky.
Way's disk finding very little difference along its entire length, which means the filament is a single coherent structure. It's also allowed the authors that determined the size and distance of the filament, showing it to be a stunning 3,900 light is long, at least 130 light is wide and located around 55,000 light years away.
On the other side of the Milky way, galaxy the dimensions are incredible, especially considering most similar molecular clouds are usually around 800 light years long. Hydrogen occurs in the universe in various states. Astronomers find it in the forms of atoms and in molecules, in which two atoms are joined together.
But it's only in its molecular guests form where it can condense down the four molecular clouds, which then developed cold frosty regions where new stars are formed. But exactly how the transition from atomic to molecular hydrogen happens is still largely unknown. And that makes the opportunity to study this filament even more.
Scientists have already noticed that the gas is converging at several points along the filament. And this could be where it's condensing the molecular clouds. The authors also suspect that these are the environments where the atomic gas gradually changes into a molecular form. Previous evidence suggests that about 8% of Maggie's masses already being transformed into molecular hydrogen.
And so these areas could be when you start a born this space time. Still to come Australia's largest domestically built rocket engine test declared a success and Earth's volcanic hotspots turning out to be surprisingly cool, all that and more stores. On space-time
yeah. More space technology. Say they're still on track to Rachel, but this year within you air it's rock. The company grated the new year with a spectacular 75 second tests burn of their hybrid rocket engine. The successful test was a major master and for Gilmore space, which is developing a sovereign rocket launch capability that will over the next five years be capable of launching payloads between 304,000 kilograms in orbit.
Following the successful test, the team will now move into the final engine qualification campaign beginning next week. The 110 killer Newton engine will eventually be used to power both the first and second stages of Gilmore's knee three stage Eris launch vehicle. The company plans to develop a launch complex at Abbott point near the north Queensland town of Bowen, and is just waiting for final government approvals for the pro.
Eris program manager. David Doyle says the Abbot point space port will allow for equity Loreal over the launches with polar launches using the wireless way space port and the port Lincoln in south Australia.
[00:08:17] Guest: The test that we just conducted was really about developing confidence and balancing progress versus risk for us now, mine fiber propulsion system on our launch vehicle.
So what we undertook was a development test, all of that system, uh, and we're looking at. Propulsion system, the engine performed against our expectations of the design by so previous. And detailed analysis that would previously undertaken and making sure that everything matched up against our expectations, uh, which is deed.
Um, and that really is, like I said about developing confidence and allowing us to be able to proceed forward into the next stages of the launch vehicles development program and, and onto
[00:09:02] Stuart: launch as well. I guess the real test will be to see whether or not you can maintain an engine burn line. To match the amount of time.
The first stage of the rocket will need to fire. If it's on an actual orbital ascent,
[00:09:14] Guest: that's a very astute observation in question, but yes, a hundred percent correct. And that's really what qualification is about for us, for the main propulsion system and deed for. All of the components and systems that go into the, into the vehicle.
We run through qualification testing of all of those components and systems. So this successful test now allows us to move into the qualification campaign coming up in the next month. And. Is that the point at which way will be putting the Harvard mind emotion systems for the full, honorable life that we can expect, which includes as the, as you pointed out the, uh, formation duration for
[00:09:58] Stuart: the first stage at a hybrid engine, what makes this one hybrid you using what liquid oxygen?
And I know the original plan was for a three day. Yeah. So
[00:10:09] Guest: generally speaking, hybrids strings again, aspects of solid propulsion technology and full propelling or liquid propulsion technology into, into a hybrid form. So it can either be a liquid oxidizer and a, and a solid fuel or a, um, solid oxidizer and a liquid fuel.
In this case, we use a liquid oxidizer and a solid fuel. And as you pointed out, we had an. Utilized to 3d printing technology for that solid fuel, but we, uh, we've moved on and, and, and once and improved by CFL, uh, understanding your lessons and have adapted that field to its current form. Um, which unfortunately I can't go into in great detail, but, um, it certainly.
Um, uh, meeting and exceeding our expectations in terms of the performance and through these tests is another great example. The day that we're saved, it gives us full confidence in the makeup of our palettes. So the liquid oxidizer and the solid fuel to get what we need out of this abortion.
[00:11:06] Stuart: And I know one of the goals was to make sure that you could throttle the fuel up and down to make performance parameters.
[00:11:12] Guest: Um, sorry. I was just going to quit. They said throttling up and down of the main engine. A capability that is extremely useful for different profiles and different trajectories, which is the objective, obviously for us to be able to give out current and future satellite customers, the opportunity to access a range of different orbits we have vehicle.
And so, yeah, the design is capable of that and, and we are certainly going to be able to provide that without nine propulsion.
[00:11:41] Stuart: Yep. Now, whenever one builds a rocket engine, history has taught us that timelines don't really work, but what's your dream. What's your hope? As far as getting to all that's concerned, he is still looking at this year.
[00:11:52] Guest: Um, most vehicle programs in the company. I always want everything yesterday. So I'm pushing the team. Extraordinarily hard. He inside of, again, get more space and also working very questioning with the supplies because we have an enormous Australian domestic supply chain that we work with. And also some key supplies internationally, which has been hit by COVID as well.
So, you know, we've had issues there in terms of the logistics and, and border international supply chains. We were very close and like I said, I'm pushing them very hard and. Very much on track for getting at least one bot ideally two launches done this year and we're on track for that very much. So one thing I will say that from a launch vehicle perspective, that's one aspect of what we need in order to be able to launch, particularly from Australia.
Uh, equally, if not more important, which is Lawrence thought. And so not only are we developing and designing, developing manufacturing and testing the launch vehicles that will launch from Australia, but we're also developing and commissioning and we'll operate a launch facility from Dawn region in the Abbott point in Northern Queensland to be able to launch as well.
So we've, we've got to get the launch site operational in time to be able to. Received the launch vehicles carry out commissioning activities and then ultimately launch as well. And so that could present, um, additional, um, risks to that timeline to launch this year. And we, uh, working very closely with partners in local state and federal government to try and realize that that launch site aspect is.
Uh, a really important part of the success story for us to be out at natural
[00:13:33] Stuart: warrants. You see that's involved in construction of a launch facility. You need a hardstand, you need an assembly building and, uh, something like that. You need some sort of facility. Liquid oxygen. In this case, what's actually involved in building something like that from a minimum
[00:13:49] Guest: viable product or invade, pays to call it.
There's actually not a huge amount that's required from an infrastructure standpoint, to be able to get an operational launch site. So as you pointed out, you need a concrete pad and HOD stand with a launch pad, um, but need to be, uh, I believe seek he can divert loss the why and the size of vehicles that we're building.
Um, at the moment it's categorized as a small launch vehicle with. Yeah, ugly. It has full in terms of concrete pads. We launched our gantry hydraulics to be able to, um, to, to lift in restrain the launch vehicle through the launch, as he pointed out, as well as any aggression building, which is a big shed that you can take.
Up in Northern Queensland during summer and winter, and then also keep reasonably claims. And then Danny, on the real other aspect to the launch side is a launch control facility, which is separated from the integration building the pad. Uh, why, so that you can effectively operate the vehicle, the pad systems and data conduct the launch safely and effectively and stay in touch with not only the vehicle through a grant-based telemetry for saving.
And then also local authorities say, and federal authorities and agencies and other bodies that are important stakeholders and are potentially impacted by electroporation. So two sheds, some reasonably hot tech, telecommunications equipment, um, thick, concrete pad and some deal infrastructure and hydraulics.
And then, like you said, the only other thing there is that goes in guys name with the pad is for balance storage. Coming from a reasonably solid oil, gas and mining background as a nation, we've got the capability to be able to store propel on and pass those around in a small facility in spied site.
That that's really not a, not a big thing for us as a, as an industry.
[00:15:36] Stuart: Now you're looking at Abbott point is you mentioned that of course happens to be one of the major coal export points in Australia. So there's rail infrastructure there. You need good road infrastructure as well and deadly. Once you get up and running all sorts of little, hang on.
Industries will start to build up in that area. Yeah,
[00:15:55] Guest: absolutely. And look, I think it's a really, really important point that you make about the potential for adjacent industries. So not just with the launch spot, but with everything that we're doing as an organization, designing and building the launch vehicles and guide you with the supply chain, he likely, and it's driving.
Helping businesses and companies that are nonconventional and not associated with aerospace and spice at all, um, realize that potential to support an industry, which is exploding, um, internationally and really starting to gather momentum here in Australia. And it gives them opportunity to pick up and some of the investment that's coming from.
From the private sector, as well as the public sector in the growth in the industry and particularly out there. And it's not nine as a, as the spice coast, you have to make it, um, like Kennedy. Um, as, you know, a great tourist attraction to the outfit, they to come and say the launches, which I will be able to do up there.
So tourism industry is going to get a big kick out of it, but then also helping businesses and industries that are attacking. And reliant on things like mining or, you know, single source supply. We can give them another, another option to get revenue in. And that's certainly our intent is to engage us local businesses up there and help them grow with us.
As we, as we grow the capabilities, there are many in the
[00:17:19] Stuart: country generally, and of course, as well as bone there's also Southern launches facility now being tested, hopefully being tested on the Newport Lincoln in Southwest. And you've got, uh, uh, the option of a third facility in animal. And although they're initially doing sounding rockets there.
[00:17:41] Guest: Look, I think it's fantastic. And I'm really enthusiastic and happy to say Baba organizations and, uh, idea generators around the country, not just Southern Moriches. Editorial orange Alliance up in anonym land and building territories sort of surging forward and making a nine, a positive nine for the space industry in Australia.
Absolutely. As you point out. So it's more insights and those capabilities will hopefully the operational and the not-too-distant future as well. And we'll certainly, I mean, engaged with Southern launch and editorial launching once a day. What the potential is to be able to utilize those sites and what it might look like from as a, as a relationship going forward into the future.
We need another launch site. We can't operate exclusively out of on the geography and , we'll get it down and explained to me far more than, than I understand at the moment. The, the geography of, um, vulnerable spice port will not give us access to the wide range of inclinations through a direct Oberlo in session.
It would give us, so we do need other other sites on the Southern coast. I just saw it down there, wireless white, that presents great opportunity to be able to access find inclination or that's like darn synchronous, all that ammonia or butts in that. And also
[00:18:58] Stuart: follow all this as well. I have a point facility you're pretty well restricted to launching Julius.
Far enough to make sure that the, the first splashdown site is, will be on the barrier.
[00:19:10] Guest: Yeah, exactly. So the barrier reef has been the forefront of our considerations ever since the Queensland state government identified the Abbot point site as a, as a highly suitable location for smallest launch vehicles.
It's incredibly important to us. We say the significance and understand the significance that the great barrier reef is a world heritage listed region and as an important assets to, uh, Cheyenne to the businesses. And. Tourism as well. So with that consideration, environmental impact assessments and engagement with experts that we've done over a lengthy period of time, and we're on understand stand and have to analyze the risk is extremely low.
Um, or the potential for impacts to the reef is extremely low. And like you said, taking into consideration. We have an expected splashdown points, awful second stages. And the ferrings as well. Well, well clear of the great barrier reef and, and, um, no impacts to that at all. Um, but going back to the, the available asthma's launch has missed to get out of a ball and OVO spice port, the ratio is an extremely high consideration for the different inclinations that we can access, but then also downstream down range, um, considerations like the.
Solomon Islands, the Marshall Islands. Um, and, um, know at Pacific night, this is all down there as well. We certainly don't want to be leaving any rebel wreckage behind that could potentially cause a safety hazard for other nations as well. So lots to consider and the guy into a launch site that we're very, very happy with that site in particular, the technical assessments that said toddies have done that.
Like government, what we've done at whole, giving us a lot of positives and grain loss and know we're full steam ahead. Um, but like I said earlier on, we really do need that additional lane in, from local state and federal government to make this happen with us. And as a nation on the
[00:21:04] Stuart: of the seat specific holdup points, is there a specific level of government that's that's causing?
[00:21:11] Guest: say that any one particular area or any one level of government that's holding stuff. I think in general, all levels of government. PTSD to saying this happened, what we're really calling on is it's just an increase in heart and sense of urgency, you know? Um, there's no time like the present.
Um, if we, if we want to make this happen this year, and we want to capitalize on the momentum internationally and globally behind the development of. The economy's four countries. We really need that increased sense of urgency at all levels. And any form of support to the launch site, the approvals for the launch site will help us, uh, achieve that goal of, uh, of, uh, launching in 2022 and hopefully multiple launches in
[00:21:57] Stuart: 2020.
So one big difference between what. Southern launch and equatorial launcher aiming at you're also building up a sovereign launch capability in terms of an actual launch vehicle. Tell me about the rocket
[00:22:11] Guest: launch vehicles is designed to be out to at least not to 300 kilos to low earth orbit and up to 150 kilos to high inclination low.
Therefore if they have 21 made a toll launch vehicle, so quite a, quite a big, uh, Uh, in, in the scheme of the smallest launch vehicles. So, um, Tola and, um, uh, water it's two meters in diameter at the base, um, typing that to it's one and a half meters and the alpha sections, the stage two and, um, the pilot fairing.
So, um, quite a, quite a larger vehicle than say for comparison, rocket lab, um, electronic launch vehicle. It's a hybrid propulsion technology that we use on the first and second stages. And. Pretty much at the point now where we're going through and assembling and have all of the mind airframe complainants arriving this month and next month.
And we'll be going through and assembling, uh, all three stages of the launch vehicle. In the next two to three months. And then as I mentioned earlier on just going into the qualification testing for pretty much all of our components and subsystems in parallel looking for that, uh, that launch coming up in a, you know, meal, Neil.
[00:23:24] Stuart: Yeah. You just mentioned electrons they're of course going to be your main competitor in this part of the world, at least with a rocket lab pay the Beck's just announced T's new neutron. Which is electrons the next stage up, but you're not at that level yet. Are you thinking about it? But yeah,
[00:23:39] Guest: we're an incredibly ambitious organization company and Adam Gilmore.
SEO is incredibly ambitious as well. And I think the ethos that we employ here is, is to always continuously improve. And so that goes for the rockets, the way we design and build here so that, you know, shadow doubt where we're going to go to. Uh, lodge at least once vehicles that will be out of geostationary orbit.
We know a little bit, we have ambitions to be able to deploy rovers and payloads to the surface of the moon as well. And then ultimately beyond know, we really want to take a straw layer as the spice bearing nation into low earth orbit as a priority to GI stationary to the boon, and then beyond Venus Mars and add into the, the board of solar system.
[00:24:27] Stuart: From Gilmore space technologies, and this space-time still the come and you study is found that some of her volcanic hotspots are actually surprisingly cool. And later in the science report, Australia records its hottest day in 62 years with a temperature reaching a blistering 50.7 degrees, all that and more coming in.
And you study is found that some of the so-called hotspots, which create volcanic islands, like those of Hawaiian Iceland are actually surprisingly cool and may not originate from active larval plumes in a state mantle. The findings reported in the journal science challenge, the classical matter or plume theory for the origin of hotspots.
Generally, there are two types of volcanism observed on a surface. The dominant type, because with the tectonic plates made this causes friction and hate and is driven by the large scale convective circulation of the planet's mantle. The other time occurs is isolated. Interplate hotspot volcano. These are thought to be fed by a hot actively upwelling plumes, rising up from the very deep metal possibly right near the core mantle boundary with excess temperatures, roughly a hundred to 300 degrees Celsius higher than those volcanoes located along mid-ocean ridges.
The problem is excess temperature estimates for volcanic hot spots are actually rather limited in geographical coverage and are often inconsistent for individual hotspot. To determine whether the oceanic hotspots are indeed harder than ridges scientists, converted seismic velocity measurements for oceanic, ridges, and hotspots ended temperature and contrary to previous assumptions.
They found that some hotspots are surprisingly cool. Now, according to the authors, while about 45% of plume fed hotspots are hot with excess temperatures of at least 155 degrees Celsius or more. And another 40% are simply not hot enough to actively op well from the deep mantle, they also found that 15% of circled hotspots are actually cold with excess temperatures of only about 36 degrees or less above that of an average volcano.
The author suggested the cooler hotspots may instead originate from the upper mantle or they're fed by deep plumes that are in trained and could by small-scale conviction dynamics that are baked goes on this space time.
And Tom had to take a brief look at some of the other stories making use in science this week. Well, the science report Australia has recorded its hottest day in 62 years with the temperature reaching a blistering 50.7 degrees Celsius in the remote Northwestern, Australian, coastal town of Ansleigh that's 123.26 degrees Fahrenheit on the old school.
The bureau of meteorology says the new temperature equals the old record, which has recorded. It earned the data in our back south Australia, way back on January, the second, 1960 climate council research director, Dr. Martin rice says the extreme temperatures are old part of a longterm warming trend driven by climate change.
Some at temperatures in the mid forties already becoming commonplace in Sydney and rices, both Sydney and Melbourne. We'll see 50 degrees. Some are days in the next decade for the record. The carer, the official record for the planet's hottest temperature is 56.7 degrees Celsius. That's 134.1 degrees Fahrenheit, which is recorded on the 10th of July, 1913 at the apple.
He named furnace Creek ranch in death valley, California. A new study has found that the COVID-19 Corona virus could spread more quickly among people exposed to higher levels of air pollution. The findings reported in the journal of occupational and environmental medicine looked at the spirit of the virus at the start of the pandemic in Northern Italy with a head data on the amount of air pollution residents were exposed to based on their home address.
Researchers found that for every percentage increase in long-term exposure to airborne particulate matter, there was a corresponding increase in cases of COVID-19 infection. Meanwhile, a study in the new England journal of medicine has found Pfizer is 94% effective in preventing hospitalization as a result of the virus in teens and 98% effective in preventing a stint in intensive care.
Researchers looked at the vaccination rates of a cohort of 445 COVID-19 patients aged 12 to 18 and compared them to similar cohorts who were in the hospital system for a non COVID-19 medical issue. They found 4% of the teens hospitalized with COVID-19 had been fully vaccinated compared to 36% of teens hospitalized for other reasons.
Just two COVID-19 patients in ICU had been fully vaccinated and all seven COVID-19 related deaths were unvaccinated over five and a half million people now being killed by the COVID-19 Corona virus. Since it first spread out of warhead China. However, the world health organization says the true death talks like there'd be at least double that amount with more than 315 million confirmed cases.
Uh, 57 year old man in the United States has become the world's first person to receive a transplant of a genetically modified pigs heart. The surgery was undertaken at the university of Maryland medical center. The genetically modified heart had cell surfaces lacking a sugar molecule called alpha one, three Galactus or a gal, which tree is the human immune system response.
The man also received a new experimental drug designed to stave off rejection. Well, forget all those laws. You've heard about goldfish being dumb scientists have successfully taught a goldfish didn't drive a car. The experimented Israel as being green university was designed to understand the navigational abilities of animals.
Scientists placed the goldfish tank equipped with senses on a robotic motorized V. The fish was then taught that swimming in a certain direction would cause the vehicle to travel in the same direction, resulting in a food reward. The findings reported in the journal behavioral brain research showed that the goldfish has navigational ability supersedes that of its water environment.
And you can see the goldfish drive on the space time. Tumbler. It's been revealed that in October 20, 19, 19 out of the top 20 Christian websites operating on Facebook were fake and were especially designed to manipulate and ferment discord among the U S population. The findings are detailed in an internal Facebook report, which has been publicly released by MIT, the Massachusetts Institute of technology.
The finding show how most religious websites was Sigly created by Eastern European troll farms. They used stolen religious content from legitimate Christian websites, which is then repost it on their site to attract large numbers of unsuspecting people. But these websites were also sprinkled with partisan political propaganda, designed to influence voters and turn people against each other.
And the Christian pages. Weren't, Facebook's only top ranked Fe. The majority of the most popular pages for African American and native American audiences were also created by a troll farms and cause of a Macedonia and other Eastern European countries working in a coordinated campaign designed to provide provocative content and political propaganda.
Tim Mendham for stray and skeptics says the troll farm, fake websites, or reaching a staggering 140 million people a month. So this was a study done in the U S primarily where Christian Facebook page was a lot more popular than I might be here. 20 top, most popular Christian Facebook pages, and 19 of them were fake.
In other words, they were set up by not necessarily Christian people, but I mean, people in the Eastern Europe, especially to repurpose or reuse information from other Facebook pages or whatever they want to get it from and creating these fake Christian Facebook pages with all sorts of sort of believable names that might be impressive to Christian people.
And. Not just Christian messages, but also disturbing messages and encouraging sort of prejudices and things like that to actually disturb the equilibrium of the American population. Everything from obviously a sort of anti gay anti gay marriage, the left rights, sort of a disparity, you know, evil, socialists, evil sort of extra right people, all these things were being threatening amongst these Christian man.
And what these people found out was that the Christians, themselves weren't being very critical analysis of the pages because they were Christians. They tended to believe it because after all Christians wouldn't lie, but at the same time, of course, these because of that popular, and this is the 20 most popular sites, they obviously the people who set them up made leather of money out of ads and that sort of thing.
The these, um, yeah, the troll funds or whatever, but they're making millions, if not billions of money out of these fake sites. So the issue is applying some critical thinking. It's not such a bad thing, but it applies to everybody. It applies to all sorts of Facebook pages, but people tend to believe that perhaps what the, some of the.
The same might not be true, but the sites are genuine. I mean, this case, the same, the sites weren't genuine or the pages weren't genuine on Facebook. So was basically, they say, you know, you've got to look at things like you have to find out who created the content. How did I create the content? Like stripping information off of another was skimming information off another site.
How did they, what do they do with this content? Why are they creating this content? All those things are. Really hard for people to apply all the weaker. America is a weaker world. Let's face it. We're seeing the fruits of that now with both China and Taiwan and also Russia and the Ukraine. Yeah. But it seems almost as if America doesn't need a lot of help to cause inner tensions, et cetera.
I mean, They've always had a lot of problems ever since, you know, ever since America basically. And we'll be full social media was on the, on the same, the Americans would be doing terrible things to each other. I have a lot of countries because of with what's happening today. I keep thinking of McCarthyism and even going back further to the Salem witch hunts, it's all the same.
Theme that keeps coming up over and over again, even, even without these troll farms and things, they can still encourage this continuity in beliefs and sort of prejudices and that sort of thing, which can manifest in the most serious ways. As we've seen over the years, Mendham from Australian skeptics.
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