he Astronomy, Technology and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 68
*Rosetta Stone eruption could help explain solar explosions
A dramatic, multi-staged eruption on the Sun has revealed new clues that could help scientists solve the...
he Astronomy, Technology and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 68
*Rosetta Stone eruption could help explain solar explosions
A dramatic, multi-staged eruption on the Sun has revealed new clues that could help scientists solve the long-standing mystery of what causes the Sun’s powerful and unpredictable explosions.
*Juno’s close encounter with Ganymede
NASA’s Juno spacecraft has undertaken a close encounter with the Jovian moon Ganymede.
*Dream Chaser delayed till next year
Sierra Nevada’s Dream Chaser spaceplane which was slated to begin supply missions to the International Space Station in September this year – will now not begin operations until sometime in 2022.
*OneWeb’s planned mega constellation gets another 36 satellites
Despite the growing concerns of scientists a Russian Soyuz rocket has successfully placed another 36 British OneWeb internet broad band telecommunications satellites into low Earth orbit.
*The Science Report
Earth to breach the 1.5-Celsius warming mark within the next five years.
Study shows taking extra vitamin D won’t help protect you from the COVID-19 corona virus.
The first complete egg from Australia's smallest emu found on King Island.
Google allowing other people to read your private e-mails.
Alex on Tech checks out Apple’s new IOS-15 operating system.
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The Astronomy, Space, Technology & Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime S24E68 AI TRanscript
[00:00:00] Stuart: [00:00:00] This is space time series 24 episode 68, 4 broadcast on the 16th of June, 2021. Coming up on space time, the Rosetta stone eruption, which could help explain solar explosions. Juno's close encounter with the Jovian moon, Ganny Mead and Sierra Nevada's dream chaser space plane delayed until next year, all that and more coming up.
Um, space time.
VO Guy: [00:00:27] Welcome
to space time
with steward, Gary
Stuart: [00:00:47] A dramatic multi-stage eruption on the sun as revealed new clues that could help scientists solve the long-standing mystery of what causes the sun's powerful and unpredictable explosions. A report in the [00:01:00] astrophysical journal letters, claims and covering this fundamental physics could help scientists better predict the eruptions, which cause dangerous space weather events on earth.
The explosion contained components of three different types of solar eruptions that usually occurs separately, making it the first time, such an event it's been observed. Having all three eruption types together in the one event provide side is with something of a sort of solo version of the Receta stone, allowing them to translate what they know about each top of solar eruption in order to better understand the other types of eruptions in the process, uncovering the underlying mechanism, which could help explain all types of solar eruptions.
The study's lead author, Emily Mason from masters God space flight center in Greenbelt. Maryland says the event drives home. The point that these eruptions are caused by the same mechanism, simply on different scales eruptions on the sun, usually come in one of three forms, a coronal mass ejection, or CMA, a jet, [00:02:00] or a partial eruption, coronal, mass ejections and jets are both explosive eruptions, casting, energy and particles in the space.
But they each look very different. Jets are up this narrow columns of solar material or coronal mass ejections, or CME form. Huge bubbles that expand out pushed and sculptured by the sun's magnetic fields. Partial eruptions on the other hand, start erupting from the surface, but don't devote enough energy to leave the sun.
So most of the material falls back down onto the solar surface. This Rosetta stone eruption occurred back on March the 12th and 13th in 2016. It was observed by NASA solid dynamics, observatory spacecraft, as well as the joint NASA and European space agency, solar and heliospheric observatory, spacecraft Soho.
What scientists saw was the ejection of a heart layer of solar material above the magnetically active region on the sun surface. The event was too big to be a jet, but also too [00:03:00] narrow to be a Colonel message. Action. Within half an hour, a second cooler layer of material on the sun surface also started to erupt from the same place, but ultimately it collapse back down as a partial eruption, seeing an eruption with both jet anchor and mass ejection characteristics tell scientists they are likely caused by the same mechanism and the observations allow scientists to apply what they already know about jets to coronal mass ejections.
The event also tells scientists that partial eruptions occur on the same spectrum, but encounter some as yet unknown limiter, which restricts their energy, preventing them from making it off the solar surface, understanding the mechanism behind these events, especially coronal mass ejections are of critical importance for predicting when a lot solar eruption might cause disruptions here on earth.
Seek coronal mass ejections can spew out massive clouds of high energy charged particles and magnetic fields. These will stream out across the solar [00:04:00] system. And if the earth just happens to be in the way at the time of one of these space weather events, it'll cause a geomagnetic storm. When the solar storms reach the earth, the flux of ionized particles slams into the planet's magnetosphere.
The highly charged particles can damage your destroys, spacecraft shorting out electronics and frying circuits. They also cause the atmosphere to physically expand and contract. That increases atmospheric dragon orbiting spacecraft resulting in premature orbital decay and the need to use up more fuel in order to maintain and operational orbit space.
Weather events also increase the level of radiation exposure. Astronauts can experience thereby affecting their health and down on the ground. The solar storms can overload power lions, destroying transformers and causing widespread blackouts. Space weather events also affect communications and navigation systems.
And so it forces polar airline flights to be rerouted to lower [00:05:00] latitudes in the process using up more fuel by modeling the new Rosetta eruption and others. Like it, scientists have to figure out what causes solar eruptions and determine their characteristics. Finding a trigger, but ultimately allows scientists to predict when large scale eruptions could threaten the earth several hours in advance, providing enough time for astronauts and spacecraft operators to take precautionary measures.
This report from NASA TV
Guest: [00:05:27] and unusual eruption on the sun may offer clues to understanding our stars. Mysterious explosions. Solar eruptions are massive releases of material off the surface of the sun. This material can travel across the solar system to earth and Mars, the radiation and the material from the sun can interact with the planet's magnetic fields affecting astronauts and technology eruptions on the sun.
Usually come in one of three forms, coronal, mass, [00:06:00] ejections jets, and partial eruptions. The new research studied an event named the Rosetta stone of solar eruptions. Just as the Rosetta stone was the key to understanding Egypt, hieroglyphics studying this eruption could be the key to understanding all types of solar eruptions in the Rosetta stone eruption.
All three types of eruptions happened in the same event. They usually occur separately. The main eruption was too big to be a jet, but too narrow to be a coronal mass ejection, a second cooler layer of material on the surface of the sun also started to erupt about a half an hour later. But it fell back down as a partial solar eruption.
This Rosetta stone of solar eruptions will also give clues to help scientists predict large eruptions in the future. The better our predictions are. The more time we have to prepare for material from the sun to interact with Earth's magnetic field predicting large solar eruptions can help better protect our astronauts and [00:07:00] technology near earth and beyond
Stuart: [00:07:02] spacetime.
Still the calm neces, Juno spacecraft undertakes a closing category. Jovian moon Ganni maid and Sierra Nevada dream chaser space play, which was slated to begin flying supply missions to the international space station. This year. We'll now not begin operations until sometime in 2022. All that and more store to come on.
This is Juno spacecraft is undertaken a close encounter with the Jovian moon. Ganni made. With a diameter of 5,268 kilometers Ganni made is the largest moon of the solar system and 26% larger by volume than the planet. Mercury Juno race pass Getty made her almost 19 kilometers per second. As [00:08:00] it traveled towards its 33rd science, passive Jupiter screaming low over the jobing cloud tops at some 58 kilometers per second.
Juno's flight path brought it with a 1038 kilometers of Ganymede surface. It was the closest encounter since NASA Galileo spacecraft made its penultimate close approach. Back on may the 20th in the year, 2000, along with striking imagery, the solar powered spacecrafts fly by as yielded fresh insights into the moon's composition.
It's honest, fair magnetosphere and its icy shell. Juno's measurements of the radiation environment near the mood loss had benefit future missions to the Jovian system. Gadi made is the only moon in the solar system with its own magnetosphere bubble shape region of charged particles surrounding the celestial body is advanced suite of scientific instruments, Alana to study getting made in ways never before possible.
Jeanette's principal investigator Scott Bolden from the Southwest research Institute in San [00:09:00] Antonio, Texas says by flying so close scientists' understanding of GenY made is brought into the 21st century, both complimenting future missions and helping prepare for the next generation of missions to the Jovian system.
Namely NASA is Europa clipper and eases juice. Mission. Juno science instruments began collecting data three hours before the spacecraft's closest approach. Along with the ultraviolet spectrograph and Jovan infrared auroral mapper Juno's microwave radiometer peered down onto Ganny Meads, water, ice crust, obtaining data on its composition and temperature.
See getting meats. I shell as both light and dark regions, suggesting that some areas may be pure water eyes while others contain dirty eyes. Juno is studying how the composition and structure of the ice varies with depth leading to a better understanding of how the ice shell forms and the ongoing processes, which resurface the ice over time.
Meanwhile, Junos X and K band radios undertook radio [00:10:00] occultation experiments during the fly by probing the moon's tenuous Omnisphere, where gasses are excited by solar radiation to form ions. As Juneau pass behind Ganni made radio signals traveled through Ganny meats, artists fare causing small changes in frequency.
And these were picked up by two antennas at NASA deep space communications complex at tidbit villainy camera. The data will help scientists better understand the connection between getting me is honest fear. It's intrinsic magnetic field and Jupiter's magnetosphere. Meanwhile, Gina is still a reference unit navigation camera, which he showed it against radiation, which could otherwise adversely affect it, gathered information on the high energy radiation environment around Ganni made at the same time.
It's advanced Stella encompass camera countered, energetic electrons that penetrated it. Shielding. Finally, the Juno cam image collected a series of stunning images of the giant moon during the flyby. Juno science team will now scout these images, [00:11:00] comparing them to those previously taken by the Voyager and Galileo emissions.
There'll be looking for changes in surface features that might've occurred over the past four plus decades. For example, any changes to credit distribution on the surface would help astronomers better understand the current population of objects which could impact the moons of the outer solar system.
Juno was launched back on August the fifth, 2011 from the Cape Canaveral air force station in Florida. The lucky Martin built spacecraft is designed to study the chemical composition of Jupiter's emits atmosphere and cloud structure peering deep below the obscuring cloud tops, the probe convection currents, and thermal engines driving it, circulation patterns, and spectacular surface where the features it's cyclonic storms and it's iconic salmon and cream colored atmospheric bands.
Gina is also measuring Jupiter's gravity field to better understand the internal structure of the solar system's largest planet, as well as its magnetic field its polar [00:12:00] magnetosphere and its auroral activity. Jupiter contains more mass than the rest of the solar system combined other than the sun. So by better understanding how the Jovian gas giant formed Situs, we'll learn more about the formation of the rest of the solar system as well.
The 3,625 kilogram spacecraft achieved Jovian orbit insertion on July the fifth 2016, Jenna was placed into a highly elongated polar orbit designed to avoid as much of Jupiter's damaging radiation belts as possible. This allows the spacecraft to swerve down and skim just 3,400 kilometers above the swirling, Jovi and CloudOps before being taken back out again to more than 8.1 million kilometers.
The further protect the spacecraft from Jupiter's deadly radiation Juno's most delicate instruments and control systems are housed in especially shoot StrongBox original plans caught for 37 orbits around the 143,000 kilometer wide planet. With the original [00:13:00] 53.4 earth day, polar orbits, eventually contracting damages 14 earth days.
However those plans were scrapped flying concerns about the spacecraft's main engine, meaning that all orbits would remain at 53.4 earth days, which would've meant fewer overall orbits. The good news is that Juno has coped with Jupiter's extreme. Radiation builds better than expected allowing a mission extension to proceed.
And by extending the mission, those missing orbits cannot be included. This is space time still the com Sierra Nevada's dream Chase's space play in which was to begin supply emissions to the space station in September. We'll now not begin operations till sometime next year. And one webs plan mega constellation gets another 36 satellites, all that, and more still to come.
Um, space time.
[00:14:00] Alex: [00:14:06] Hi,
Guest: [00:14:06] this is Andrew Dunkley, the host of the space nuts podcast. Imagine if you could go back in time and change history, change the course of humanity. What would you do? One of the most talked about paradoxes in the world has been the Hitler paradox. What would have happened to the world. If someone had gone back in time and bumped Hitler off and the Holocaust didn't happen, or the second world war didn't happen or something like that?
Well, I do explore that in my new book, the science fiction, novel, the Hiplet paradox. And I hope you'll give it a bit of a try and let me know what you think. It's just a play on the concept. Uh, but I've written it into a very entertaining and thought provoking novel set in the 23rd century, but it spans several time periods and looks at all the possibilities and probabilities and some of the dilemmas that are faced by those [00:15:00] who plan.
The assassination of adult Hitler, it's called the Hitler paradox. It's my latest science fiction novel. And if you'd like to get hold of it, I do suggest you go to our podcast website space and that's podcast.com that's space, NATS podcast.com. Click on the shop. Button for links to all my books. And while you're there, check out the new space, nuts products it's called the Hiplet paradox available now in ebook, paperback, hardcover, and soon to be in audio format.
VO Guy: [00:15:31] This is space
Stuart: [00:15:32] time with Stuart, Gary. Sierra Nevada's dream chaser space plane, which was slated to begin supply missions to the international space station in September. This year, we'll now not begin operations until sometime in 2022 Sierra Nevada blaming the delay on COVID 19 pandemic related issues saying restrictions that prevented engineers from being onsite for structural testing of the spacecraft's new cargo module.
The [00:16:00] wing lifting body spacecraft has been contracted by NASA to undertake at least six cargo flights to the orbiting outpost as well as an orbital mission for the United nations in 2024. Dream chaser will launch vertically abroad. The United launch Alliance is new Vulcan centaur rocket from space launch complex 41 at the Cape Canaveral space for a station in Florida.
Docking with the space stations, harmony module, each 10 meter long dream chaser spacecraft will carry five tons of cargo. Attached to the rear of the space. Plane will be a five meter long pressurized cargo module, extension cord shooting star, and it'll carry an additional four and a half tons of suppliers.
Dream chaser will return to earth landing conventionally on the Kennedy space center space shuttle runway carrying up to 1,750 kilograms of returned, experiments and equipment. The more general runway landing will allow dream chaser to return to earth more delicate equipment and experiments. Things that will be damaged in a refer hygiene capture.
[00:17:00] Splashdown using dragon Sierra. Nevada is still searching for a suitable processing facility at the Cape, the turnaround and service, the reusable space plane between flights under the new schedule. The first dream chaser named tenacity will be prepared for delivery to the space center in about a year from now.
A second dream chaser is currently under construction. A third dream chaser was built as an engineering demonstrator for ground and flight verification and validation tests. Each dream chaser will be capable of flying at least 15 missions over a 10 year lifespan. The spacecraft was originally designed to transport up to seven people on crew transfer missions to the space station.
But it lost out to space. X's dragon and the trouble with Boeing CST 100 Starliner in NASA commercial crew transport contracts, space X began flying astronauts on dragon to the space station in 2019, and Boeing hopes to get its first crew up there before the end of this year. As a sort of, I [00:18:00] guess, constellation prize, NASA rewarded, dream chaser, a space station, commercial resupply program contract alongside the existing space, ex dragon and orbital.
Now Northrup Grumman, Cygnus cargo ships, Sierra Nevada, also hopes to use dream chaser to launch and build its own orbiting habitat in space sometime before NASA retires the international space station around 2028. The dream chaser lifting body design goes back over 60 years with its origins in the United States air force, 1957 X 20 dinosaur spacecraft, which was to be launched on top of a modified Titan three rocket before the U S government decided to put NASA in charge of its manned space flight program.
NASA continued its developed throughout the 1960s and early seventies with a range of experimental spacecraft, including the Northrup Grumman M to the modern X twenty-three prime, the Martin Marietta X 24 and the Northrup O 10 during the 1990s, NASA used the same [00:19:00] basic design to develop the HL 20 experimental space plane, which would eventually evolve into the X 38 emergency crew return vehicle.
The X 38 was designed to be an emergency escape pod transported to the international space station in the payload bay of the space shuttle. There, it would remain dark to the orbiting outpost until needed. However, the project was canceled in 2002 following budget cuts. Meanwhile, the pedagog is now looking at using the shooting star cargo module as the basis for an autonomous unmanned military space station or research and development training, and operational missions in low earth orbit.
Sierra Nevada we'll redesign the module to include guidance, navigation, and control systems for sustained free flight operations would host specialized payloads, undertake experimental testing, manufacturing, and assembly in micro gravity and carry a range of logistics. Whatever that means longer term plans could see higher [00:20:00] elliptical and geosynchronous earth orbits as well as more distant lunar orbits.
This is space time still the calm one webs plan. Mega constellation gets another 36 satellites. And later in the science report, planet earth looks at the breach. 1.5 degrees Celsius warming within the next five years. All that and most over the calm on space time.
despite the growing concerns of scientists, a Russian Soyuz rocket has successfully placed another 36 British one web internet broadband telecommunications satellites into low earth orbit. The mission about us. So he's two and a rocket from the mustache ne Cosmodrome in Russia's far, east is another step in one webs plans for a mega satellite [00:21:00] constellation to rival space.
X is highly criticized styling constellation, which is already damaging important astronomical research efforts. It follows two previous, one web launches of 36 satellites, eight spirals cosmos in April and March. Arianne space is contracted to make 16. So as launches between December, 2020 and the end of 2022, in order to get those spacecraft in orbit, a launch on behalf of Ariane space have been delayed by a day because of technical issues.
OneWeb satellites are all launched in clusters of 36 before separating out when in orbit, the but planning and initial constellation of some 650 of the 150 kilogram K band spacecraft. One web had applied to ultimately fly some 47,844 satellites. But after going through bankruptcy, they shave that down to 6,372, at least for now, Russia is, was tashnee.
Casa mudra is being developed to ultimately [00:22:00] replace the Baikonur Cosmodrome, which must go currently rents from Carson, Stan. However, the projects being consistently behind schedule with construction, marred by controversies and corruption. This is space, time
and time out of take another brief. Look at some of the other stories making use in science this week with a science report, the world meteorological organization, and Britain's met office have issued a joint warning that the earth will bridge. The 1.5 Celsius warming mark within the next five years.
The alarming warning is contained to the new updated global 10 year climate prediction report, which is based on an updated assessment of global climate trends. It shows a 40% chance of the annual average global temperature surpassing 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial temperatures, the aspirational warming limit of the Paris climate [00:23:00] accord.
And there's a 90% chance of at least one year between 2021 and 2025 of being the hottest year ever recorded. The annual average global temperature over the next five years will be at least one degree Celsius, warmer than preindustrial levels. With a range of between 0.9 or 1.8 degrees Celsius, warmer.
Increasing temperatures means more melting eyes, higher sea levels, more heatwave and other extreme weather conditions and greater impacts on food security, health, the environment and sustainable development. The landmark 2015 Paris climate deal. Soar nations commit to limit global temperature increases to below two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.
However, under the deal, China and India have been allowed to increase their emissions without any restrictions for at least another 10 years with China's annual Comdex that increase alone being greater than Australia's total annual carbon dioxide output. [00:24:00] And you study has shown that taking extra vitamin D will help protect you from the COVID-19 Corona virus.
The authors analyze the DNA of 4,134 people with COVID-19 and 1 million, 284,876 people without COVID-19 in order to determine whether a genetic predisposition for high vitamin D levels was associated with a less severe disease outcome in people with COVID-19. The findings reported in the journal.
Plus medicine showed no evidence of an association between genetically predicted vitamin D levels and COVID-19 susceptibility hospitalization or severe disease suggesting that raising circulating vitamin D levels through supplementation won't improve COVID-19 outcomes in the general population.
However, the authors caution, they did not include any participants with vitamin D deficiencies. They say may benefit from vitamin D supplementation. The world health organization. Now estimates some 8 million [00:25:00] people have been killed by the COVID-19 Corona virus with over 3.8 million confirmed fatalities and more than 176 million people infected since the deadly disease for spread out of war and China, the first ever complete egg from what was Australia's smallest EMU has been found in a sand dune on king island.
The discovery reported in the journal, biology letters sheds new light or what was Australia's smallest EMU. It was discovered by a local Islander and comes from the king island AMIA, which has been extinct for nearly a hundred years. Well, the egg was about the same size as those laid by mainland emus.
Researchers use the egg to calculate the king island, Amy. It was about 44% smaller than the mainland birds we see today. A report in the wall street journal, warns that Google is allowing other people to read your private emails. The search engine giant has been allowing third-party developers to access your personal GML accounts on the pretext of [00:26:00] improving your service.
Google insists that no one reads your Gmail, unless you've given them specific permission by agreeing to their conditions. You know, those 50 pages of fine print. We'd simply ask you to click. I agree at the bottom. The practice of sharing user private data became common knowledge after it was revealed that Facebook allowed their third-party apps to have us.
They use a data. However, Google says it doesn't do this anymore, but it admits there are still exceptions, such as things that had shown there'd be security issues or problems with the system. Although they won't go into details about what that actually means. Google says it's also pledged to stop scanning your emails on Gmail to personalize ads.
The news comes as Google are forced to reassign their global lead of diversity strategy and research Kimo Bob to another job because of racist comments he made on a blog post, a Google spokesperson, condemn the bigoted comments made by Khumbu Bob and acknowledged that the comments had caused deep offense and pain, but [00:27:00] still Google didn't sack him.
Now staying with tape again, apple has announced their new iOS 15 operating system. For the details we're joined by technology editor, Alex from ity.com. Apple health is worldwide
Alex: [00:27:14] developer conference, where they showed new operating systems for the iPhone iPad Mac, the apple watch and TV, apple TV, and just some of the headline features for iOS, which is also an iPad.
You can now share your faith time movies and music with other people. So you can be watching the same TV show on Disney or apple TV. And everybody that's on FaceTime and watch at the same time. And in fact, you could even share FaceTime links with people on Androids and on windows devices through a web link that can click a button.
It opens up in a browser and has the same encryption in the U S people will be able to put their driver's license into their apple wallet, starting with certain states. And also you can now use the iPhone to unlock. He's unlocked, locked in your home and [00:28:00] at work, obviously you have the newest devices that can do that.
So Apple's trying to replace your wallet completely is avenue. I message features that let you share photos in a much easier or better way so that you can share collections and have new emojis. You can also now identify animals and plants in photos. If you'd like, Google's latest, very handy. You know, if you ever watched that movie avatar and they're holding the transparent tablet and same with the planters.
Well, you've been able to do that for some time with Google lens, but now it's being built in tile with the standard. You can also block out notifications and messages at certain times with a new focus thing. You used to be able to have a different ring tone for when you were at work and for your at home.
And people used to say it to me. I remember what can I do this on an iPad? Well, now you can, as a virus, if they can also translate, copy and interact with texts in photo. So if you've got a photo, that's got a whiteboard. Well, you got some texts and phone number of a restaurant. You can actually just hit a button and then you can select that text as though it was in your notes and, uh, you know, tap on a phone number and make a call.
You can also create legacy context so that if you [00:29:00] need help getting back into your phone, or if you have passed away, sadly, you can actually have people being able to get your photos and other information after you've passed on, you can also use AirPods. I have hearing aids. So there'll be a new feature where the airport's pro can really tune into conversations, or you can have it set up.
You can listen to everything and there's tons of other apps and features and updates. iPad. Multitasking is improved. If you have macro as 12 Monterey and you have an iPad that you can actually use the. Check head on your will, your mouse and your keyboard and move the mouse across from the edge of the Mac screen on to the iPad screen.
And so, yeah, it's really cool how all of these things are possible. Developer versions of the operating systems are out now beta versions that will be available in July. It'll come out in the U S fall, which is the Australian spring. People who are wary of updates might wish to wait for 15 points. One, for example, which might take another month or something after that, I'll be checking one of the developments feed in different directions.
Well, not on my primary devices, just to see what it's like, [00:30:00] you know, better youtube.com/apple. Look for the WWDC 21 keynote it's an hour and 46 minutes. But it's fantastic. There's so much they unveiled, including spatial audio,
Stuart: [00:30:11] 30 features for apps to say, you know, what the apps doing on your phone to you?
Yeah. Even things
Alex: [00:30:16] like iCloud plus, which has got private relay won't work in China and some of the countries, but it's basically like having a VPN except apple sends. You're surfing for, through one of this service. And then it sends it through a different server. And those two servers don't know what the other one, you know, who the other 1, 1, 1 7 knows what's being served and the other service sending it through, but both servers are not able to see what the other server is doing so that can never identify it.
And apple says that it's going to happen with great speed and that you won't notice any sort of slow down. So we get to see how that works. It's exciting stuff.
Stuart: [00:30:48] That's Alex Zahara-Voight from itwire.com
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Alex Zaharov-Reutt is iTWire's Technology Editor is one of Australia’s best-known technology journalists and consumer tech experts, Alex has appeared in his capacity as technology expert on all of Australia’s free-to-air and pay TV networks on all the major news and current affairs programs, on commercial and public radio, and technology, lifestyle and reality TV shows.