The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 25 Episode 3
*Solar Orbiter publishes a wealth of science results from its cruise phase
Scientists are busy sifting through a wealth of data from the European Space Agency’s...
The Astronomy, Space, Technology & Science News Podcast.
ST S25E03 AI Transcript
[00:00:00] Stuart: This is space time series 25 episode three, four broadcast on the 7th of January, 2022. Coming up on spacetime, solar orbiter publishes a wealth of new science results from its cruise phase. How NASA's Mars? Curiosity Rover is making the red planet safer for astronauts. And we look at electrons, big brother, the neutron rocket. All that and more coming up in Space Time
[00:00:29] VO Guy: welcome to space time with Stuart Gary.
[00:00:49] Stuart: Scientists are busy sifting through a wealth of data, which has come from the European space agency, solar orbiter mission, which is studying our local staff. The sun, the new debt is included in more than 50 separate scientific papers, which are reported in the journal, astronomy and astrophysics, forensic observations of the solar surface measurements of a giant outburst of energetic particles and an encounter with a comment's tale are just some of the highlights.
And all this has come from the spacecraft cruise phase before its primary science mission even gets underway launched in February, 2020. Solar overdoes cruise phase began on June the 15th that year and continued until the end of November last year, when it science phase officially commenced during its cruise phase, solar orbiter acquired scientific data.
Use the instruments which are designed to purely measure the environment around the spacecraft. It's. It also used it for remote sensing equipment to look at the sun in order to characterize and calibrate those instruments. Some of these data tended to be of such good quality. They enabled the first scientific studies to be undertaken we'll ahead of the main science phase.
For example, solar orbiters, extreme ultraviolet imager discovered a series of miniature solar flares that scientist have nicknamed campfire. Now, these could play an important role in explaining the million degree temperature at the suns outer atmosphere, the Corona, which is defied explanation for decades after all the sun surface as a temperature of around 6,000 degrees.
Yeah. The temperature of the Croner goes up into the millions and that's caused scientists to scratch their heads because things are supposed to get cooler. The further they are away from aids or. In the latest results. The instrument's been acquiring observations in a high cadence mode, returning images of the solar kroner.
Every two seconds. These sequences are among the highest cadence observations of the solar croon ever accorded in extreme ultraviolet. The data reveals a dynamic class of campfires that shoots out jets of electrified gas, known as plasma at speeds of hundreds of kilometers per second. But last thing for just 10 to 20 seconds.
And the view will only continue to get better as solar. Oh. But it gets closer to the sun as well as the small scale campfires solar orbit has also witnessed its first Lightscale event. I November the 29th, 2020, the first widespread energetic particle event for several years, burst forth from the sun.
See our sun goes through any 11 year solar cycle of magnetic activity and it's been at what we call solar minimum, the load point in its cycle for some time. And so this solar eruption, which heralded the start of solar cycle, 25 spread energetic particles across the entire inner solar system. In fact, by the time the eruption reached its distance, ejected particles were spread over more than 230 degrees of solar longitude.
And they were detected not only by solar orbiter, but also by NASA's Parker, solar probe, NASA stereo, a spacecraft, and the joint NASA and European space agency, solar, and Healey's three observatory, spacecrafts Soho, all of which are close to Earth's orbit, but at varying solar longitudes. So the question is how big was this event?
Source region on the sun and how much did the eruption expand after it was released? Astronomers also searched for a triggering of it associated with a coronal mass ejection, which occurred in April, 2020. Now coronal, mass ejections or CMS are violet explosions of charged particles and magnetic field associated with solar flares erupting from the sun's surface and blasting into space.
So scientists looked for an associated solar. But despite the magnetic field strength measured by solar orbiter being especially large and around double out of a normal CME, the solar surface remained completely blank. At that time, there were no sun spots and no other active regions. It was only the high magnetic field strength of the plasma that engulfed the solar orbiter that alerted scientists to, uh, see me in the first place.
After a painstaking search of the data scientist eventually found a dark region in the extreme ultraviolet indicating a low density cavity in the solar Corona that lifted off very slowly from the sun. Now in this context, slow is a relative term. Whereas most coronal mass ejections travel at hundreds, Raven, thousands of kilometers per second.
This one was moving outwards, just tens of kilometers. From a space weather forecasting perspective. These stealth CME is for want of a better term. Again, to be a special challenge. That's because forecasters have always relied on seeing something on the sun that they can recognize in real time, such as sand spots or a solar flare.
In order to know that something is incoming, that might change the nearest space environment. Solar orbit has caused also. So across the tail of the comet Atlas during June 22, However, in a cruel twist of fate, the comment, the city granted under the heat of the sun, just 10 days before the crossing and the tail faded.
Nevertheless, astronomers still found evidence insistent with a crossing of a Comet's tail remnant in data taken on June the fourth. They saw the magnetic field around the solar orbiter suddenly changed polarity, which would be expected. The sun's magnetic field were draped around a piece of broken comment.
Nuclear. Following it's November, 2021 flyby of the earth. Solar orbiter is now and its main science phase with a close fly by of the sun to take place in March or keep you informed this space-time still to come. Our nest is Mars. Curiosity Rover is making the red planet surface safer for astronauts and we examine the electron rockets, big brother, enter the new neutron rocket or that a more stored account.
uh, radiation sensor aboard messes. Mars. Curiosity Rover is providing scientists with key data to help them prepare humans for life on the red planet in the next decade. The findings by the radiation assessment detector or red will hope researchers determine if lavish tubes, caves or other subsurface habitats could offer future Mars, astronauts, safe refuge from the circling radiation, which bombards the Martian surface.
See, unlike the earth, Mars, doesn't have a magnetic field to show that from high energy particles in the solar wind and cosmic Ray. And that radiation will pose a significant health threat for humans, as well as seriously, compromising the delicate electronics in life support systems that haven't been, especially hadn't with standard as yet out based on the data from curiosity site is defining out that using natural materials, such as rockin sediments on Mars could offer some degree of protection.
Uh, report in the journal. JGR planets found that when curiosity was parked next to a cliff at a location in his Mary's Buttes between September the ninth and September the 21st back in 2016, the rat instrument measured a 4% drop in radiation levels. More significantly. The instrument detected a seven and a half percent decrease in neutral particle radiation, including neutrons that penetrate rocket are especially harmful to human health.
Now these numbers are statistically high enough to show their curiosities location at the foot of the cliff, rather than out in the open air was enough to show the car size six will Rove up from at least some background radiation. Most of the radiation measured by red came from galactic cosmic rays particles cast out by exploding stars would send them flying for the universe.
This forms a sort of carpet of background radiation, a composer rule threat for humans. Then there's the constant stream of particles from the sun and the solar wind, which Bades the entire solar system. And there are more intense radiation eruptions from the sun in the form of solar storms, which throw massive acts of ionized plasma into interplanetary space.
These structures twist in space, sometimes forming complex croissant shaped flux tubes larger than the earth driving shockwaves that energized particles, solar storms vary with frequency based on the son's 11 year solar. Counter-intuitively the periods. When the solar activities at its highest may, will be the safest times for feature astronauts to travel.
The Mars as the increase in solar activity helps show the red planet from deep space, cosmic raised by as much as 30 to 50% compared to periods. When solar activity's low it's sort of trading one type of radiation for another it's an issue scientists will still need to overcome before they can send humans to Mars.
So far rads measure the impact of more than a dozen solar storms, including five while traveling to Mars in 2012. However, those over the past nine years have all been reasonably weak as the sun was in solar minimum. The lowest point in its 11 year solar cycle, but scientists are now starting to see activity pick up again.
As the sun moves into a new solar cycle and heads towards new solar, maximum and greater activity. In fact, the rat instrument observed the first X-Class solar flare of the new solar cycle. On October the 28th, X-Class solar flares of the most intense category of solar flares. The largest of which can lead to power outages communications blackouts on earth.
Red's findings were all fit into a much larger body of data. Now being compiled for future man missions to Mars. These are being further supplemented by observations now being undertaken by curiosity system, Mars Rover perseverance. Perseverance is undertaking its own readings and include samples of potential space at materials in order to assess how they hold up to mash and radiation over time.
This report from NASA TV, seasons
[00:10:43] Guest: change, even on Mars, a look at how NASA is Explorer, study the weather and cope with change. For most of them measuring the weather is a key part of their job. It's early summer and Gero crater or NASA's perseverance Rover, and the ingenuity helicopter are exploring the south Seder region.
Perseverance uses its Mars, environmental dynamics, analyzer, or. To measure temperature, humidity, wind speed, and direction. These wind sensors also measure the amount and size of dust particles in the atmosphere. Helping scientists understand the dust cycle and its impact on weather. Metta also provides the ingenuity helicopter with critical pre-flight weather forecasts, recently warmer temperatures and a thinning Atmos.
I've have made it more difficult for the helicopter to generate enough lift to fly. Its rotors had to spin faster than they had in previous flights, roughly 2,700 revolutions a minute in the Southern hemisphere where the curiosity Rover is driving and Gale crater. It's early with. The Rover environmental monitoring station REMS provides daily weather reports and takes regular dust surveys to measure seasonal changes over time.
The insight Lander is focused on what's happening below ground in September. It measured one of the biggest longest lasting Mars quakes ever detected seismic waves from the magnitude 4.2 shook insight for nearly an hour. Finally the fleet of orbiters, including Odyssey, the Mars, reconnaissance, orbiter, and Maven help scientists understand the scope and scale of storms from above MRO produces a daily global weather map and provides us with amazing images.
[00:12:28] Stuart: This is time still. The com rocket lab explains its new neutron. And styling under fire for crowded skies, all that and more store to come on. Space-time
rocket lab is developing a new launch vehicle designed to carry far bigger payloads and the company's current two-stage electronics. The 18 meter tall electron is designed to carry small payloads up to 300 kilograms into low earth orbit, but it's quickly grown to become the west second most frequently used over launch vehicle surpassed only by space.
X is Falcon nine. Rocket labs, new launch vehicle to be called neutron will be 40 meters tall and capable of carrying eight tons into lower Thor, but in a reusable configuration or 15 tons, fully expanded. Then he rockets being designed around a revolutionary new core stage. It'll be constructed, a 3d printed carbon composite, and designed to be fully reusable.
The core stage will be powered by seven re-usable liquid oxygen and methane fueled one mega Newton Archimedes main engines. They'll provide 320 seconds of thrust. Uniquely the rockets payload theory, which will protect satellites during atmospheric ascent will actually be part of the core stage and hinged open up hungry hippos style rather than the usual separate expendable structures attached to the stacks upper stage.
So after men engine cutoff or Mikko, the entire payload bay fairing will open up allowing the upper stage and payload to deploy. The core stage will then return to worth landing vertically back at the lawn site while the upper stage and payload would continue on orbit, rocket lab found a pay to bake, says construction on prototype tanks, and other components is already underway with a first Archimedes engines likely to be tested later this year, he says the first neutron rocket could fly in 2024.
Missions will take off from rocket labs, new launch complex at NASA Wallops island flight facility on the Virginia and mid Atlantic coast. BEC revealed his thinking behind the new rockets architecture in this presentation, we're going to build a
[00:14:51] Narrator: big rocket. It's called
[00:14:52] VO Guy: neutron.
[00:14:55] Narrator: We've been busy. Let me show you a new breed of rocket where reliability, reusability, and cost is hard baked into the design from day one.
This is not a conventional rocket. This is what a rocket should look like in 2050, but we're building it today. Start designing a new rocket. What, ironically, you don't start at the rocket. You start at the satellite and all the spacecraft that you need to launch. And then you start the design process around that over 80% of all of the satellites that are going to be built in the next decade are going to be small satellites in constellations and these constellations from a critical part of the infrastructure around the planet to guide, monitor, and enable Earth's future constellation.
Well, I have very unique deployment needs and up until now, there hasn't really been a vehicle that's optimized to do that. But of course, neutrons not just great for constellations. It's great for geostationary deployments, human space flight. And of course my personal favorite into planet. Yeah. As we went through the design process, it became very, very clear that this rocket was going to dispense with all conventions.
This is a reusable launch vehicle, so that means it's got to land. So you don't want any deployable landing legs. You want a nice big wide static base. Next is the upper stage. The upper stage is actually really, really tricky because it has competing. Firstly, it has to be the lightest and the most high performing structure as part of the launch vehicle.
But it also has to be the lowest cost because for neutron, at least at this point in time, it's a disposable upper stage. So when you think about making super light structures and super high performance structures, you need to really put them in tension. So neutrons upper stage is actually hung from the payload separation plane, which makes it incredibly strong.
And it. It makes it the lightest upper stage ever in history. Finally, we add tanks to the bottom of stage one and then connect it all together. Now electronics taught us a lot about reusability and reusability and re-entry is not actually a structural problem. It's a thermal problem. So the best way to manage a thermal load is to just not have it neutron, be continually decreasing, shape and size of the.
Starting the larger, the base to smaller at the top. That's actually really important because what that does is it decreases the pressure along the vehicle. So as we're reentering the atmosphere that decrease in pressure ensures that we don't have any shock waves attaching to it. It stands 40 meters tall.
It has a seven meter diameter at the base and a five meter class pairing. We can lift eight tons and a fully reusable. Returning back to the launch site or 15 tons is as maximum payload capacity to low earth orbit. And the vehicle itself weighs 480 tons. So if you stood in front of a rocket in 2050, you wouldn't expect it to be made of normal materials.
Weight is absolutely everything in a launch vehicle. Okay. Then let's try something new. Let's try carbon composite, but not any kind of carbon composite, a rocket lab, carbon concept. That's sometimes Calvin comes get a bit of a tough rep because they're expensive to manufacture and slow, not the case.
We're going to do this fast. We're going to use automated fiber placement. 3d printing really changed the game when it came to rapid manufacture. At least it did in 2013, when we used it to build the first 3d printed rocket engines on electronics with metallic 3d print. You mentioned the speed and millimeters per minute with automated fiber placement, you measure the speed in meters per minute.
We have already shown with electron that carbon composites are an ideal material for an orbital rocket. Now, thanks to neutron. It's going to really come into its own as a rocket material of the future. Now, as much as I do love the sleek black look of carbon, it's about far more. A huge reduction in weight is a game changer.
If you can take the mass out of the rocket, you take the pain out of propulsion and quite literally the heavy lifting. So let me introduce you to rocket labs, newest engine Archimedes now, because we don't have to lift a great big hulking middle rocket into orbit. That means the engines can be far less stressed.
We don't need to push the engines to the absolute max. Archimedes is a one mega Newton thrust engine with over 320 seconds of ISP. It's propellant, liquid oxygen, and methane, and the cycle is also very simple. It's a gas generator cycle. These are all the things you want when you have to build an engine that can be reused over and over again, there is no point in having an engine.
It is absolutely busting it's bolts and 11,000 PSI. What we need for a reusable launch vehicle is an engine that can run over and over again at very low stress and very high. That's what's important. Seven Archimedes engines propel. The first stage since we're usability is at the heart of the neutron design.
We asked ourselves, how could we reuse as much as possible to really drive down those costs and time to get it onto the pad and launch again? The answer is not throwing away the fearings or even trying to catch them the best way is to never get rid of them in the first place. Next we have to control the rocket during re-entry.
So that's right. Neutron does not lean on a barge. It is a return to launch site vehicles. So the guide, the rocket back, we use the shape to our advantage, just like electronic. We use the atmosphere to do as much work as possible. Small control surfaces called Kennards at the front. Small changes in the trajectory needed to get the accuracy and guide the stage back to the site where we started.
So what lands back on earth is a complete first stage fearings and all in all it's we need to do is open those hearings back up load in a second stage and a payload, close the hearings and go again. So what does a 2050 rocket look like? Well, it should be designed to be reusable from day one. It should also have materials that are advanced materials that can withstand all the forces of re-entry and are cost effective and easy to manufacture.
It should also have engines that are able to be used over and over again, and engines that aren't stressed to the absolute limit. It's really important also to be able to return the vehicle to a launch site, not costly barges way out in the middle of the ocean. And then. It's also important not to throw away hearings, but just have a vehicle that you can load up a stages and payloads and fly again and again and again, and it launches from a pad without all that bulky and costly infrastructure.
We did something extraordinary with our first rocket electron and we're doing something even more extraordinary with neutron
[00:21:18] Stuart: that's rocket labs, founder and CEO pay the. And this is space time, still the calm Starlink under five for crowded skies, and later in the science report and exquisitely preserved fossilized, dinosaur embryo has been discovered in Southern China, all that and more store to come on. Space time.
Beijing has slammed Elon Musk and space X following too close in Carter's between China's new TN gong space station and styling, sever growing constellation of broadband internet satellites. China says it had a maneuver at space station out of the way of the 260 kilogram satellites on two occasions last year, in order to avoid collision, the first incident occurred in July the second and October.
The core module of the TN gong or heavenly palace space station was launched last year with two more modules expected to be launched over the next two years. Evasive maneuvers to reduce the risk of collisions in space are becoming more frequent as more objects and her. The international space station was forced to undertake evasive maneuvers several times last year to avoid space junk, including one incident involving debris from a Chinese weather satellite deliberately blown up by Beijing in 2007 is Parvin anti-satellite missile test.
Funny how those things come back to bite you. Astronomers have long been complaining about the disruptions. These dense constellations of satellites are having unimportant research and there are growing concerns about the likely damaged such crowded skies could cause still December. So Eli Musk and space X launched two more batches of styling, satellite.
In early December, a Falcon nine, launched 48 styling satellites as well as two black sky earth observation spacecraft from space launch complex 40 at the Cape Canaveral space force station in Florida. Two weeks later, another Falcon I launched a further 52 styling satellites. This time from space launch complex four a at the Vandenberg space for space in California.
That mission marked a record 11th launch using the same Falcon nine core stage and the 34th lodge for Starlink birth missions. So the core stage returned safely to the surface landing on drone ships, which have been pre-positioned down range. Starlink has now launched some 1,944 of its satellites, and it still aspires to eventually operate a constellation of over 30,000 spacecraft.
and time now to take another brief, look at some of the other stories making use in science this week with a science report and assessment of bird populations on Australia's wet tropics as found low land species are moving up hill as global temperatures increased displacing birds that once lived in those areas.
The findings reported in the journal. Plus one looked at the abundances and distribution of 42 birds species between the year 2020 16. Finding most birds that lived at high altitudes have been pushed out of the lower levels of their ranges with numbers dropping by more than 40% or the numbers of lowland birds in those areas have increased by 190%.
Overall Upland specialized species populations have declined by almost half as of race species that are unique to the area. The finding suggests that Australia's wet tropics world heritage area. One of the most irreplaceable biodiversity hotspots on the planet is rapidly degrading. As the planet warms up, it's been revealed that Australia's intelligence officials informed their us counterparts, that they detected as sophisticated intrusion, that the country is telecommunication systems from malicious code embedded in a Huawei software.
The hack, which occurred back in 2012, substantiated suspicions in both countries that China, he used Huawei equipment as a conduit for espionage guided by the Australian tip American intelligence. AGTS confirmed similar attacks by China using Quantway equipment in the United States. The newly confirmed the intelligence reported by Bloomberg news sinks claims by Beijing that Washington's concerns over Huawei equipment were unfair.
Bloomberg's reporting that the security breach and subsequent intelligence sharing was confirmed by some two dozen former national security officials who received briefings about the matter from Australian and American agencies between 2012 and 2019. Uh, United States, Australia squeezed and add the United Kingdom have all ban Huawei from their 5g networks.
And about 60 countries have signed onto a us state department program where they've committed to avoiding Chinese equipment for their telecommunication systems. Paleontologist have discovered and exquisitely preserved fossilized, dinosaur, embryo inside an egg at a dig site in Southern China's gatchu province.
The embryo, which has been named baby Ling yang was found in late Cretaceous period rocks dating back to between 66 and 72 million years ago. The findings reported in the journal science suggest the ambray belongs to a species of toothless theropod dinosaurs known as OVI Raptor, sores scientists say the embryos posture was unique among known dinosaur embryos because its head was positioned tucked below the body with a feet along either side and the back code along the planet of the.
This posture has never been seen before in a dinosaur embryo, but it's very similar to that of modern bird embryos and you study claims wine grapes may have originated in Western Asia, a report of the general metric communications claims domesticated table grapes in Western Asia, combined with local wild relatives may have been the genetic beginnings of grapes we use today to make wine.
Research has analyzed the genome of a common grapevine to try and fight its ancestors. They say wine grapes likely originated from a single domestication event. Most likely in the Southern caucuses, around Armenia and Turkey before being into bread with various wild European varieties among the grapes.
We now know the authors say those from Italy and France tend to be the most genetically diverse. Astrology is an ancient form of fortune telling a way to make sense out of a world before science was able to decipher fact from fiction, at which point the science of astronomy took over today. The scientific evidence that astrology doesn't work is overwhelming yet.
There are still millions of people around the world, pushing the practice, usually for a bit of fun, but many do use it to get money from the week. Tim Mendham from Australian skeptic says there are good reasons not to follow or believe in astrology.
[00:28:19] Tim Mendham: It doesn't work. There's various reasons. I mean, if you look at there's some sort of astrology, right.
And there's sort of like planetary astrology and. Outside planets, but sound silenced. Trelegy is the one we all know where we have our constellations and our, our staff science and the basic issue. They reset the sun, this, these 12 staff signs they're constellations. As we know them that run around the ecliptic, which is the line the sun makes through you guys, when.
Right because this is your area, but I mean, yeah. The sun travels looking like, and, um, w when assassin, who's behind that when you can't see it, of course, but it's a size. So it's behind that. That's your staff on the trouble is because astrology has been studied for about a couple of thousand years or more.
So the precession of the Equinox means that there's a slight shift in, cause there's a space like. The wobble and the wobble of the earth access means that the stuff's signs are shifting somewhat over the years. And so that
there's a 13th called OT UCASS, which is the steak. But because you're trying to divvy up 13 staff sites, either sort of patterns and things is really hard for teams to be left out. But then yeah, because of this precession of the Equinox, they actually shifting. And then over 2000 years, they've shifted through one star sign.
So if you think your Pisces you're probably actually. Before the one after I forget which way it is. So, I mean, we had the dawning of the age of Aquarius way back when, in the hay, a musical, et cetera, that was actually based on the precession of the Equinox. They were actually entering into a new age because the signs are changing.
Also, of course, the stop signs or something, not equally, everyone thinks there are about 12 of them. There's about 30 days or so of space when you're in a particular status. Title rubbish. The biggest one is actually, I think it's very good. It was about 35 days. The smallest is Scorpio, which is about five or seven days.
So you got very little chance to bigger a Scorpio. Even if I was Sculpey I was moved. How long did they, everything else? So constellations, aren't onto the right place. And that the constellations are not all the same length and that there's actually 13 constellations in the eclectic, rather than the 12 apostles apartheid, as long as he's fine.
[00:30:19] Stuart: I think the bottom line is that the idea that the gravity of a distant body has an influence on your personality and character and fate and future doesn't make scientific sense.
[00:30:30] Tim Mendham: And the people have asked that, yeah, as long as he is based on the time you're born, surely it should be the time you conceived.
Right. Cause that's when you start sort of it's really
[00:30:39] Stuart: that whole nine months really, as you. Yes. Did the
[00:30:43] Tim Mendham: thing is tracking that exactly when you're conceived as a lot harder than when you were born, but somebody worked at that, but the nurse standing at the back of the theater when you're born, if you're born in the hospital has more gravitational or fake than any planet.
Those. So, I mean the whole, the whole thing is just primitive assumptions. Basically, based on that in summertime, in the Northern hemisphere in then that alarm, one of these things would. You have the, the very hot set of staff signs like tourists, the ball and that sort of thing. So indicate that this is tough in the, in the colder months, you get the water from symbols and things like that.
So it's, it's primitive it's basis. There's no basis. In fact, there's no basis in the science. In fact, the science is all totally different and declared that as rubbish
[00:31:17] Stuart: that's to Mendham from Australian skeptics.
[00:31:36] VO Guy: and that's
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[00:33:16] VO Guy: You've been listening to space-time with Stewart, Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from bitesz.com.
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