Jan. 14, 2022

Killer White Dwarfs

Listen to SpaceTime on your favorite App with our universal listen link: https://link.chtbl.com/spacetime
The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 25 Episode 6
*Killer White dwarfs
Astronomers have found that a...


Listen to SpaceTime on your favorite App with our universal listen link: https://link.chtbl.com/spacetime
The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 25 Episode 6
*Killer White dwarfs
Astronomers have found that a killer white dwarf ripping a nearby planet, brown dwarf, or very low mass star apart.
*International Space Station to fly till 2030
Washington has formally extended the life of the International Space Station to 2030.
The space station was originally expected to be deorbited in 2028..
*The 2022 Australasian sky guide launched
The Powerhouse Museum Sydney Observatory has launched the 32nd and latest edition of its popular Australasian sky guide -- providing stargazers and the general public with an easy-to-follow tour of the majestic southern night skies.
To purchase a copy of the guide click here: https://amzn.to/3zW54Mt
*China tops 2021 in orbital launches
China ended 2021 with a record 55 orbital rocket launches – more than any other nation and ten more than the United States.
*The Science Report
Claims cyclones and hurricanes have intensified over recent decades, and it's going to get worse.
Russia begins upgrading its air defence systems to the new S-550.
Chilean researchers have discovered a new species of ankylosaur in the subantarctic tip of Chile.
Skeptic's guide to the science of ghosts

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The Astronomy, Space, Technology & Science News Podcast.

Transcript

SpaceTime S25E06 AI Transcript

[00:00:00] Stuart: This is space-time time series 25 episode six, four broadcast on the 14th of January, 2022. Coming up on space-time the killer white Wolf stars, the international space station now to keep flying until at least 2030 and China ends 2021 with a record 55 over the rocket launches, all that and more coming up on space time.

[00:00:27] VO Guy: Welcome to SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

[00:00:47] Stuart: Astronomers have discovered a killer white dwarf, which is ripping a nearby planet. Brown dwarf, a very low mass starred pieces, as well as its relentless gravitational pull. The white wolves also bombarding the subject with intense blasts of energy and radiation. Most of us, including our son will become white dwarves.

This involves them running out of hydrogen in their quarter fuse into healing. And when this happens, the balancing act between nuclear energy, pushing outwards and gravity, pushing in woods ends in gravity, wins all a mess of the star piling on the core causes the quarter contract. This increases its temperature and pressure, and eventually it gets hot enough to start fusing helium into carbon and.

At the same time, an area just outside the contracted core has also moved down far enough towards the center to increase temperatures and pressures and begin burning a shell of hydrogen into helium. The heat of this shell burning causes the outer layers of the star to expand outwards and being further away from the core they cooled down the star has turned into a red giant.

Eventually the helium burning and the core has been converted into oxygen and carbon. And as these stars, aren't massive enough to fuse oxygen or in carbon to heavier elements. They die. The outer layer has floated away as planetary Nebula, exposing the white heart, still at core about the size of the earth and referred to it as a white dwarf.

Eventually over trillions of years, what dwarves will cool down to become black dwarves at the end of this hasn't been around long enough yet for that to have. Scientists using NASA's Chandra x-ray telescope, as well as the European space agencies, XMA Newton space observatory have discovered some unusual x-ray activity occurring in three white Wolf stars.

Uh, typically what wolves give off low energy x-rays, which researchers saw in their sample. However, these white walls also had surprisingly bright x-ray emissions at higher energy. Now, one of the white wolves cataloged his KPD triples or a five plus 5, 1 0 6 stood out to astronomers because it had high energy x-ray emissions that were increasing in decreasing in brightness every 4.7 hours.

Now this recurring ebb and flow of x-rays indicates that something either a big planet or a brown Drawful, maybe a small star is in orbit around the white. Material from the orbiting object appears to be slamming into the north and south poles of the white Wolf, creating a bright spot of high energy x-ray emissions.

So as the white dwarf and its companion orbit around each other, these hotspots would go into an outer view causing the high energy x-rays to regularly increase and decrease located. Some 1300 light is a way this way at WARF is one of the hottest known in the universe with surface temperatures of around 200,000 degrees.

Now by comparison, the surface temperature of our sun is about 6,000 degrees. The companion object, whatever it is is about 800,000 kilometers away from the white dwarf, relatively close in astronomical terms. The studies authors looked at what would happen if this object turned out to be a planet with a mass similar to that of Jupiter, the largest planet.

Now solar system. Now that's a possibility that agrees with the data more readily than either a dim star or a brown. The models showed that the white two would be pulling material off the planet so quickly, the planet will only survive for a few hundred million years before being completely destroyed.

This material will then squirrel around the white Wolf glowing and x-rays which the Chandra telescope can detect. Now the two other white tours in the study appear to be solitary objects, but they do show similar energetic x-ray emissions. So they may well have thank companions, opening around them as well, possibly small planet.

The whole scenario. It provides a really good picture as to what will happen with our own sun and solar system and our own planet earth in about 7 billion years time when our son also descends into its white 12 phase, this space time, still the cam the international space station to continue flying until at least 2030 and China tops, the 2021 list of Odell rocket launches, or that are most.

Um, space-time

Washington is formally extended the life of the international space station to 2030. The space station. What's expected to be the orbit around 2028. NASA says the moose designed to allow a seamless transition to the start of operations of several planned commercial space stations while the European space agency, the Japan aerospace exploration agency and the Canadian space agency are on board with NASA in the mission.

Extension rashes already announced plans to leave the international space station in either 20, 24 or 2025. The Russian federal space agency as cosmos is concerned that some of the Russian modules on the Albany outpost have already reached their use by dates. They've already been numerous leaks and several equipment failures involving the Russian segment.

Musca has already started building the first core module of a new Russian space station. And several recently added Russian built modules dock to the international space station are likely to be transferred to the new Russian space station. Once it's in. NASA recently awarded blue origin, nano racks and Northrop Grumman $415 million towards the development of independent space stations, which will be used by both government and private sector customers.

Other companies, meanwhile, are looking at attaching their own modules to the existing international space station. Gradually building up as part of the ISS before moving off into their own. Of course, NASA, ISA Jackson and Canada. I continuing development of the new lunar gateway space station, which will act as a base camp for human Artimus missions down to the surface of the moon and eventually onto Mars.

In April last year, NASA rewarded a $2.89 billion contract to space X in order to continue development of its reusable, HLS Starship, lunar Lander, which will be part of the optimist program, transporting crew and cargo between the gateway space station and the lunar surface. The first modules of the international space station were launched in 1998.

This is space time still the com the powerhouse museum Sydney observatory launches. It's 2022 Australasian sky guide and China tops, 2021 in all, but launches all that a more static. Um, space-time

Teaching your kids about astronomy and taking them into the backyard or pocket, not to gaze up at the skies. Pontiac K stars, constellations and planets is one of the best ways to spark their interest in science and open up an exciting new world for. And in this regard listeners in the Southern hemisphere, especially specially blessed because they have the planet's best views of the cosmos, including the nearest star systems to worth the best views of the galactic center of the Milky way, as well as stunning vistas of some of the nearest satellite galaxies.

The powerhouse museum, Sydney observatory as launched the 32nd and latest edition of its popular Australasian sky guide, providing star gazes. And the general public was an easy to follow to her of the majestic Southern night skies. And it's a great companion to our monthly sky watch guide the Australasian sky guide, which has been published annually since 1991 contains the latest star maps and information on all the key astronomical events expected over the coming year.

When he 20 twos highlights include two supermoon events in June and July, a total lunar eclipse, November and Mars opposition in December when the red planet will be just 81 million origin, 50,876 kilometers from earth. This is guide also examines the fascinating science of first nations astronomy, and the key role it played in traditional Aboriginal life.

The 2022 guide was written by Dr. Nick glom consultant, curator of astronomy at the palace museum Sydney observatory LOM says this year's cover highlights. The spectacular spiral galaxy NGC, 1 34, a Bejeweled Oasis located some 60,000 light years away in the constellation sculpture. The image using red, green, blue, and luminous filters took 18 hours of exposure.

Time to capture it's from

[00:09:50] Guest: a photography called knockers every year. Congress credit grab from mentioned. So

that's from, by the central list,

[00:10:04] Stuart: astronomical society, very much a symbol of where we are in the universe. You know, a little island gala. All by ourselves

[00:10:15] Guest: galaxy too murky. Right? You can see that it's more, your nose stops, which means all the staff in the center and younger staff sat in this fire alarm. There's a lot of information just in the photograph, but it is a very spectacular to look at. There are quite a number of harlots for the year off would be very good opportunities to Taxify the photographs they stay safe.

And my power funds as good Canberra. Some of them is not built into them so people can experiment taking or photographs. What hard art is more than able to. First of my is close to not the bright side, it

or very close to each other on these separate, but by half to reach to the moon, it is in the morning sky, but I think it should be spectacular enough to get out for then there is another event

Peter major shout. That's the one associated with Halley's comet dust particles given up by Halles covered as spread out and now it gets along. It's open as long it gets passed around the side and be pumping to that pass every year around six, seven, and dishes should be fairly good because there's my money.

And then is always the problem. It can be the problem with make your chest, but there's not mood to start. Candy to this fall, getting up for it to try and watch the shower. And as a bonus, there are four clinic visible at the same time and they're all eight months. And in fact, the following month after there are sick,

It's called at the same time, there are no proper definition of Superman because not really in this

[00:12:11] Stuart: Trump term, it was invented by an astrologer. Wasn't it? Back in the 1970s.

[00:12:16] Guest: The truck. So he's not really his tropical term

[00:12:19] Stuart: dot. I understand, because it was just a cool term to use and it got people interested in astronomy.

[00:12:26] Guest: Exactly. It's a good excuse to your hub to punch the moon rise and demand rise. It's always good to watch or to photograph in fact by. Um, an interesting comparison looks much bigger than it does through the camera, because there is an illusion called the moon pollution. Our brain, somehow rising looks bigger than it is.

[00:12:52] Stuart: Yeah. I've always thought that, you know, bigger than the yellow near the horizon, and then gradually it seems to shrink and it's purely a psychological thing. Is it?

[00:13:01] Guest: Exactly. So by taking front crack, so you could take a photograph of it drives embedded, scribing and money, cyber head. It's exactly the same size, but us, somehow he keeps coming is on the horizon.

It looks bigger than it's ever overhead. Somehow it's a matter of perspective and Brian tries to compensate for, so that's something that's wild looking at photographs. And

and they are always

[00:13:38] Stuart: looking at the sun. That's exactly.

[00:13:42] Guest: It's completely safe. Moon looks rakish April. Right? What about the blood moon? I think that's true. It hasn't got that bread, but said you can never tell you rented scraped debate because it depends on the state of our atmosphere around the world. If there's a lot of Dustin yet, and it's not red, it's when

eruption or some other similar. And then it can be a fairly dark eclipse and not particularly red. So it does vary depending on circumstances and it happens in the evenings. So I think it makes it convenient to watch. Children might have to stay up a little bit later than usual, but it's something that's unusual from this wall and he's not going to happen again or rock and not the four years.

So not till 2020. They call the tree to another total eclipse and just mentioning why it's red to me always do easiest way to draw lots of space and explaining it to me is it's like, it's just the capacitor and astronauts on the moon and the stay in eclipse. And two men in astronomy. We see it to the eclipse of the sun is covering this.

And around

Sunday's rising or the sunny city and that red light is the sex of the moon. And that's quite a moon, a piece where

[00:15:08] Stuart: it sunrises and sunsets happening at once.

[00:15:13] Guest: It's quite fascinating just to even imagine that somehow you can see all of that central assessment sunsets. And is an opposition of high-profile position.

It's not as as it can be, but it's fairly favorable. Lots of positions and tears catch us up to moving. And mass is that it's closest to those for several years. They started . So I just parked in astronomical terms. It's quite close, not as close as it was in 2003 in 19 years ago. When it says 56 million,

[00:15:57] Stuart: 5,600

[00:16:00] Guest: people involved in astronomy.

This is a very exciting time. So in 2000 and straight mask was 56 and in 2020. It's 81 million kilometers. So, right. So it will be a different maths was not quite as big as it did in 2003, but it's still a great opportunity to try and go to an observatory or planetarium or some way for

And looks for March for the us. And you shouldn't say DePaul attack. So mass is not some dark marking on the planet. What you're going to see unfortunately is canal

Yes, that's true. That's what originally originally the first observer, I sneak it back in at 18 at their position in 1877. So back lines under what was back, lots on the sixth to the mass. And he reports it to me because I'm not this. He didn't want to indicate that they're actually artificial, but then it was taken up by American astronomers, especially Percy loud.

And then he translates it as canals, which has connotation that is artificial and build to great theory. Sorry, subluxation losing water and date, build these huge, great canals from the magic polar caps to take rhetorical rages and that planet corporation. Unfortunately, none of that is true. So people are not going to see canals tomorrow, supposition, December.

[00:17:49] Stuart: That's

[00:17:50] Guest: true. That's true. I mean that Machinima patients, but at least can say 1970s, actually a radio program, which has HG Wells is more of the world as they brought to task.

Um,

[00:18:11] Stuart: yeah, one of the features in this year's edition of the sky guide is how the moon and stars helped indigenous people predict the weather. Yes .

[00:18:21] Guest: And that's written by a lady called Carlene.

communicator and timeless around the moon can be an indication of when to whether that's coming up with some indigenous quirks used to twinkling of staff, depending on how much couldn't clean. I can see what the weather is. You know the kid, when the ride he's got to stop. So it's quite fascinating.

Articling in this year's scorecard

[00:18:50] Stuart: as always the sky guys, while we use it space, time to put together our sky watch program every month. And where does one get the sky guide

[00:19:00] Guest: from bookstores? Price is $16 95 cents. Bitch. I think maybe I'm lucky bias, but I think it's a back end prospect. In fact, if you look around or not, it's available from bookstores for a little business plan that just searching for it online, you can pay.

There are a lot of bookstores which sell it at that status online, and I'm sure she cried to any of the major bookstores. They would have copies as well. The easiest life. You don't go into bookstores due to COVID. And right now, the reason you can get it

[00:19:34] Stuart: online out of course, from the powerhouse museum, Sydney and cemetery as well,

[00:19:38] Guest: not a fast museum is open Sydney.

Observatory is closed for restoration at the moment. Refurbishment, as I think will be for another few months, but it took a fantastic clinic completed. And like your work is being done on the building and the exhibition

[00:19:53] Stuart: heavy 2022 Australasian Scott. Is available at all good bookstores and online from the Paris museum, Sydney observatory@mwas.museum forward slash store.

This is space time still. The come China's ended 2021 with a record 55 orbital rocket launches, and later in the science report. And you study shows that cyclones and hurricanes have intensified over recent decades, and it's going to get much worse, all that, a more static. Um,

China has into 2021 with a Recode 55 over the rocket launches at some more than any other nation and 10 more than the United States. It's final missions of the year included along March three, be carrying what Beijing describes as an experimental communication satellite and along March 2d with at least one and possibly two spy satellites.

The long match three B mission was launched from the GI Chang settler load center in Sichuan province. It carried the communication technology demonstrated a nine spacecraft, which will test multi-band high speed satellite communication technology. Meanwhile, the long lunch to D was launched from the Jiuquan satellite loan center at Northwestern China's Gobi desert its payload was the teen Y four satellite keenwah meaning sky mapper in English, Beijing claim that will conduct scientific experiments, land resources, surveys, and geologic information collect.

But in reality, it's yet another military reconnaissance spy, satellite, or possibly too, as the satellite dispenser used for the launch is designed to carry two spacecraft and previous launches of this type of satellite have involved the deployment of twin spacecraft. Since 2016, Beijing's launched more than 155 earth observation surveillance and reconnaissance satellite.

They're designed to provide near continuous high resolution optical and electronic monitoring of areas of interest to China as part of what Beijing euphemistically describes as its build up to war. As of December the 21st, 2021, China had an estimated 448 operational spacecraft orbiting the earth. As well as undertaking more orbital launches in 2021 than any other nation Beijing.

Also top the rocket launching lists in 2018, with 39 missions and 2019 with 34 missions in 2020 China launched 39 over the rockets just behind the 44 launched by the United States. This space-time.

And Tom had a, take another brief look at some of the other stories, making, using science this week with a science report and you study warns that tropical cyclones and hurricanes have intensified over recent decades and it's going to get worse. The findings reported to the journal frontiers of earth science, suggest that we should expect psych lends to double their destructive power by the late 21st century.

Scientist the cyst data dating back to 1979 to see how cyclone behavior has already changed and estimate how or continued to change as the planet continues to war. Focusing specifically on typhoon and cycle and impact in Eastern and Southeastern regions of Asia. The researchers say that in the years, 2075 to 2099, cytokines will travel nearly a hundred kilometers further inland last, nearly five hours longer and increase in intensity by at least two minutes per se.

Russia has started upgrading and said offense systems with the introduction of the new S five 50 Addie aircraft, a missile system, which officials claim can intercept incoming Intercontinental ballistic missiles better than the American fad and age of systems. Moscow says it's new surface to air missiles are designed to destroy enemy targets out to a range of 600 kilometers.

The new system is being deployed as an upgraded version of the existing S 500 promethium Addie ballistic missile technology paleontologist have discovered a new species of an Carla saw in the sub didactic tip of Chile. A report in the journal nature describes the spark, tells the girls Ellen Ghassan as being built like a tank.

The dinosaur was about two meters long with a relatively large head slender limbs and a flat fron shaped. Earlier this week, we looked at the fascination people have for the paranormal and king of paranormal has to be ghosts millions of people around the world continue to believe in the existence of ghosts.

And just as the political and psychological motivations behind the homosapien obsession with a paranormal can be easily explained. Tim Mendham from Australian skeptic says science can also largely explain the triggering points for NGOs. The things that transform a regular event into a ghostly apparition,

[00:25:07] Tim Mendham: spoilsport three and three aren't they, because

[00:25:12] Stuart: they keep putting facts in the way of fixing.

[00:25:15] Tim Mendham: Swines. And I, I try and figure out reasons why people see or feel just, and this is, this is sort of, um, things that crop up every so often, they tend to be some very similar things. Obviously there's cruelly sort of what they call disturbed the mental health. So people are a bit sensitive or fragile my claim they are hearing or seeing things or feeling.

I probably did the same dealing with that goes external stimulants, which is basically drugs. If you're high, you're more likely to see strange things. And if you're not, and there's not necessarily drugs, it could be. They also do that molds and funding and that sort of thing. If that'd be old decaying house, Can supposedly give off sort of psychedelic effects to you.

Uh, that can be an effect, obviously emotional situation. If you've just lost someone, especially someone who's trying to find a relative who's died. There are animals that have a fragile situation and they might be more prone to seeing things. Or obviously you're influenced by popularity. Movies TV shows, whatever they keep talking about haunted houses, et cetera, which makes people believe that these things exist.

And then they have to just find them. And the most technical one is a thing called the Hertz frequency. Then UBS sciences that a guy would know about that 19 Hertz. Low frequency that you can't hear, but may have an effect at the M w w what's it called the infrasound level. Um, you know, I think you have to, or apparently near a wind turbine.

Yeah. They're picking up infrastructure from miles away. Apparently it started there very strange, but yeah, infra sand Santa's 19 Hertz frequency is supposed to be a thing which affects your. Right. So it's not a ghost, but it can just be something that affects you and that just upsets your equilibrium a little bit.

So, so that the scientists being spoilsports and a party purpose has always just trying to find an explanation for things. Firstly, I think it's a, I

[00:27:08] Stuart: guess that comes back to the whole idea of. Pre science, humans we're doing. And we're thinking and trying to explain the world around them.

[00:27:17] Tim Mendham: Yeah. You got a nighttime they're welcoming, scary

[00:27:19] Guest: place.

I think it always has been for people. Death is real moment. That's not scary only

[00:27:24] Tim Mendham: if you beforehand, but afterwards, but, uh, yeah, I mean, so the,

[00:27:28] Stuart: so wolves or lions hunting at night, all that sort of stuff, purely online for your field,

[00:27:33] Tim Mendham: the online few of the things you can't see that you're not quite sure what's going to happen to you.

Yeah. That, that, that puts you on edge obviously. And then. That's assuming and presuming things that might be

[00:27:43] Stuart: scary. Things at night can, um, get the creative juices going. I, you know, I've experienced that. I used to work at a radio station in the blue mountains west of Sydney and walking down a very dark road one night.

I mean, I knew there's no such thing as being. But by golly, I felt there was, I just got this real shiver down my back and I knew it was only psychologicals well aware of that. But nevertheless, the scary feeling was still there.

[00:28:10] Tim Mendham: There must be something instead of unite in, in humanity that actually sort of makes you feel these uncertainties and sort of, uh, apprehensions.

Uh, even though you convince yourself it's not true, what I'm feeling. At the same time. Yes. I may be. Maybe it's a primitive thing from a barbaric past or something that it's better to be scared in the way then to be sort of, I'm happy to say they can

[00:28:29] Stuart: get eaten by Wolf that's to Mendham from Australian skeptics.

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