July 30, 2021

Small Impacts Churning up Europa’s Surface

The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 87
*Small impacts churning up Europa’s surface
A new study claims small comet and meteoroid impacts on the Jovian ice moon Europa will make the search for any...


The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 87
*Small impacts churning up Europa’s surface
A new study claims small comet and meteoroid impacts on the Jovian ice moon Europa will make the search for any evidence of the signs of life beyond Earth far more difficult.
*ExoMars fails to detect any Martian biomarkers
The joint European Space Agency Roscosmos ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter has failed to detect any chemical biomarkers – potential signs of life in the Martian atmosphere.
*China tests new suborbital spaceplane
China says it has tested a prototype of a new reusable suborbital space plane.
*Space X launches 88 satellites including two space tugs
SpaceX has successfully launched its Transporter-2 rideshare mission with a Falcon 9 rocket carrying 88 small satellites into orbit.
*Astrophotography for beginners…
So, how hard is it to snap those stunning Astronomy images you see in the astronomy magazines and online.
*The Science Report
New warm COVID-19 vaccine suitable for remote and resource-limited locations a step closer.
Global risks of climate change and toxic pollution strongly linked.
Archaeologists discover 3,100-Year-Old jug bearing an ancient Jewish alphabetic inscription.
Russians’ complete tests of their new generation S-500 Prometheus air defence missile system.
Skeptic's guide to the pseudoscience of astrology

For more SpaceTime and show links: https://linktr.ee/biteszHQ

Transcript

SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 87 AI TRanscript

[00:00:00] This is time series 24 episode 87 for broadcast on the 30th of June, 2021. Coming up on space time, small impacts turning up Europa's surface, making the search for life more difficult. XO Mars fails to detect any mash and biomarkers of life and China tests. New suborbital space. Oh that a more coming up on space time.

Welcome to space time with steward, Gary.

And you study claims small comment meteoroid impacts on the jovial ice moon Europa will make the search for evidence of signs of life beyond earth, far more difficult at the billions of years, Europa has experienced [00:01:00] a battering of impacts and as the surface of the IC moon churns material brought up to the surface is that by high energy electron radiation accelerated by Jupiter.

Scientists have been studying the likely effect of all these small impacts on Europa's surface. As they prepare to explore this distant move with NASA upcoming Europa clipper mission. And to look at the possibility of a future land emission rope is of special interest to science because of its subsurface global ocean, which lies beneath its thick ice crust.

This massive body of water, at least three times more than the Earth's oceans combined may have conditions suitable for life. And this growing speculation that some of this water could be CP out under the surface. So what's the likely effect of the accumulation of all these impacts from comets and meteors onto the Jovian moon surface will a new study in the journal nature.

Astronomy has been calculating just how far down this churning process called impact [00:02:00] gardening may have disturbed Europa's frozen crop. The study estimates that the surface of Europa has been churned by small impacts through an average depth of around 30 centimeters and any molecules that might qualify as potential biosignatures, which includes chemical signs of life could be affected at that day.

That's because the impacts would churn material up to the surface where radiation could break down the bonds of any potential large delicate molecules generated by biology. Meanwhile, some material already on the surface would be pushed further downwards, or it could be mixed with the subsurface further contaminating the scene.

The study's lead author. Emily Costello from the university of Hawaii says finding pristine chemical biosignatures would require looking deep below this impact gardening zone because chemical bio signatures in areas shallow, then this zone may have been exposed to destructive radiation. Masses Europa clipper mission is slated to launch in 2024.

And they're taking a series of close flybys of [00:03:00] Europa as an orbit, stupider carrying instruments to survey the moon and collect samples of Dustin guesses kicked up above the surface. This is space-time still the cam ExoMars fails to detect any Martian biomarkers and China test a new suborbital space, plane, all that, and more still to come on.

Space time.

The giant European space agency, Roz cosmos, XO Mars, trace gas, orbiter mission has failed to detect any biomarkers, potential signatures of life in the Martian atmosphere. There were four specific biomarker chemical signatures searching for methane ether, ethylene, and phosphine methane the biomarker of special interest on the red planet, [00:04:00] because while it can be produced by geological processes, it's also produced by biological activity at least earth.

And the same could be true on Mars. The marsh and me theme mystery has been ongoing for many years now. Ground-based telescopes on earth, as well as ACEs, Mars express, orbiter and NASA Mars, curiosity Rover on the surface of the red planet of all captured sporadic spikes and bursts of methane gas in the Martian atmosphere fluctuations in the amount of methane gas present seems to vary with the seasons and even the time of day, previous estimates Ramaz express and ground-based missions range from 0.2 up to 30 parts per billion by volume.

That means 30 molecules of methane for every billion molecules in the Martian atmosphere are by comparison. Methane present in Earth's atmosphere is around 2000 parts per billion by volume. However, the Mars Trey scares orbit a spacecraft is failed to detect any method. The study published just a few [00:05:00] weeks ago, suggests that's because the Mars trace gas orbiter has been monitoring during the daytime, and it's been monitoring the air a few kilometers above the surface wherein when any service methane concentrations would have been dispersed by local breezes and turbulence caused by the sun, warming the air at the same time.

Neces Mars curiosity Rover is detected methane at the surface with higher nighttime concentrations and lower concentrations during daytime readings. Trace gas orbit has also looked for two other potential biomarker gases in the Martian atmosphere, ethane and ethylene. These molecules are expected to occur after methane is broken down by sunlight, but like methane birth of relatively short lifetimes, meaning that if they were found in the planetary atmosphere, they would have been only recently created or released through some ongoing process.

But again, trace gas, orbiter failed to detect any sign of either molecule. Finally, the orbit has also been hunting for phosphine that's the gas, which caused the stir last year. When one team of scientists [00:06:00] thought they're detected in the atmosphere of Venus only to be contradicted months later by another team.

Most phosphine in earth is biologically produced, making it an exciting biomarker in the atmosphere of terrestrial worlds. But once again, Mars trace gas, orbiter failed to detect any sign off. The upcoming XO Mars Rover Rosalind Franklin, which were launched for the red planet in 2022 or compliment trace guests orbit as hunt for biomarkers.

By digging down into the Martian soil in the hope that underground south was maybe more likely to retain biomarkers as the material there is shielded from the harsh radiation environment of the surface. This is time still the comm China test and new suborbital space, plane and space X launches, 88 satellites, including two space tugs, or that are more store to calm on space time.

[00:07:00] China says it's tested a prototype of a new reusable suborbital space plane, Beijing claims the unmanned prototype was launched the border carrier rocket from the Jai Kwon satellite launch center in Northern China's in Amman Golia after separating from its launcher, Beijing claims the prototype flew some 800 kilometers undertaking, a conventional runway landing at the Alisann right banner bandana, Berlin airport in Southwestern in a Mongolian.

Now are the details of the clandestine flight have been released and there's growing speculation. The announcement was designed to take attention off Richard Branson spaceship, tutus flight in New Mexico. With those behind the Chinese announcement, claiming their space playing could carry space tourist or a hundred kilometers above the earth.

Fly people on ultra Fest, Intercontinental journeys, play small satellites into low earth. And even hope in space station [00:08:00] operations by transporting crew members and material between the station on earth. This is space time still the comm space X launches, 88 satellites, including two space tugs into war.

And how hard is it to take those stunning astronomy images, all that, and more still to come on. Space, time.

space X has successfully launched. It's transported to rideshare mission with a Falcon nine rocket carrying 88 small satellites in a war. The flight blasted off from the space launch complex 40 at the Cape Canaveral space for a station in Florida. It had been delayed by a day because of an authorized aircraft in the launch chair, 5, 4, 3, 2.

[00:09:00] Finishing down range, chamber pressures nominal our T plus 42 seconds into flights. Falcon nine has cleared the tower and we're currently throttling down in preparation for max queue. That should be coming up in about 20 seconds. Max queue is where the vehicle would experience the highest amount of aerodynamic pressures built in.

Execute and you're out the call-out we've passed the period of maximum aerodynamic pressure tokenized. Now headed south along the Florida coast, all is looking good with the first stage trajectory. We have five events coming up in quick succession. And about a minute, uh, the first is main engine cutoff also known as Nico, uh, followed by stage separation where the two stages will separate from one.

Uh, the first stage will then perform a flip to head back towards Florida. The end back engine on the second stage will form second engine [00:10:00] start one and ignite that and back engine than the first stage will also begin its first a three burns to boost bathroom separation confirmed. We had successful stage separation.

The first stage started performing its flipped maneuver and the boost back burn, uh, should be ending in about 25 cents. And there was confirmation of a successful boost back burn. Again, that is the first of three burns for the first stage coming up. Next is fairing deploy in a few seconds here from the top of the second are in separation confirmed and off come to two fairing halves and they have separated and fallen away from the vehicle exposing the 88 spacecraft to the vacuum of space.

As a reminder of the recovery vessel, hos Briar wood will be attempted to recover the fairing half today. So we are about T plus four minutes and 20 seconds into flights by our second stage Merlin vacuum engine, also known as the  engine. It's currently in the first of two and back burns. This burn should last for, uh, until the T plus [00:11:00] eight minute and 24 second mark, about another four weeks.

Left on this burn. And, uh, the next milestone will be for the first stage to perform its entry burns. How can I at least execute and entrepreneurs slow itself down before hitting the dense parts of the atmosphere. And without this burn, relying on the atmosphere alone, this low Falcon nine down would put unnecessary strain.

The rocket is on a nominal trajectory to call out for it. Nominates you directory. Everything's looking great so far on the transporter, too, right? Honeycomb light structures have deployed on the first stage that those are our four hypersonic Griffins position at the base of the interstage. They helped to orient the rocket during re-entry by moving the center of pressure.

There's also some plumes of gas coming out. This is cold nitrous gas, which helps with attitude control. Both are essential to make sure that we have a nice targeted landing back on landing zone. One later on in today's mission. The second burn, the entry burn is coming up in about 30 seconds. Surely after the anti-immigrant.

Okay. We'll hit the denser parts of the atmosphere, and also [00:12:00] began to further reduce our velocity as the first stage continues to make its way back towards her stage two there's one entry bar installed out there. Call us re Merlin engines have relapsed and are currently slowing down. The first stage.

This burn is expected to last for another 15 seconds or so. There's one entry barn shut down and successful completion of our second of three burns. As I mentioned earlier, we are going to be attempting to recover the booster for an eighth time back on land at landing zone one. The first stage has one more burn left the landing burn it, it begins to just before we touched down and provides the booster with a soft descent before we land at the same time, Falcon lands, we are expecting sequel, one of our second stage that's second engine.

And shortly after that, we'll be entering a coast phase order coast and landing zone. One are approaching. This booster makes this attempt to land more in aids time. The first stage coming down with this landing page two internal guidance.

[00:13:00] uh, that was as smooth as it was the landing burn. You heard the Sonic booms, this booster has landed for the eighth time. That is the 89th recovery of an orbital class block. And what a way to start  mission. At the same time, we did have successful second stage a second engine cutoff and confirmation of a nominal orbital insertion.

All satellites were successfully deployed some 90 minutes after takeoff. The mission was also the eighth launch for the same Farka nine core stage, which then returned safely back to the ground landing or one of the two landing zone pads of the Cape Canaveral space for a station nine minutes after liftoff, the us defense department had three spacecraft, the board, the flight madrich two links and poet, which are designed to gather information, new laser communications [00:14:00] technologies designed to communicate with orbiting space.

Also a board with numerous communication, navigation, earth, observation, and scientific spacecraft, as well as two orbital transfer vehicles or space tugs developed by a Seattle-based company space flight, which were used to help some of the other satellites reach their intent that orbit. One of these space tugs, the Sherpa light one is the company's first, all electric propulsion orbital transfer vehicle.

This is space time, still the cam Astro photography for beginners and later in the science report, Russia completes test of its new generation S 500 Prometheus's air defense missile system, all that and more store to cam and space time.

so how hard really is it to snap those stunning astronomy images you see in [00:15:00] astronomy magazines and online? Well, the answer is it does take time and a lot of skill. But you may be surprised to know just how easy and inexpensive astrophotography can be for beginners. Jonathan, Nalli the editor of Australian sky and telescope magazine says you really don't need lots of expensive gear to get started.

We cover astrophotography and every issue of the magazine, because it's a really popular thing to do. And it's so much easier these days with digital cameras than it was back in the old days. Yeah. That I'll read about is there are two kinds of readers. We have, we have people who like to get out with their telescopes in the back.

And do lots of stuff, whether it's observing planets or styles or galaxies or whatever, or they like to take photos of them, or, um, they, uh, some of them even contribute to scientific programs. You know, they actually can get the data that the scientists can use. We have other kinds of Raiders are traditionally be called armchair astronomers.

They just like to read about it and that's fine too. So you've got sort of recreational astronomers, and then the term amateur astronomer probably should be used to indicate people who [00:16:00] do it. It can be a scientific stuff, perhaps. And then of course, you've got the professional astronomers. You do. But yeah, we go and look all sorts of people reading the strain has gone till, and, uh, it's just, it's a sort of topic that appeals to everybody.

I think whether they want to get into it or not, everyone's got a fascination with the heavens and astrophotography, as I say, it's so much easier these days than back in the days of fuel and chemicals and getting stuff developed and all that sort of stuff you would take. Oh, yeah. Some photos on a roll of film and then you'd have to get them developed some way somehow.

And with astrophotography stuff, it wasn't always straightforward. And then, you know, days later you worked out with the photos came out or not, but now with digital cameras, you can just see straight away. It's just amazing. So anyway, we'll be covered. This tissue is making the most of what you have. If you, if you've got simple gear, making the most of it, if you've got a camera with a lens, what can you do with that?

So we go all the way into that. So you don't need hugely expensive gear. You can go that way if you want it, but you don't need it, but you do need to learn to use your camera. Differently to how you would afford daylight shots. So you're going to need to learn more about exposure times by associating aperture settings and shutter speeds, all that sort of stuff.

[00:17:00] You're probably also going to need to learn how to process your shots with some special software. It's not hard, but it just takes a little bit of practice. I guess the good news is that there are lots of free programs out there that you can download that work with all the cameras and make it really easy to get the best out of your shorts.

Donald, you can, if you can broaden it up a little bit, for instance, there's all sorts of techniques you can use. We don't really go into it holograms very similar. Or do they all have their own little features that put them above the next program? Well, there are different programs that do different things.

So for instance, some people will take a series of photographs of the same thing and then stack them together that can bring out more detail and more vibrancy and you throw it up and everything. So, but you've got to stack these photos together very, very carefully so that they all line up. So they're programming.

That will stack your photos for you though, spot some stars and make sure all those stars line up. And if those pop up and the whole thing will line up, then there are other things that will, um, fiddle around with the colors and the pictures. If you do go to the extent of using filters and things on your camera, then, um, there are programs that will [00:18:00] work with the different photos taken for the different folders, and then combine them into one each of the coming out as a nice, pretty color picture.

So there's all sorts of different ones that are I to say a lot of, a lot of them are free out there you can get, and that makes it a lot easier. We don't go into it in this article as such, but we W2 mentioned that if you're going to get into astrophotography, simple stuff with a tripod, for instance, then you're going to want to get yourself a good tripod one that doesn't just mean forever and ever, and ever, if you just slightly bump it in the middle of the night, you know, you want one, it's really nice.

You can even get things called scar tracking platforms. So these are devices that can put on top of your tripod and they're motorized and you stick a camera on. And as the earth turns, this tracking platform follows the turning of the earth. So you don't end up. So you take a long exposure photograph and you don't end up with streaks or what they call trails as the stars trial and leave a line of sight pinpoint shop because you're continuing to focus on them as youth and all sorts.

You can think you can. Fairly inexpensive enough. If you're going to take exposures of any duration, then you want to have a mountain of tracks. That means a [00:19:00] Mount that turns as the earth turns. Otherwise, you are going to get pictures of the blood, not blood because they're out of focus blurry because things are moving.

The sky is moving in your thing, staying still. So I'm working, the universe is turning into skosh. You still pass. So if you're going to take long exposure, then you want to get some sort of mounting system or tracking system that will move such as the squat tracking platform. I just mentioned, if you don't need to do that kind of thing, if you just, if you can just get away with the sort of pretty picture photography that's done in a few sets.

Then you don't need to worry about the scar tracking. You don't need to do any of that sort of stuff. So you can just get yourself a good tripod. Now you might also want to, if you've got a good digital SLR, you might want to be the sole shutter release cable so that when you push down on the, on your, take a photo button on your camera, that's when the camera shakes.

That's when you can blow the things just to get a shutter release. You just click imagine photographers in the studio. They go the shutter release cables that takes the vibration out of it. So yeah, lots of little things you can do. Look, if you, if you want to get into astrophotography and you've just got a camera and the lens that came with [00:20:00] it, then you can do really good stuff.

The article shows your house.

Uh, taken by people just using their cell phone. Uh, it's shocking. Just how good some of them are. Yeah. If I can get, you can get really good results. Uh, you really can, they can hold your phone up too. Well, you can just use your camera to take photos with much more. Pretty pictures. You can, even if you go to telescope, Camera up to the patient, the telescope and texting photos of the moon, that sort of thing.

I've seen people do that. They're also attachment. You can get that. You can stick your camera on the side of the total Skype and it will track what the telescope and texts some long exposure photos. And you can also get little lenses, extra vendors that you can put on the back of your camera, where they spend the back of your farm, where the camera is and get yourself some mixture of magnification.

So, yeah, there's all sorts of it's Jonathan, Nalli the editor of Australian sky and telescope magazine. And don't forget if you're having trouble getting your copy of Australian sky and telescope magazine from your usual retailer because of the current lockdown and travel restrictions, you can always get a print or [00:21:00] digital subscription and have the magazine delivered directly to your letterbox or inbox.

Subscribing is easy. Just go to sky and telescope.com today. That sky and telescope.com.edu. And you'll never be left in the dark again, this space-time

and I'm out of take another brief look at some of the other stories making, using science this week with a science. A warm COVID 19 vaccine, one suitable for use in remote areas in resource limited locations, maybe a step closer following an international collaboration between scientists from India and Australia.

The CSI row has been evaluating hate tolerant COVID-19 vaccine formulations developed by the Indian Institute of science and biotech, startup mind, VAX evaluation, testings being carried out against old current size [00:22:00] COVID-19 variants, including the daughter strain currently spreading globally. The findings reported in the journal.

ACS infectious diseases show the vaccine formulations are triggering strong immune response, providing protection from the virus while remaining stable at temperatures of 37 degrees Celsius for up to a month at a hundred degrees Celsius for up to 90 minutes. And that's key because most existing vaccines require refrigeration to remain effective with Oxford AstraZeneca needing to be kept between minus two and minus eight degrees Celsius and Pfizer requiring specialized cold storage at minus 70 degrees Celsius.

A warm vaccine is crucial for remote and resource limited locations, especially those with extremely hot climates, lacking, reliable, cold storage supply chain. And that includes places like regional communities and Outback, Australia and island communities across the net Pacific region, the world health organization.

Now estimates over 8 million people have been killed by the COVID-19 [00:23:00] Corona virus with more than 4.1, 5 million confirmed fatalities, and some wondered 93 million people infected since the deadly disease. First spread out of war China. And you study is found that the global risks of climate change and toxic pollution are strongly linked.

The findings reported in the journal. Plus one show that countries most at risk of climate change impacts are also the ones facing the highest risk of toxic pollution. The results are based on a new data analysis of 176 countries. The is identified as the most at risk included. Many of the poorest in the world affirming previous research, showing low-income countries face the highest risks of being affected by birth, climate change and pollution.

When ranked against countries around the world, Australia and New Zealand had high ecosystem health and low vulnerability to climate change. Archeologists have discovered a 3,100 year old piece of jug [00:24:00] bearing an alphabetic in scripture. The ancient vessel was found at the care bet. Rrr dig site in Israel, the inscription says jerboa bell in alphabetic script and dates back to the time of the old Testament book of judges.

It contains the Hebrew letters yod rash, but I in and  and remnants of other letters written in ink on a small, personal pottery vessel that would have held about a liter of oil, perfume or medicine. The name, Jeb bow was an alternative name for the judge Gideon Ben, yo Ash is your pewter to have organized a small army of 300 soldiers.

Did a feat, the midnight to being crossing over the river, Jordan into Judah and Israel, the plunder local villages of their crops. The Russians have completed tests of the new generation S 500 promethium air defense missile system, which must go claims is capable of targeting stealth aircraft. The Russian military claim.

The new weapon is completely new generation of Addy aircraft systems capable of taking down medium [00:25:00] range and Intercontinental ballistic missiles as well as conventional hypersonic and stealth aircraft. Russia's new weapons understood to engage targets at arranged between five and 600 kilometers. Last year, Muscow said the S 500 missile system together with a new long range.

Early warning radar system could into service sometime this year, following the completion of trials. Well, it seems the pseudo signs of astrology is making a comeback. Astrology is the belief that the gravitational influence of planet stars and even constellations light is away. Can somehow influence your personality and future events.

Of course, there's never been any scientifically proven evidence supporting astrology. It's all based on a complete misunderstanding of the basic laws of physics and astronomy. Astrology thus remains the province of the con artist, the uneducated or the feebleminded commend them from Australian skeptic says was the museum of furnish for Lankan use site upholding those high standards of journalism.

We [00:26:00] often talk about by claiming that it wasn't unusual defined scientist who believe in astrology, especially in their personal life. She's been around for thousands of years, disappears repeating popularity then comes back again.

Uh, at title life it's been effective when obviously a total misunderstanding of, of astronomy and of gravity and ended up playing the three bodies, distill buddies attraction to each other, Tetra titled with that understanding of science, title, new sound, the standing of, of psychology title, misunderstanding of character studies.

It's just completely superficial on every level. It's one of those things where. It's pretty good confidence. That is a hundred percent bump, but nonetheless people still come out and say, one of the interesting things I was reading actually in a Lunken newspaper or online newspaper, and also will suggest either.

Yeah. And you'll find that even Nobel prize winners, when they get the hardest dial to find out whether it's a good day to receive their award, which I find a bit of a strong statement. It was also, yeah, [00:27:00] that true. There, there, you know, just because you're a Nobel Laureate doesn't necessarily mean. That's right.

And we have published articles on that, on that very thing. Yeah. The negatives syndrome or something, isn't it. Yeah. And you would expect a higher standard. I mean, yeah. Everyone's probably into beliefs when you would expect the highest standards of people with a Nobel prize, but are suggestions that people might be skeptical of you and I, based on one, because we weren't introduced to it properly.

We haven't been properly educated on it all because we just hate it and hate. I talked to point out and that's not true. You and probably a lot of your, your listeners. And I have certainly have looked into, he looked at the explanation for it and looked into the evidence that's been put forward over the years of whatever culture varies from place to place.

Not necessarily haters, but I mean, way back when in my youth, I did my own astrological chart, proper one place of birth, time of birth. I had all my ephemera. So ephemeris, I'm not quite sure how you pronounce that word, but all the, all the little. [00:28:00] Thank you. Uh, what was in the sky the certain time when I was born and of course, understanding exactly when you were born.

It was not rape when a midwife in the middle of the night puts that four o'clock, rather than five passed or whatever. And I found that fan that was going to have a career in publishing or travel. And I'll give a B what that by enemies. So I figured I was going to have one of those newspaper kiosks on around life station and the fill out for the next railway station.

Didn't want the competition. So they're going to want me up.

Well, I was obviously influenced by the astrological readings. The fact that I could read him, right. Might've helped you have a career in publishing, and then I can read my own, do my own Snapchat. Is there a, not 12 but 13 constellations in the area?

Yeah. There's no for you. Cause in the middle there, which is the snake somewhere around Scorpio or something, something like that. But of course all the stuff's on themselves. There's different links. I think [00:29:00] Sculpey, I was on the back the same scope yet. We're on the eclipse. For about seven days, rather than all these stats are these 12 stats on the same link.

That's just totally artificial. Some of them are 30 odd days. Some of them were 17, 11, and nine or something. So the whole structure of the 12 signs is wrong. And then there was the, to the procession of the Equinox, right. Which is, which is shifting the whole, um, background constellations because the spin axis is itself pointing in different directions.

Millennia, uh, just cause of the top that spinning will move. So over the period of 25,000 years, we will go through the entire set of constellations. And that will be different dates around the time that we've just gone from the original areas, which was up in the sky. The point then this was being developed by the Babylonians, et cetera.

And that's why most, uh, columns in newspapers start with it. Just a tradition, but they're actually aquariums. Now this is [00:30:00] the dawning of the eyes of Aquarius. If you know your hippy musicals,

but nevermind, but therefore even another two and a half thousand years, 2000 years old. Precession of the Equinox, the wobble of the access of the earth, the extra stops onset. We find that difficult to add another one in, because 13 is hard to divide the fact that all the stuff sounds are of different lengths.

And of course there is a basic physics that there is no way that science and things, which are finally structures in themselves because they're not all one plain elements of the stuff onto the constellation. Yeah. Light years apart from each other. When you look at it from the side, that looks nothing like that though, from, from where we are and the fact that it looks at chapter electrical, character predictions, totally shonky and can't be applied to anybody.

So if he had all those except together, bunk doesn't stop people believing it. The idea of having wings being built like a horse, sort of does appeal to me. I must admit the immortal Dr. Sheldon Cooper from big bang. Probably said it best when [00:31:00] talking about clairvoyance and astrology and that kind of thing, there's no scientific evidence to support it.

It means that fortune telling and all that sort of GAF is a total fraud. The professions are swindle and its livelihood is dependent on the gullibility of stupid people cruel, but that children for you, I understand people have people's beliefs and why some people believe, and we've covered this in the bag.

Et cetera. And there's all sorts of reasons why people might believe one thing or another, a lot of it's politics rather than sort of fear, a lot of desire for a more interesting life, for all sorts of different reasons. And often the different pseudosciences have different reasons why people believe them, then it'll assign religion, props up the coast, all sorts of things.

Spirituality, maybe then crops up. But the actual study of what they believe is just, what's interesting. From Australian skeptics

[00:32:00] and that's the shut for now. Space-time is available every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday through apple podcasts, iTunes, Stitcher, Google podcasts. PocketCasts Spotify outcast, Amazon music bites.com. SoundCloud YouTube favorite podcasts downloaded provider. And from space-time with Stewart, gary.com. Space times also broadcast through the national science foundation on science own radio and on both iHeart, radio and tune in radio.

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Tim Mendham

Editor

Editor with Australian Skeptics