March 14, 2022

The Mysterious World of 16 Psyche

The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 25 Episode 31
*The mysterious world of 16 Psyche
The asteroid 16 Psyche, which NASA intends to visit with a spacecraft in 2026, may be less heavy metal and more hard rock...


The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 25 Episode 31
*The mysterious world of 16 Psyche
The asteroid 16 Psyche, which NASA intends to visit with a spacecraft in 2026, may be less heavy metal and more hard rock than scientists originally thought.
*A new way to find planets orbiting other stars
Astronomers have tantalising new evidence for the existence of hidden exoplanets orbiting distant red dwarf stars.
*More blatant nuclear breaches by Iran
In yet another flagrant breach of its nuclear non proliferation treaty agreement Iran has test fired another nuclear capable Qased missile – this one placing a small cubesat sized spacecraft called Nour-2 into orbit.
*North Korea resumes missile tests
North Korea has resumed its long range ballistic missile tests in line with similar tests being undertaken by its close ally Iran.
*The Science Report
New study warns of increased variability in rain patterns associated with the La Niña and El Niño
New DNA tests to screen for over 50 genetic neurological and neuromuscular diseases.
Discovery of the wreckage of polar explorer Ernest Shackleton's ship Endurance.
Skeptic's guide to religion and ghost hunting on TV
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The Astronomy, Space, Technology & Science News Podcast.

Transcript

The Mysterious World of 16 Psyche - ST S25E31- AI Transcript

[00:00:00] Stuart: This is space time series 25 episode 31 for broadcasts on the 14th of March, 2022. Coming up on space time. The asteroid psyche may be less heavy metal and more hard rock and new way to find planets orbiting other stars and more breaches by Iran, all that and more coming up. Um, space time. Welcome to space time with Stuart, Gary

The asteroid 16 psyche, which Nasser intends to visit with a spacecraft in 2026 may be less heavy metal and more hard rock and scientist originally thought the 225 kilometre wide space rock, which opens the sun in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter may be far less valuable than many people have thought.

Psyche is the largest known so-called M-Type Asteroid. These are asteroids composed, primarily of iron and nickel. So they'd be worth a lot of money to mine, especially when compared to the other type of asteroid. That's commonly found those made from silica rocks, but as scientists study psyche in greater and greater detail, it's starting to send back mixed signals about its composition.

The problem is the light. It reflects tell scientists that it surface is indeed mostly metal. That's good for. And that's led to the idea that psyche may be the exposed iron core of what was a primordial planetary body. One whose Rocky Matalan crust was somehow blasted away, maybe in an ancient collision.

The problem is a report in the journal, geophysical research letters, looking at studies, which have measured psyches, mass and density are telling a very different story. See the weights gravity's tagging on neighbouring bodies suggest that psyche is far less dense than what a giant chunk of I, and really should be the study's lead author.

Fiona Nichols, Fleming from brown university says if psyche is indeed all metal, it must be incredibly porous, sort of like a giant ball of steel wool with nearly equal parts, void space and solid metal. And the fact is that's very unlikely. So to work out exactly what's going on because Fleming and colleagues developed computer simulation models based on learn thermal properties of metallic iron.

In order to estimate how the porosity of Elijah and body would evolve over time, the models showed that to remain highly porous. Psyche’s internal temperature would needle of code below 800 Kelvin very shortly after its formation. C at temperatures above that iron would have been so malleable that Psyche’s own gravity would have collapsed most of the poorest spaces within its bulk.

And based on, what's already known about the conditions of the early solar system. It's extremely unlikely that a body of psyche size could have code so quickly, as well as that any event which would have added porosity to Saki after its formation, such as a massive impact would also have headed Saki back up to above 800.

So any newly induced porosity, would it be unlikely to last. Taken together, the results suggest that psyche probably isn't a poorest all iron body. More likely it's harbouring a hidden Rocky component, which is driving its density down. And that raises another interesting question. If psyche does have a Rocky component, why does it surface look so metallic when viewed from earth, we know from planetary differentiation that the densest part of a planet core is metallic and lighter rocks and minerals, such as silicates form forming the mat.

Now there are a few possible explanations. The best of which is probably fair of volcanism. In other words, volcanoes, spewing out iron it's possible that psyche is actually a differentiated body with a Rocky mantle and an iron core widespread Pharaoh volcanic activity may have brought large amounts of psyches corrupted surface, putting a sort of iron coating on top of its Rocky man.

Previous studies have already shown that fare of volcanism is possible on bodies like psyche, whatever the case scientists will soon get a much clearer picture of this incredible asteroid. Later this year, NASA will launch a new spacecraft called psyche, which we'll rendezvous with the asteroid after a four-year journey into the main asteroid built this report from NASA TV.

It's a shame, but living in the city, we rarely do you get to see stars. I feel like I have, uh, a new connection to them in a way that I haven't before.

[00:05:04] Guest: I'm out in the desert and I look up at the sky, you just see millions and millions of places and that we should be going.

[00:05:11] Stuart: It's almost baked into our DNA, the desire to go and explore, right?

That's the whole reason why we left the Flores and then traveled across oceans just to see what's out there. I was born in 1969, which is the year we landed on the moon. So I am a space baby. When I was a kid, there are guys driving cars, they're driving cars on the moon. That's so cool. I want to do that.

All the Rocky planets that we know of all have got a metal core in their center and especially for the earth, it's the source of our magnetic field, but we don't know a lot about our core, what we've learned about it. We learned indirectly because we can't go. It's too hot. The pressure's too high. Our instruments would melt.

Can't drill a hole that deep in the earth or other planets. It turns out we can study the planetary core out in space because there's this one object, one object called psyche 16. Psyche is an asteroid that orbits the sun out between Mars and Jupiter. It is the only asteroid that we're aware of that is 95% metal or more, and is really huge is about 200 kilometers across in one day.

So it's about the size of Massachusetts. It's believed that it may be a remnant core of an early planetesimal that was formed in the very, very earliest parts of the formation of the solar system. And after this planet started forming and this metal core formed inside of that collided with other bodies that then stripped off the Laki mantle, leaving this core in place.

The first thing that came actually was the theory. Some people from jet propulsion laboratory contacted me and said, we would like to plan a mission that would test your hypothesis. And that starts you down a road that takes years. So we wrote a proposal to send a massive spacecraft to visit this, this big ball of metal.

And then, uh, about a year ago, Lindy gets a phone call. You win, and then we're all like, oh my God. Now we have. Psyche gives us the opportunity to visit a core, the only way that humankind can ever do. And it would be the first metal object that humankind has ever visited. And we've been approved to go in August of 2022.

So we talked with our mission design and navigation team, and in fact, they were able to. Come up with what is probably the most optimal trajectory doing a Mars fly by flies past Mars gives us a gravity assist, uses that propulsion system to then slowly creep up. So at the end of 2025, getting there in, uh, in early 20, 26,

SSL is building the solar electric propulsion chassis. When we do the mechanical physics. Integration of each instrument on the spacecraft. We'll work hand in hand with each of the providers to take it out to psyche and do a full discovery

[00:08:06] Guest: measure. We figured

[00:08:07] Stuart: out a way for many, many people to build something together so complicated, no one person can understand it, but it all has to work together perfectly for Dell.

Without fail. Just the fact that these things work at all as a thrill, it's just a Testament to the engineers at JPL and the companies that we collaborate with, uh, that they can build these things.

[00:08:28] Guest: It's

[00:08:28] Stuart: exciting for me to be able to be a woman winning and leading. The space mission. The only previous woman who competed one and led a deep space mission was Maria Zuber, who was my friend and mentor at MIT.

And so my drive is to make everyone feel welcome and to have every voice heard. We want as many undergraduates as we can. We want to involve as much of the. And we want people to feel like this is their mission. You get that first picture back when the first thing that goes through myself, thank God I didn't leave the lens cap.

And we will put our pictures out there as soon as they come down. So we'll discover at the same time that the public discovers we'll be scratching our heads. And it's like, ah, I don't know what's going on. Same time. Everybody else is like, wow, what is that? I don't know.

I did get to look at psyche through an optical telescope in my backyard, some wonderful colleagues brought over their telescope on a fortuitous night. It's a very, very tiny, faint dot, and that made a bunch of us cry to think that we could send something to investigate that

[00:09:38] Guest: speck of

[00:09:38] Stuart: light. We can understand this universe that we live in.

We can explore it. We can learn. And we can be a part of something which is much bigger than just us or just this planet. We will see new things when we visit a world made of metal. And in that report from NASA TV, we heard from Saki principal investigator, Lindy Elkins Tanton from Arizona state university, psyche image instrument lead Jim bell also from Arizona state Sakhi, deputy project system engineer, Tracy drain, psyche project systems, engineer, David.

And psyche project manager, Henry Stone, or from NASA jet propulsion laboratory in Pasadena, California, and psyche spacecraft chassis program manager, Steve Scott from space systems Loral. This is space time. Still the calm and new way to find planets orbiting other stars and more blatant nuclear breaches bay ran all that and more still to come on.

Space time.

Astronomers have tantalizing you evidence for the existence of hidden exoplanets, orbiting, distant red Wolf stars, red dwarfs, the most common stars in the universe. In fact, they make up some 75% of old stars in our own galaxy, the Milky way. They're also the longest lived stars with lifespans estimated to last more than a trillion years, far greater than the current age of the universe.

The findings reported in the journal nature, astronomy based on observations using Lofa the world's most powerful, low frequency array radio telescope, which is located in the Netherlands. The authors led by Dr. Joseph Kelly. I'm from Leiden university in Asteron have been using low fire data to search for signs of exoplanets.

That is planets orbiting stars, other than the sun. They discovered radio signals emanating from 19 distant red dwarves, and four of them can be best explained by the existence of planets in orbit around the stars. Previously, astronomers were only able to detect the very nearest stars in the radio sky.

Everything else was either interstellar gas or exotic objects like Paul sauce and black hole. But by using Luther, they're able to focus on a wide range of red Wolf stars, which are known to have intense magnetic activity that drives stellar flares and consequently radio emissions. Problem is some old magnetically inactive stars also showed up challenging that conventional hypothesis.

And that's where it gets interesting because these radius signals could be being generated by magnetic reconnection between the stars and unseen orbiting planets, similar to the interaction in our solar system, between Jupiter and its volcanic moon IO. Now the earth has an Aurora from which the Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis that you know them in Southern lights.

And these also have made powerful radio waves generated by interactions between the Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind, but the journey in Aurora, a far stronger and a produced in a different way as iOS volcanoes are up many kilometers in a space there. This volcanic injector fills the space between IO and Jupiter generating unusually powerful Aurora.

And the models suggested the radio emissions being detected by loafer are in fact, scaled up versions of the Aurora produced by cheaper an IO with an exoplanet enveloped in the magnetic field of a star feeding material into vast currents, pairing bright Aurora, which can be seen light years away. One of the study's authors, Dr.

Benjamin Pope from the university of Queensland says astronomists have long known that the planets in our solar system also emit powerful radio waves as their magnetic fields interact with the solar wind from the site. But this is the first time such radio signals have been picked up from planets opening stars.

Other than the sun hope says it's an important discovery because it could potentially allow astronomists to find exoplanets throughout the galaxy. But while the authors is sure that the four planets are out there orbiting these red dwarfs, they haven't actually been detected by any other means.

Follow-up observations using other telescopes like NASA's planet hunting, transit, exoplanet survey, satellite tests. I've already ruled out planet, small, massive than earth, but there's nothing to say that a smaller planet wouldn't produce the same radio affair. Oh, it says, well, he can't be a hundred percent sure that the force does do indeed have planets, the planet steroid direction.

I path pathogenesis remains the best explanation we have for what they're seeing.

[00:14:30] Guest: Well, I've done is use life off low frequency, right? To discover what we think. And we can't be a hundred percent certain about this is the first evidence of radio emission induced by exoplanets. And so people have been searching for this for decades and finally, the new.

Powerful capabilities of Lofa have made this possible for the first time. And this is going to shed lots on the habitability and the spice where the condition all comes around and off stuff. And so those are really great Pathfinder books going to be possible with a square kilometer of right there's lot of flowers, just to process all the low frequency.

Which will be constructed in Western Australia over the next decade and say a very exciting future.

[00:15:12] Stuart: You've looked at a whole bunch of red dwarfs. These are spectral type M stars. They're a lot smaller than our son, not as hot, but they're very active. These are the most active styles, uh, around pretty well.

Layla

[00:15:23] Guest: pricey. It's very, very common to see rentals with lots of. Sometimes there's this strongly post-test, some of your audience may be somebody that has the mission of IHL. So that is being slotted on us and that have these intense flares, but I can stay up on orders of magnitude. And so these very, very active environments.

And so it's not terribly surprising to see radio emission from in fact, radio emissions from flares has been detected many times. That's the crucial thing that we're doing is finding radio emission. That's not associated with that. So that's really where, where my partner came in is a very exciting circularly polarized writing radio mission that was detected, certainly polarized, just like the rural emission contributor could be explained.

It may be in some of these texts as being associated with frontal mass projections, carrying on these ups. On the other hand, what we did is we use tests, the transiting exoplanet survey, satellite to get optical follow-up based on what we found in tests is that some of them are very, very

in some of these. But some of them would dead quiet. Some of them had completely flat lots of tests. I didn't show any significant variability that didn't show any significance and must have had very long rotation. They, same stars show, very minimal x-ray and very minimal and Cal's permission and obviously activity like that.

And so it will be it's very. On strong radio emission with no other reasons for activity driven emissions abatement for at least the stuff, which was very, very inactive. And nevertheless share this very strong radio mission, the mission, which is hotly 60 and polarized. And it seems to vary on off, but it's.

Smoothly, you know, up and down all the time. So this is something where we think we're catching a beam sometimes or not. At other times, this is actually very consistent with the behavior of site Jupiter, which gives exactly this Bain, certainly polarized, steady admission. And for what theoretical models predict, what would happen around endorse that a magnetically connect planets.

So we actually think is happening. It's not a rural emission from Jupiter per se, but it's cosmological we'll start astronomical distances, but actually that Jupiter and IO magnetically connected. And this is actually what broads pupils of Avara is, is this dynamo IO whipping through juices, magnetics.

Actually, what we think is happening is it's like having a scaled up version of, um, a small planet cluster, a little bit whipping around the end walls where the is like a scaled up version of cheaper on the planet, the scaled up version of. And so this is, we think this type of radio emissions is very consistent with models like that.

And this would be the first evidence to be observed of planets that are directly connected to the stars by via magnetic field, for as good candidates for this activity. And they seem to be nevertheless radio. Colorado. And we're very, very excited. Previously. One of these have been published GJ 1151, but now we've got a lot more data with more sources and crucially this optical follow-up.

And so we find it hard to make any explanations. Other than that, this is emission from exoplanets connections stops on the other hand, big caveat. There is we haven't been out of the planet, bend a lot of telescope, Tom and stuff. Other people, they ran out of animal. On the habitable planet fondant on the commonest exhibitry and spine, we've opened a bunch of telescopes on trying to find such a planet using

And nevertheless, finally, being able to put up a limit on any planets around these stunts, JJ, live in 61 that can rule out planets that are more massive than. 1.2 with masses, but not extraordinarily massive. The thing is we can actually fairly sensitive minutes bots it's perfectly consistent with radio emissions, perfectly consistent with being produced by us.

And we wouldn't be able to say that during this typical position where we've got every reason to believe that there's a planet except the direct evidence of the planet. So we just got to do more work. We know that they don't transit, and we know that we don't have any huge hobbies signals, at least on the longterm.

But the other details of these planets, uh, sort of on, because really the crucial. And producing this Aurora is really the style and it's magnetic sales and it's powerful. Still wins the planets of the planet. It's a little bit, a little bit harder to find out.

[00:19:56] Stuart: There's always this caveat with red dwarfs is these, aren't the sort of planets you could hope to expect to find life existing.

[00:20:05] Guest: Um, really on the country, people sort of a cottage industry around, uh, in, in searching for biosignatures

[00:20:12] Stuart: around. This is because of the halo shape of the burst coming from the star leaves the planet in a cleanser.

[00:20:18] Guest: There's a lot of details still to be worked out with that kind of space, weather environment angles.

And I think our discovery. Hold up. And our explanation is pro betray. How discovery is really the end of the beginning of trying to do this problem than anything else at resolution. The question is it's been very hard for a long time to understand what are the, then how do they impinge on exoplanets?

How do these effects Planetree upstairs? For a long time, there's been sort of an argument that runs along these lines about why endorsement. They're the most common kind of star in the universe they live for trimming. You all have planets to first approximation that planets around them dos are extraordinarily common.

And because this planet's on shore, but they're actually in temperate, some would say habitable zones where they have a temporary. So it, it all sort of shapes up that these are easy to observe that plentiful, they live for a long time and they all have planets and they'd show who that might be habitable.

And so there's been a bit of a cottage industry in a Mo more than cottage. It's one of the driving forces behind the launch of say James Webb space telescope is to look for biosimilars. I'm kind of around them too. Here's the trouble. As he said earlier, they're very, very active. They're very intensity magnetic.

The reason is that they're fully connected all the way throughout. So got this intense boiling motion that goes all the way to the core. And this drives a very powerful kind of magnetic dynamo, which is strong and not as stable as we have inside the sun, which has got this strangled radiative core. And I'm the convicted felons.

And so one of the consequences of this is that they have. I have intense using radiation is that people often thought, well, end off might be too good to be true. This argument that ends with planets might be habitable is often made, but it might be the case that while they're very temperate, they nevertheless have very harsh radiation environment.

And so this is really worth that sort of probes and is able to actually begin to crunch. What kind of radiation and bomb. Uh,

[00:22:20] Stuart: but I guess the other side of that is the lettuce research suggests that although they do flare the flares, aren't around the equatorial region of the star, they're actually coming from more polar regions, which if that is proven through a large number of red dwarfs, that would change the picture somewhat.

Yes. Well,

[00:22:37] Guest: no, I'm familiar with the research. Uh, you mean, I, I'm sort of a little hard to note this site. We were only able to.

A few rare cases. People have been able to pin down. The latitude at which these plays are occurring. And yeah, it does seem to be the case that some of these players are current high latitudes near the poles. And so maybe that is good news, at least on this planet. But what we're showing in this is that planets can be so close to the star that they're inside.

What's called an alpha same surface. The plasma spheres, where magnetic effects are more important than a. And when you went through with physics, this means there's a close head of difference between what happens to a plant inside of this fear it's region close to the star. That's magnetically connected to this stuff.

And this region outside of it is very close to stuff. A planet will be directly magnetically connected to the magnetic field launch style. Whereas wait. Actually far enough away from the sun. It's just, it's just gentle enough that we have separate magnetosphere, which is delineated by the shock that protects us from solar wind Solomon Springs around the us magnets, but only a small fraction of.

And is BOS magnetosphere and impinges upon the earth. And so this caused a beautiful embroidery on the unit. So very nice. You can visit Iceland or if you're lucky, Tasmania or something, and say the,

[00:24:06] Stuart: uh, the note, in fact, at time of recording this one happening right

[00:24:09] Guest: now. Yes. Yes. Um, I would, I would love to be somewhere else within Queensland right now.

Well, the beautiful things we have in Queensland, but I'd love to sample say somewhere high latitudes. So you could actually save me a roller that I think is starting to pick up as much, but it'd be very different on one of the them to us. You know, you think all the role all the time, all the way down to the place on one of these planets, because you get magnetic field lines directly connecting stuff to the planets, bucketing solar winds directly down on.

And Lamont be very pretty for a short while, but that kind of, of particles, but actually strip away the atmosphere on reasonably short geological timescales. And so we actually might end up that these planets are stripped bare of atmospheres, but they're sort of lifeless rocks or, or. Uh, challenging books that have phased in high energy charged particles.

And this is sort of not inconsistent with understanding the fine the system is a trap one where firms have continued to struggle to detect any atmosphere, even around possibly habitable planets in the middle of that system. So it might be the case that there to make it off because of the threatening radiation environments, where they're actually in the sub authentic.

I was inside. I'll find spear with it. I might be connected stuff. Might've stripped away these apps as long ago. And so it's not that we can conclusively prove that this is the case for the signal that we've observed is exactly what theorists like Robert cabinet, Trinity college, Dublin, and actually simulated the radio signal from one of these scenarios we actually looked.

And so what we want to do is to continue to follow. So it looks the periodicity to look the changes in the radio spectrum that are consistent with simulations like the Rockville cabinet, and then we'd be able to make an even stronger argument. This is cinnamon exoplanet connected to the staff, driving this kind of

[00:25:59] Stuart: a rural initiative.

These 19 red dwarfs that you guys were looking at all over the sky or they're in one area or what?

[00:26:07] Guest: So they're in an area of Northern sky that was intensively observed by low spot in the low to maintenance costs. And so this is a major project of less time looking at a wide area of sky. And they've only processed and completed a fraction so far, but that's not some amazing work already.

And so as they continue, I do expect that we'll

[00:26:31] Stuart: find more, you set up better than let's knock the Benjamin Pope from the university of Queensland. And this is space-time still to come more blatant nuclear breaches by Iran and North Korea regimes, it's missile tests, all that, and most of the comma on space time.

And yet another flagrant breach of its nuclear nonproliferation treaty agreements. Iran has testified a nuclear capable. I said, missile, this one, posting a small cube set size spacecraft code naught to in orbit. These lambic revolutionary guard describes the note two as a reconnaissance settler.

Washington described the launch as a clear violation of United nations, 2015 security council resolution 2, 2, 3, 1, which calls upon Iran not to develop any ballistic missile capable of carrying a thermonuclear warhead. Islamic revolutionary guard says the missile was launched from his site. 300 kilometers east of Tehran.

The quest said, which is Persian for messenger. First stage uses a goddamn medium range, ballistic missile and testing. This MIS on doubtedly was the real reason for the loan. The missile, which has a diameter of 1.2, five meters is based in the North Korea. Nodong one ballistic missile bending on Symmetrel Dai methyl, hydrazine, and dine nitrogen take truck side for 103 seconds.

What Tehran simply done is place a one made a dam at a second stage based on a Salomon anti-ballistic missile system, which is as a solid fuel propellant burning for 60 seconds on top of the first stage and call it a space rocket instead of a ballistic missile. The missiles. Third stage is nothing more than a solid fuel Apogee kit motor with a burn time of 40 seconds.

The thing is the missile is designed to be launched from a mobile transporter, erector. Exactly the sort of thing Tehran would use if they were launching a nuclear missile against Europe or Israel. It's important to also note that the flight was time to coincide with the latest round of Uranian nuclear weapons talks between Washington and Tehran, which are taking place in Vienna.

The lettuce launch follows a test of another Iranian missile. The simmer in late December. They're simply the latest in a growing list of broken agreements by the Islamic Republic, which have included refusing access to international atomic energy agency, weapons, inspectors, or disclosing the location of K nuclear weapons components in Iran's possession.

The international atomic energy agency says Iran started using advanced centrifuges designed to enrich uranium in high volume. The Islamic Republic, stockpile of enriched uranium now stands at over 3,241 kilograms. That's more than 16 times the limit it agreed to in the 2015 Vienna. Just a year ago in February, 2021, United nations nuclear watchdog found that Iran had started producing uranium metal and material used only in nuclear weapons.

And in April, 2021, both the German and Swedish intelligence agencies issued warnings of growing efforts by Iran to obtain nuclear weapons technology for its part, your rich nation insists its nuclear program is for peaceful power generation only. This is space time still to come North Korea regimes its own missile tests.

And later in the science report discovery of the wreckage of polar Explorer, Ernest Shackleton ship endurance. Oleta more store to come. Um, space-time

North Korea has resumed its long range, ballistic missile tests in line with similar latish being undertaken by its close ally Iran, young yang claims the latest tests have involved a new reconnaissance satellite. It follows a month long. I explained breaking muscle testing during February analysts speculate that just as Moscow delayed its invasion of Ukraine under orders from Beijing.

So it was not to take attention away from China's winter Olympics, North Korea was ordered to pause its missile tests for the same reason. And with the games now over both Moscow and Pyongyang have been led off the lake. North Korea's latest test is believed to have involved a solid fuel powered Pocock song to intermediate range ballistic missile.

The nine made along missile is designed to be launched in minutes from a mobile transport erector analysts. Describe it as being more stable, more efficient, and harder to detect the north Korea's previous liquid fuel design. Pocock song too. It's thought to be an enlarged two-stage development of the original Pocock song.

Once sudden rain loads, ballistic missile it's canister launched from an enclosed transport container. It uses a cold launching system which involves using compressed gas to literally blow the missile out of the launch tube. And then the engine ignites in mid flight. Over the recent months, North Korea has undertaken moddable tests, including its medium range horse on 12 ballistic missile and a reportedly new hypersonic missile design, which was tested in September last year.

Meanwhile, there are growing reports of renewed activity at Pyongyang's nuclear weapons test site. North Korea carried out six nuclear tests, the facility between 2006 and 2017. But it was closed in 2018. When North Korea declared its self-imposed moratorium on nuclear weapons testing. However, the hermit nations leader, Kim Jong now says he no longer feels bound by the moratorium with denuclearization talks stolen in 2019.

This is space-time.

And time now to take a brief look at some of the other stories, makingnewse this week with a science report and yeast study wards. The by 2040, we could see the increased variability of rain patterns associated with LA Nina and El Nino events, regardless of which climate emission scenarios we follow.

The findings are reported in the journal nature. Climate change looked at how these climatic patterns known as the El Nino Southern oscillation will change under different emission projections site is found that changes in rainfall. Variability will occur around 2040, about 30 years earlier than changes in sea surface temperatures, regardless of which emission path humanity follows.

Rainfall variability in the tropical Pacific course by El Nino Southern oscillation patterns is the major driver of climatic variability in Australia. The authors say that this reinforces the rapidly emerging risks of Linea and El Nino related climatic extremes, regardless of mitigation action.

Israeli and Australian scientist have developed a single DNA test that can screen a patient's genome for more than 50 different genetic, neurological and neuromuscular diseases, including Huntington's disease, muscular dystrophies, and fragile X syndrome. The new test reported in the journal science advances avoids a diagnostic Odyssey for patients which can take decades.

Researchers have already been able to confirm the accuracy of the diagnostic process and are now working on ways of making it available in pathology labs. They expect it to become a standard test in most labs within five years. Well, after more than a century in the frigid waters of the Antarctic Marine archeologist have discovered the wreckage of polar Explorer, Ernest Shackleton ship endurance.

The 144 foot long, three mastered wooden sailing ship was lost in November, 1915 in the ice covered Wardell sea. After being crushed by didactic CIS during Shackleton's failed attempt to make the first land crossing of Antarctica, the wreckage was found in three kilometers of water by members of the Falklands maritime heritage trust using remotely operated submersibles or ROV.

The vision shows the vessel opera well proud of the seabed and in remarkably good condition with its name clearly visible on the stern, despite being stranded on the ice. And Durance is 28. Man crew made it back home alive after trekking across the sea ice and then sitting. So in three life birds to the uninhabited elephant island.

From there Shackleton and it handful of crew road, 1,300 kilometers to a whaling station itself, Georgia island, to get help to rescue the others. It's regarded as one of the greatest survival stories in human history, a senior research project about the correlation between religion and the paranormal is found that religious people tend to watch more ghost hunting stories than agnostic people.

But the difference isn't significant. To mend them from Australian skeptic says the findings disprove the author's original hypothesis that religious people were less likely to watch. Ghost hunting shows all those who identified as agnostic would be more likely.

[00:36:24] Guest: And this particular paper that was published a, in a Christian online publication says this much. It says, in fact, the sexy conclusion, they're very confusing. Christian people actually watch slightly more often these ghost hunting and agnostic people, but not a significant enough amount that we could conclusively say they watched more, or they say they watch more adult enough to say that.

And then people who, when they say, um, religion and interesting ghost hunting shows do not correlate

[00:36:54] Stuart: well,

[00:36:55] Guest: discovery was that spiritual people seem to be much less interested. And there is a relationship between religion and ghost hunting shows as just negative. Sometimes you look at studies that are being done.

Really it's quite the thing. They come full tonight, whether they're done by scientists, amateurs, or whatever, you look at some of these things that are probably as papers, whether they're peer reviewed papers or not. This was the practical correlation between ghost hunting shows and releasing, which is not the classic one of hazing and also full research required that getting another grant.

[00:37:35] Stuart: All the old slides, the most statistics you can gather, the more you can confirm a hypothesis. That's what science is all about. The more that's true for all sizes. But yeah, I guess when you're dealing with ghost haunting and things like that, you really need that extra money to try and justify.

[00:37:58] Guest: I'm not even actually going necessarily finding guys. Yeah. The sort of people, if they're interested, you talk about statistics and this project was based on a hundred anonymous surveys and six in-depth interviews. So they might have to drop out a number of the anonymous surveys because I didn't have enough of a particular religious group.

Do they use them in these labs? So they basically come down to some Christian groups. I like, and then I kept dropping out numbers so that you have the actual numbers involved in the survey. Specifically small. So we gave him basing any conclusions on that. Small number of people is dodgy, especially when they come out with no results.

If the sort of thing you'd look at, and quite frankly, you throw away pretty quickly. Most religions have Islam has genes and things like that, which was a ghost or spirits, but the Pentecostal religions and that sort of stuff. We have a predisposition to believing in the afterlife where it stops, but they might show a greater interest in ghost hunting.

To prove the belief in the afterlife and that sort of stuff. But apparently they do, but they don't have the coding of

[00:38:52] Stuart: less than a hundred people. That's to Mendham from Austra in skeptics.

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Tim Mendham

Editor

Editor with Australian Skeptics