The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 88
*High drama aboard the International Space Station
The International Space Station is now stable again after Russia’s new Nauka Multipurpose Laboratory Module...
The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 88
*High drama aboard the International Space Station
The International Space Station is now stable again after Russia’s new Nauka Multipurpose Laboratory Module suddenly started firing its thrusters -- briefly sending the orbiting outpost out of control.
*Discovery of a molten core in Mars
New data from NASA’s Mars Insight lander has confirmed that the red planet’s core is still molten.
*A new instrument to help humans live on the Moon
Scientists hoping to identify lunar water ice deposits and lava tubes which could be used for lunar habitation have developed a new miniature ground penetrating radar for space flight.
*First evidence of water vapor on Jupiter's moon Ganymede
Evidence of water vapor has been detected in the atmosphere of Jupiter's largest moon Ganymede.
*Russia’s new stealth fighter
Russia has finally officially placed its new Sukhoi Su-75 Checkmate single engine stealth fighter on display for the world to see.
*The Science Report
Claims the Delta strain is more successful because infected people produce more of it.
Debate continues on the link between wind consumption and atrial fibrillation.
Australia’s multi billion dollar chickpea industry id being hit by a blight.
Study shows Sulphur-Crested Cockatoos teach each other how to open household wheelie bins.
Skeptic's guide to vaccine hesitancy.
For more SpaceTime and show links: https://linktr.ee/biteszHQ
SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 88 AI Transcript
[00:00:00] Stuart: [00:00:00] This is space time series 24 episode 88, 4 broadcast on the 2nd of August, 2021. Coming up on space, time, high drama aboard the international space station discovery of a molten core in the red planet, Mars and first evidence of water vapor on Jupiter's moon. Ganny means. Oh, that and more coming up on space time.
VO Guy: [00:00:26] Welcome to space time with Stuart Gary.
Stuart: [00:00:45] The international space station is now stable again. After Russia's new Norfolk multipurpose Labar tree module started firing its thrusters briefly sending the Albany outposts out of control for 47 minutes. [00:01:00] The space station lost control of its orientation stations positioned being key for getting power from solar panels and for communication.
The incident happened while cosmonauts were inside the new Noida module for the first time, carrying out their initial leak and inspection checks, suddenly Noreaga ignited its thrusters, setting the space station out of no more orientation, 45 degrees out of alignment. When Russian mission managers at star city Nemaska realized what was happening, they fired up this Reza modules, thrusters to try and stabilize the space station.
However nigga's thrust is kept firing resulting in the two modules, essentially fighting each other with noise, pushing the station out of alignment and Vista trying but failing to correct the movement. Eventually mission managers turn on the thrusters, aboard a dock progress cargo ship that allow them to regain attitude control and stabilize the motion of the space station until noisy burned up all its field.
The Albany [00:02:00] outpost is now back on the full control, flying in good configuration with NASA Houston control and Russian flight directors working through the issue while the Russian federal space ed Xeros cosmos is trying to determine exactly what went wrong. A boy they shiny new module. Meanwhile, jacks are in AC the other two major stakeholders in the space station, uh, monitoring the issue in real time.
The incident has caused NASA to postpone the second flight of at CST 100 style on a spacecraft, which was meant to fly to the space station. The 2010 NOI kill was launched a border Russian proton rocket from the back and old Cosmodrome in the central Asian Republic of Kazakhstan docking onto the earth facing part of this Vista service.
And for the final few meters, uh, I'll look, Novitsky taking over
Guest: [00:02:47] manual control
Stuart: [00:02:48] range is about 10 meters. Copy. Arrange rate is minus 0.08. The cross hairs are aligned. Range is six. Six meters. [00:03:00] Now Novitzky flying the multi-purpose laboratory module in for its docking range is five meters. They target as in the center and the cross hairs are aligned and the range rate is minus 0.08.
We Gabby ranges for, and the misalignment is unintelligible. We copy
Guest: [00:03:21] standing by for contact and capture. We are losing
Stuart: [00:03:24] the image they arrange is three meters. Gabi range rate is minus 0.1. The target is in the center. The cross hairs that aligned copy
Guest: [00:03:37] range
Stuart: [00:03:39] 0.1. We're standing by for contacts. And once you get the contact and, um, please deactivate, once you confirm contacts, please deactivate poo.
But Beth. Contact and capture docking confirmed at 8:29 AM central time, a [00:04:00] long time coming, but as now pulled into port at the international space station. Congratulations. That was not an easy docking. We have deactivated. The manual control of my own control started roughly three hours after dark. It's the latest in a very, very long string of technical issues, which have plagued the development and construction of the 13 made along Nika module culmination of which is delayed.
It's launched by well over a decade. Moscow first began building no get back in 1995 as a backup to the space station, Cera control module, it was then expected to replace the Pais docking port module during the space station in 2001 as a temporary. But ongoing delays with Nika meant PS ended up staying in all that for two decades, Nika should have launched in 2007, but was repeatedly delayed by technical issues.
Then in 2013, metal contamination [00:05:00] was detected in its fuel system that resulted in a long and expensive clean-out. However, by the time the clean-out was done, several fuel system components had reached the end of their use by dates, Minnie and new fuel system had to be built from scratch further, delaying the law.
As noises launched schedule dragged on and on and on other systems aboard the module. Also underwent modernization and repairs, further extending instruction. Finally, a launch date was set for late last year, but yet more technical issues. Push that date back to April Vishy, followed by further problems, moving it to July the 15th.
Then another week's worth of delays before finally launching only to suffer this new technical glitch with its thrust at one star. Still once all the problems are sorted out, Norco will enhance the capabilities of the Russian segment of the space station serving as the new Russian docking port and spacewalk, airline, uh, feature operations.
No, I can also provide 16 [00:06:00] outside and 14 inside workstations and there's room for six cubic meters of scientific equipment, as well as almost five cubic meters of storage, living accommodation for another crew member. And it's equipped with a European space agencies, robotic arm. The first on a Russian segment to make room for Noreaga.
The Russians have jettisoned their long serving peers, docking port. Peace was undocked by the progress 77 cargo ship. And the pair then went to a fiery grave, burning up in the atmosphere over the south Eastern Pacific ocean. They internationally designated satellite junkyard. It'll still take several months in model space, walks the fully integrate the new module where the rest of the space station.
However it stay might not be very long with Moscow planning to leave the international space station. The next three to four years, taking the Russian segment of the Albany up post, including Nika with them. They now developing a new Russian space station. The first modular, which is already under construction [00:07:00] and Moscow has big plans to work with China on a new lunar space space as well.
This time, still the calm discovery of a molten core in Mars and a new instrument, which could help humans live on the moon, all that and more store to calm on. Space-time
You data from that as Mars insight, Lander is confirmed that the red planet's core is still molten. The stunning discovery reported in three papers in the journal. Science is at odds with previous hypotheses suggesting the marsh and chorus solidified the new findings are based on data from insight seismometer, which has provided details on the depth and composition of the red planet's crust mandolin.
The Earth's [00:08:00] core consists of a molten articles surrounded by a solid inner core scientists will continue studying insights, data that determined if the same holds true for Mars insights. Principal investigator Bruce Bennett from NASA's jet propulsion laboratory in Pasadena, California. This is the discovery represents the culmination of a lot of work and worry over the past decade.
Bandit and colleagues found the Martian crust as much thinner than they'd expected and may only have two or three sublets. The cross goes down some 20 kilometers based on two sublayers, 37 kilometers. If there are three beneath the crust, there's a 1,560 kilometer thick metal, much thinner than expected at the center of the planet is the Martian core, which has a radius of 1,830 kilometers.
That's far thicker than expected. Virtually half that I am aware the plan. The Martian core is composed of iron and nickel, but there's also a lot of software there as well. And that makes it less dancer role [00:09:00] than the Earth's core. One of the studies coauthors Simon Stoller from the Swiss research university, ETH Zurich says it took scientists hundreds of years to measure the Earth's core and 40 years after the Apollo missions to measure the moon's core, but insights taken just two years to measure the marsh.
Here on earth. The earthquakes that most people feel come from faults caused by the tectonic plates of the planet shifting, but unlike the earth, Mars has no tectonic plates. Instead its crust is one giant plate, but faults and fractures still forming the Martian crust. Judas stresses mostly caused by the continued shrinking of the planet as it continues to cool being only a third, the size of the earth Mars is killing much quicker than the earth.
And our studies authors have spent much of their time searching for bursts of vibration recorded by insight seismograph. Once they've confirmed, the readings were caused by a mass quake activity and not the wind scientist exam, the primary or P waves, which [00:10:00] are followed by the secondary S waves. These waves can show up again later in the size of a gram after reflecting off layers inside the planet.
So assessment grams wiggles can reveal properties such as a change in porosity or a more fractured layer. Interestingly, all of Insight's most significant quakes appear to have come from the one area service Fauci, a region volcanically active enough that lava may have flowed there within the last few million years.
Orbiting spacecraft had even spotted the tracks of boulders at a Peter rolled down steep slopes after being shaken loose by mass quakes, curiously. However, no quakes have been detected from the more prominent volcanic regions. But it's possible that many quakes, including larger ones are occurring in a way that insight can't detect that's because of shadows zones caused by the core reflecting seismic waves away from certain areas and preventing it quakes echo from reaching inside.
This is space time, still the [00:11:00] calm and your Australian instrument, which could help humans live on the moon. And first evidence of water vapor on the Jovian moon. Ganny made all that and more store to come on. Space time.
Scientist hoping to identify lunar water, ice deposits and lunar lava tubes, which could be used to provide protection for human habitation on the moon have developed a new miniature ground penetrating radar, which would be especially useful for space flight. Then you'd have virus was developed by Melbourne startup company, CD, 3d, and tested at the Royal Melbourne Institute of technology university.
Our MIT. What makes it special is that it uses magnetism rather than electric resistance to scan deep below the surface. And it's [00:12:00] compact. The prototype device known as map rad is just one 10th, the size of existing ground penetrating radar systems. Yet it can see almost twice as deeply below ground.
It's more than a hundred meters allowing it to identify minerals, ice deposits, or voids such as lavish. The company behind the devices now received a grant from the Australian space agency as part of the agency's murder mass initiative. The further develop the prototype, including testing the unit by mapping one of the largest accessible lavish tube systems.
The under caves in far north Queensland. CD 3d CEO and our MIT honorary professor James McNay says map rate is smaller, lighter, and uses no more power than existing ground penetrating radar devices. Yet again, can see twice as deep as existing technologies. He says, what makes it unique apart from its size is how it operates using a different frequency range using the magnetic rather than the electric component of electromagnetic waves.
The [00:13:00] magnetic waves, emitted and detected by the device measure conductivity and electromagnetic wave reflections in order to identify what lies underground voids and waterized provide strong reflections or various metal deposits of high conductivity, eight levels map Red's additional development focused on facilitating drone service for mining applications with early filters centered around Australia and Canada using a backpack prototype for mining and mineral prospects.
But being so compact med, it also had some obvious applications in space where size and weight are at a premium. The system could be matter on the surface Rover or attached to a spacecraft in orbit. One of the targets will be the tunnels left by agent volcanic lava flows, which are thought to exist at shallow depths below the surface of both the moon and Mars.
These caves, I thought they'd be suitable for housing space colony. That's because they provide protection from birth meteoroid impacts, high energy, ultraviolet, radiation, and other [00:14:00] energetic particles that also help provide shelter from extreme Luna temperatures, which can range from over a hundred degrees Celsius during the day down to minus 150 degrees at night, based on their depth and surrounding geology.
Lavish trips are thought to provide stable environments around minus 22 degrees Celsius. But while space colonies on the moon, my habit in the long term, a more immediate target will be mapping frozen water ice deposits on the moon. Sea water can be split into hydrogen and oxygen, and these can be used for rocket fuel.
The oxygen can also be used for breathing and simply melding the water ice could be used for drinks. McNay says that after the lavish tube testing in Queensland later this year work will begin on optimizing map, reds spacecraft use making it compatible with spacecraft equipment and other space-based science instrument packages.
Guest: [00:14:52] That's the question. Somebody wants it to work out a way of sticking right on to try to [00:15:00] map inside of
Frankie international ground, right on Canada. And together we run the research project. So that's my team. We decided using the magnetic field rather than conventional electric field, just because I knew from defining some of the things that work, it would be a wasteful with electric field antennas have to be caught away device.
So if you're working at say 10 megahertz and electric dipole antenna, wouldn't have to be something off or 15 meters long to get decent response, sensitive magnetic field detector. So
we built into that, [00:16:00] I guess.
I am DSM electric quarter wave antenna. That's a bit the truth.
That's why it's meant to be about 75 centimeters to the ideal, but the antenna is always inside.
Just because you actually need the 75
concept, not that new
Stuart: [00:16:39] every day. Right? Yes.
Guest: [00:16:46] I try to get lower frequency right off
from the very high frequency. Right. Just make things bigger and bigger without actually [00:17:00] sitting.
Stuart: [00:17:03] And the test now is to see how well it works in a real world situation. And we can't afford to test it on the moon right now, but Queensland lava caves could be the solution. Yes,
Guest: [00:17:17] we have environments in Australia which are relatively conducted compared to the movement. Much harder to get
much better than the conventional much, pretty much close to twice, twice a day with no power.
Stuart: [00:17:41] The idea now is to go to Queensland and try it again there. And then.
Guest: [00:17:47] Potentially integrating different systems to get some of
[00:18:00] the options and other countries
could have applications. Pretty much. Anytime someone wants to use one.
Stuart: [00:18:15] From the Royal Melbourne Institute of technology university. And this space-time still the come the first evidence of water vapor on the journey and moving Ganni made and Russia officially places, this new Sequoia SU seventy-five checkmate on display for the world to see all that and more account.
so water vapor has been detected in the atmosphere of Jupiter's largest moon. Ganny made this water vapor formers when eyes from the moon surface [00:19:00] sublimated turning directly from solid ice into a gas. The discovery was made in a comparison between you and archival observations. And the tagging by NASA is Hubble space.
Telescope. Previous research offered circumstantial evidence that the 5,268 kilometer wide Jovian moon bigger than the planet. Mercury contains more water than all the Earth's oceans. However, temperatures there are so cold water on the surface is frozen solid Ganymede oceans lie, roughly 160 kilometers beneath the crown.
Therefore the water vapor being detected now is not represent the evaporation of this ocean that discovery was made when astronomy has re-examined Hubble observations covering the last two decades in 1998, Hubble's imaging spectrograph took the first ultra violet images of Ganni made and they revealed colorful auroral ribbons of electrified gas.
These bands provided evidence of a weak magnetic field. The observations were explained by the [00:20:00] presence of molecular oxygen. But the problem was some of the features didn't match the expected emissions of a pure molecular oxygen atmosphere. So scientists at the time, hypothesized that the discrepancy was caused by higher concentrations of atomic oxygen.
However, more recent followup observations in support of masses, Juno mission combined 2018 data from Hubbell's cosmic origin. Spectrograph with the earlier archival images from the space telescope imaging spectrograph taken between 1998 and 2010. And surprisingly it shows there's hardly any atomic oxygen in Ganymede atmosphere.
The study's lead author Lorenz Roth from the KTH Royal Institute of technology in Stockholm. This is getting made surface temperature very strongly throughout the day and around noon near the equator. It may become sufficiently warm for the ice surface to sublimate small amounts of water molecules.
And it's these water molecules, which are the origin of the perceived differences in the ultraviolet images originally thought [00:21:00] that because by atomic oxygen, as for the molecular oxygen, well that's produced when charge particles erode the water ice surface, the new findings come as the European space agency continues its preparations for next year's launch of the Jupiter icy moons.
Explore it with juice. Juice will arrive at Jupiter in 2029 spending at least three years making data observations of Jupiter and its largest moons with special emphasis on Ganni made as a planetary body and potential habitat. Jenny made was identified for detailed investigation because it provides a natural laboratory for analysis of the nature, evolution and potential habitability of icy worlds in general, the role it plays within the system of Galileo and satellites and its unique magnetic and plasma directions with Jupiter and its environment.
This space-time still the calm Russia's new still fighter. And later in the science report claims the Dota strain of COVID nineteens more successful [00:22:00] because infected people are producing much more of it, all that, and more still to come on space time.
Russia has finally officially placed this new SoCo SU 75 checkmates single engine, still fighter on display for the world to see the new aircraft been designed to compete directly against the F 35 lightning to joint strike fighter. Checkmate is Moscow's second still fighter, a smaller lighter cat apart to its big twin engine.
felon. The felon is a Mac, two capable blended wing body fuselage design aircraft seen as Russia's answer to America's F 22 Raptor currently regarded as the world's best jet fighter. For the technically minded, a smaller checkmate is understood to be capable of Mac 1.6, the same as the [00:23:00] and better than the BNC versions of the F 35, which can only fly supersonically for short periods of time before damaging the aircraft, tell sex.
Checkmates power comes from a single MPO set. And I's the Les 30 engine two of which have fitted to the bigger issue of 57 felon in the same way that the Pratt and Whitney F1 35 engine used on the F 35 is the development of the Pratt Whitney F1 nineteens two, which are used on the bigger F 22 checkmates operational range is expected to be around 2000 kilometers.
Only, slightly less than the F 35. Yeah, by comparison shipmates, big brother, the SU 57 felon as a sub Sonic range of three and a half thousand kilometers, better than the F 22 Raptors 3000 kilometer range. The felon has a highest service ceiling of 20 kilometers or 66,000 feet, about a thousand feet higher than an F 22, but the F 22 is a far higher top speed of Mac 2.25.
Super cruise, [00:24:00] the ability to fly supersonically without engaging fuel guzzling, afterburners and thrust vectoring system, improving the maneuverability of aircraft. A key features of both the F 22 and the SU 57, but not fitted to either the F 35 or its Russian caterpillar checkmate. In the same way that the F 35 is an American exports, still fighter checkmate is being touted for Russia's traditional export markets, such as Vietnam and India with delivery is expected to begin in about six years time, importantly, checkmates expected to cost just a fraction of the price of an F 35, a big selling point for many third world countries.
and Tom had to take a brief look at some of the other stories, making news in science this week with a science report. And you study shows that the daughter strand of the [00:25:00] COVID-19 virus is more successful than other variants because infected people are producing more of this virus than those infected with other strains.
Since first appearing in India late last year, the data varied has become the predominant strain in much of the world. Then new findings reported in the journal nature looked at some of the first victims infected with a Dota strain in China, and it showed their viral load. A measure of the density of the viral particles in the body was roughly a thousand times higher than those infected with the original Corona virus.
The world health organization estimates more than 8 million people have been killed by the COVID-19 Corona virus. There have been over 4.2 million confirmed fatalities and 196 million people infected since the deadly disease. First spread out of Wuhan China. Well debate continues in medical circles as to whether consuming small quantities of wine could reduce or increase your risk of an irregular heartbeat known as [00:26:00] atrial fibrillation.
A Fibbers it's often code affects roughly one and a hundred people. A report in the journal clinical electrophysiology shows one study of over 400,000 predominantly white middle-aged people assess the risk of irregular heartbeat with the amount of alcohol consumed per week. They found that those who consumed very small quantities of wine had a lower risk.
Well, any amount of barrels, cider consumption resulted in a higher risk of irregular heartbeat. However, an editorial in the same journal points out that other studies have found the opposite result, showing that even small amounts of wine consumption increase the risk of irregular heartbeat. And you study warns that Australia's multi-billion dollar chippy industry is being hit by blind.
A report on the Joe microbial genome mix. He's now looking at the extent of the genetic diversity of this chickpea at scotch at blight pathogen. The research is a collaboration, including Griffith university and new south Wales department of primary industries, [00:27:00] the south Australian research and development Institute and Curtin university researchers, and are cataloging the genetic sequences of the causal, fungus or scotch, or Rebbie within all major chickpea production regions in order to identify the most destructive members.
A new study has shown that software Crested cockatoos teach each other how to open household wheelie bins in such a scraps on a theologist reporting. The journal science have documented, or the birds have learned to use their big and feet to open the bin lids and rummage inside the big white parrots are very intelligent and they're naturally curious.
They're native to Woodland habitats across Australia and have adapted well to European settlement and life in urban areas. Scientists watched how there been lid, opening behaviors spread across Sydney suburbs, extending from suburb to suburb and reaching neighboring districts more quickly than suburbs, further away.
And that suggests the new behavior wasn't popping up randomly, but it was being spread through [00:28:00] sexual learning. The authors also found that the birds don't open the bins all the same way. They use different techniques in different suburbs. Again, suggesting that this behavior is being alert by observing other birds.
Around the world. There are now more than a billion people who have been fully vaccinated against the COVID-19 Corona virus that some 15% of the global population right now, and these figures are changing every day. Iceland has the world's highest total vaccination rate at over 75% of the population that's closely followed by Israel, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Chile, or getting close to 70%.
Belgian Singapore Denmark, the United States, Germany, the Netherlands, Austria, Spain and Italy are all reaching the sixties or Switzerland, France, Sweden and grace have around 50% of their populations. Now, fully vaccinated, further down the list of Norway and Finland in the thirties. All Japan is just a quarter of its population, fully [00:29:00] vaccinated.
But you've got to go way down into the teens. The find Russia, South Korea, New Zealand and Australia, in fact, many are now describing Australia's poor vaccination performance as a vaccine stroll out rather than a rollout. Meanwhile, a survey conducted by the Melbourne Institute has found that vaccine hesitancy across Australia has fallen slightly since the Sydney daughter strain outbreak started with the largest full being in new south Wales from 35% down to 24%.
The fallen hesitancy in new south Wales is amongst people who were previously on shore down from 20% to 9.6. The proportion of people who are not willing to be vaccinated at all remained stable at around 15%. That's pretty well. We're at Spain since the beginning of the Sydney outbreak. And that's similar to what happened during the Victorian outbreak.
Few months ago, vaccine hesitancy remains highest in Queensland at over 50%. But Tim Mendham from Australian skeptic says it's important to realize that vaccine [00:30:00] hesitancy isn't the same as being Addy.
Guest: [00:30:03] Why people don't believe in vaccines. Some are suggesting that again, you break it down by category.
Those are the people who are habits, as opposed to those who will get it. They just haven't got around to it, to those who were first on the queue that got it and say, I'm never going to get the bill gates and 5g. And then I bought them all sorts of things. So there are different reasons. Individually, what reasons trying to sort of pin down people to categories is fraught at the best of times, but anti-vax is more anti or authority than it is.
Anti-science. If you can believe that they believe they are choosing a particular sort of site. Which support their argument. They keep using arguments that are either conspiracy based or pseudoscience based. And they believe that the year science is science. So it's just which branch of science that they want to follow.
The anti-vax science that is supported by experimentation and the evidence and the science that is science in quotes that is supported by fear and hysteria, but they believe they are being cited. So why are the [00:31:00] people, you know, there's a range of reasons why people are anti-vax and I would suggest that by and large, the vast majority of people, whether the vaccine hesitance or what not anti-vax at the best of times, the overt anti-vax people who would be between five and 10.
At the moment you can add on vaccine hesitancy, which is anywhere from 15 to 25%, roughly. And that makes it look like a large cohort of anti-vaxxers. But the hesitant people are not necessarily,
Stuart: [00:31:24] anti-vax concerned about the side effects from the vaccines that are now available, whether or not the fives that does causing lodge tots, whether or not AstraZeneca is going to be a problem in terms of blood or
Guest: [00:31:36] whether the vaccines will make you sterile and give you smaller.
Stuart: [00:31:43] Serious issue
Guest: [00:31:46] also the theories that are out there, obviously for what the impact of the vaccines will do, right? The actual disease. Oh yeah. Yeah. There's was many things out there that you can claim caused by the vaccine you want to make up. [00:32:00] The vast majority of the vaccine hesitant will move across, especially as threats arise.
You'll see an increase in the number of vaccine takers
Stuart: [00:32:09] eventually from Australian skeptics.
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[00:34:00] Your window on the universe. You've been listening to space-time with Stuart Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from bitesz.com