May 17, 2021

Have Astronomers Found Antimatter Stars?

For more SpaceTime visit or the all new
The Astronomy, Technology and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 55
*Have astronomers found antimatter stars
Astronomers have identified 14 ...

For more SpaceTime visit or the all new

The Astronomy, Technology and Space Science News Podcast.

SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 55

*Have astronomers found antimatter stars

Astronomers have identified 14 potential candidate stars that -- just maybe – might be made out of antimatter rather than normal matter.

*Ingenuity and Perseverance head south on the Red Planet

NASA’s Ingenuity helicopter has completed its first one way flight above the surface of the red planet landing at a remote location 129 metres south of its take off point.

*Mapping the Milky Way’s galactic magnetic fields

Astronomers have created a 3D map of the magnetic field in a small wedge of the Milky Way galaxy.

*SpaceX successfully launches the same Falcon 9 rocket for the tenth time

SpaceX has carried out a successful tenth flight using the same Falcon 9 first stage booster with Elon Musk saying it’s showing very little wear.

*The Science Report

Fission reactions discovered smouldering away in the wreckage of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power plant.

A deadly new variant of COVID-19 devastates an already badly hit India.

The earliest known deliberate burial by modern humans.

Studies show people are consuming up to four milligrams of plastic for every 100 grams of rice they eat.

Skeptic's guide to Prince Philip’s interest in aliens and UFOs.

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SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 55 AI Transcript

[00:00:00] This is space time series 24 episode 55 for broadcast on the 17th of May, 2021. Coming up on space time, have astronomers found anti-medic stars, ingenuity and perseverance head South. As the begin, their exploration campaign on Mars and space X successfully launches the same Falcon nine rocket for a 10th time.

Any Elon Musk says they'll continue pushing the envelope. All that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time with Stuart, Gary.

Astronomers have identified 14 potential candidates stars that just maybe might be [00:01:00] made out of anti-matter rather than normal matter. One of the biggest problems with sciences understanding of the universe and cosmology is that equal amounts of matter and anti-matter would have been created in the big bang.

When the universe came into being 13.82 billion years ago. Now other than in science fiction, there's really nothing special about anti-matter. It simply has the opposite electrical charge of so-called normal matter. So the anti-medic counterpart to the positively charged proton is the negatively charged anti-proton and the anti-medic counterpart to the negatively charged electron is the positively charged positron.

The problem is that when matter and antimatter come into contact, they Nile at each other. So with equal amounts of matter, and anti-matter being created in the big bang, the universe should have annihilated itself in a bright blue flash of gamma rays, as soon as it came into existence, yet, clearly that didn't happen.

And we live in a universe composed mostly of [00:02:00] matter rather than anti matter. Of course, that doesn't mean there isn't any anti-matter out there. We see it all the time. It just doesn't hang around very long. And they may be significant regions of anti-matter in the observable universe. But so far we haven't found them finding huge regions of anti-matter would require looking for the high energy gamma Ray glow being generated on exporters where matter.

And anti-matter coming to contact this annihilation. Radiation would feature a characteristic spectrum picking around half the massive and mutual pion with a cutoff around the mass of a proton. But the failure to detect this annihilation gamma Ray radiation, as virtually excluded the existence of at least significant amounts of baryonic anti-matter in our cosmic neighborhood.

However, the alpha magnetic spectrometer experiment AMS to aboard the international space station has on several occasions. Tentatively detected anti helium, nuclei, not many somewhere around one [00:03:00] in every hundred million helium atoms. Now all of the events that have been reported six, a compatible with being at a helium three and two with Addie helium four.

So that raises the question about whether this represents a sort of smoking gun for the existence of anti-medic stars or anti stars, and possibly even anti-medic galaxies to try and resolve the question as traumas have turned to NASA's Fermi gamma Ray space telescope. Again, looking for that tilt Taylor nine Alation radiation.

The other is analyzed data from a gamma Ray catalog known as four FGL out to now for FGL DHEA two is based on 10 years of observations, looking at the 50 mega electron volts to one Terra electron volt energy range. It contains some 5,787 gamma Ray sources, including their special parameters, spectral energy distributions, light curves, and multi wavelength associations.

Reporting in the journal, physical review, [00:04:00] D the authors were able to identify 14 possibly stars whose properties were spectrally compatible with a top of signal, likely to be generated by matter. Anti-matter in isolation. Now the authors stress, this doesn't mean they've found a bunch of anti-matter stars.

These things are just as likely to simply be POS or stellar mass black holes. Still, if they were anti-medic stars or anti stars, you could extrapolate that out to indicate the Milky way contains as many phase five anti metastatic for every 2 million regular stars. And the authors say that to be the source of the annihilation nuclear.

I tentatively detected by the AMS to experiment these anti stars. If they do really exist, probably between around 30 and a thousand light years away, which means they could be hiding in the galaxies disk or at most in the gallery. Hello, it's certainly not proof of anti-matter stars, but you've got it mid.

It does deserve further investigation. [00:05:00] This is space time still the calm messes, ingenuity, and perseverance head South on the red planet. As they begin their scientific mission and astronomers have created a three-dimensional map of magnetic fields in the small wedge of the Milky way. Galaxy. Oh, that in much more store the calm on space time.

Masses the helicopter has completed its first one way. Flight above the surface of the red planet landing at a remote location, 129 meters South of its takeoff point. Ever since ingenuity arrived on Mazi, mid February tucked beneath the perseverance Rover, the tissue box size twin rotor aircraft has never ventured far from home base, an area which has been dubbed Wright brothers field in honor of [00:06:00] oval and Wilbur Wright who undertook the first powered controlled flight in history.

And after H of ingenuity is for test flights, it's always returned to the same spot each night. Now with these tests, White's completed proving to mission managers at the 1.8 kilogram autonomous helicopter really can fly in the Martian atmosphere. Its fifth flight transitions, the rotor craft into a new role.

One of supporting perseverance and its mission to study the geology of the river Dota region of Jethro crater and search for signs of past microbial life on Mars. The 108 second flight took ingenuity South Miami to an altitude of 10 meters and surveying the surrounding terrain, taking high resolution color images of the area before attaching down at the new site for its first overnight.

Stay away from Wright brothers field, the ingenuity team at NASA's jet propulsion laboratory in Pasadena, California chose the new site based on information gathered during the previous flight. The first stereo [00:07:00] scout mission on another world. That flight generated digital elevation maps indicating almost completely flat terrain with virtually no major obstructions.

The flight represents the rudder crafts transition to its new operations demonstration phase. Focusing on the type of capabilities or rotorcraft operating on mosque can provide such as scouting ahead for the best terrain and the taking aerial observations of areas not accessible by Rover. And of course, detailed aerial imaging.

These operations and the lessons learned from them will significantly benefit, feature, Errol exploration of Mars and other worlds, including the upcoming dragon fly mission to the stanchion moon. Titan. Of course, this new phase also brings with it added risk to ingenuity with more one way flights and more precision maneuvering required by the autonomous aircraft.

Having successfully land that at its new site, ingenuity will now await future instructions relayed by way of the perseverance row from mission [00:08:00] manages. Meanwhile, these six wheeled car size perseverance is also heading South towards its first primary science and sample collection spot. Not far from where the helicopter is sitting, the Rover teams need to him.

Strategy won't require any long drives that would leave the helicopter far behind. Thereby allowing ingenuity to continue supporting the primary mission as they move together through new terrain. But for the media back home on earth, some 317 million kilometers or 18 light minutes away, the highlight of the past week as being the ability to actually hear that sounds of ingenuity is whirling rotor blades, cutting through the thin mash and atmosphere.

[00:09:00] The sound of human encroachment on the surface of another world, the initial rumble in the background is the Marsh and wind or the hum, which takes over other helicopters blades spinning it 2,537 RPM with a sound being greatly muffled by the thin mash and atmosphere. Perseverance used one of its two microphones to listen as the ingenuity helicopter that some 80 meters away flew out on its fullest mission back on the last day of April, it's the first time a spacecraft on another planet as recorded the sounds of another spacecraft on that world.

This space-time. Still the calm astronomers create a three-dimensional magnetic field map of part of [00:10:00] the Milky way. Galaxy and space X reaches a major milestone successfully launching the same Falcon nine rocket for a 10th time, all out of more store to come on. Space time.

Astronomers have created a three dimensional map of the magnetic field and a small wedge of the Milky way. Galaxy the research reported in the astrophysical journal paves the way for discoveries, improving sciences, understanding of the evolution of the Milky way, the formation of stars and planets and the early stages of the universe lead researcher.

Dr.  from Australian national university says the work was the first to Tama graphically measure the strength of that Galaxy's magnetic field. The Milky ways, magnetic field and cosmic dust act like a veil that obscures the [00:11:00] radiation from the early stages of the universe known as the cosmic microwave background.

And it's prevented scientists from testing cosmological models for the investors evolution. Trisha says the research provides a means to map the strength of the magnetic field for all regions of our galaxy, enabling astronomers to better understand the universe has evolution. The authors found that the Galaxy's magnetic field strength was much higher than previously thought.

Most models that predict the strength of the Galaxy's magnetic field for every location and distance from the sun, uh, based on observations that can't probe the magnetic field in three dimensions, the study is also an important step in understanding how ultra high energy cosmic rays travel through the galaxy.

Galactic cosmic rays are very high energy particles. Often with energy is far greater than what can be produced in even the biggest particle accelerators on earth. Trisha says that by understanding the structure and strength of the magnetic field, astronomers can improve their chances of finding the locations of the sources of these extremely [00:12:00] energetic particles and thereby probe new physics at extreme the magnetic field plays an important role.

In many of these processes, the importance is more or less straightforward. So first you have a cosmic rays, which are very, , uh, much more, uh, than what we can eat with our accelerators. Right. Then, because these pockets of we are elected from the magnetic tree. Why is it important to know how cosmic rays are deflected by magnetic fields?

Okay. We want to know the show. She's second. We want to know their, their, their nature, how heavy these product are in a sense, right? And, uh, as a result, we can test our models of particle physics in very, very high energy. By that you find out more about the properties of cosmic rays, as well as where they're coming from.

Yes, exactly. And of course that's not the only issue is that also we want to find out more about the cosmic microwave background radiation 2.7 [00:13:00] degrees above absolute zero. Now it's often described as the leftover light from the big bang itself, some 380,000 years after the big bang occurred. The thing is that all over or galaxy?

Uh, there are some dust grains, and this does go into line with the magnetic field and they act like, like a veil that prevents us from studying all the properties of the CMV and some properties that we haven't yet padded hold the potent clues. About the sales stages of the universe. This includes things like the Hubble constant, because there are different ideas as to what the Hubble constant actually is.

There are two primary ways of looking at the Hubble constant and they're giving different figures. One of those ways is the CMB, right? So it's not directly without in the center. So some theory can cause more logical models from inflation. So inflation was a period of a universe where the universe grew exponentially.

Right? And so some of these theoretical models [00:14:00] predict the certain part and to be present in the CMB. And, uh, one who confirmed that we can't detect me in the same day. They have a questions, but, uh, the magnetic field and the dusk games are in the way and understanding cosmic inflation would tell us all about.

Well, the moments of the big bang itself. Yes, exactly. Which is about as far back as you can see, as far as, like you said, you said it, right? Yes. The magnetic field is very, very important for the evolution of molecular clouds, which are the places where I start at formed. So a 3d map of the magnetic field of the galaxy would just give us really important information regarding a star implant information.

So we'll find out more about where we came from. Yeah. Yeah. So we'll actually find where the university and from. Where we came from what's happening in the most innovative coordinates of our cosmos. We will learn a lot of things. It's just the magnetic release time. It's funny, isn't it? When you think about it, because astronomy has, haven't really focused as [00:15:00] much on the magnetic field as they should have over time.

I've always looked at just the optical light, but they haven't looked at the other side of the electromagnetic spectrum, the, the magnetic field. To nearly the same degree if he needs. It's very, very hard to observe and especially in a, in three dimensions. So, so there was a saying one would observe certain phenomena and investigated what part of the phenomenon could be explained.

And then the unexpected unexplained parts were starting to show the effect of the magnetic fields. So, uh, the lab is one ignorance, the stronger the magnetic field. I've heard that expression myself. Yes. Yes. So how did you, how were you able to map the magnetic? Okay. So the way we did that is by examining the clouds, the clouds threaded by the magnetic field and some magnetic waves and these waves, the imprint.

In the, in the clouds. So by studying the clouds, we study these magnetic waves and by studying the magnetic waves, we can [00:16:00] find the value of the over the magnetic field. And the cool thing is that we can do that in three dimensions, which has never been done before.  we now have a method to map the magnetic field.

You can see the, so out of the two dimensional world. And into the full city. What did you use? What instruments were used to do that? Uh, so I used, uh, some, uh, observation, some radio observations, looking at the H one, any specific telescopes or just whatever archival many surveys, so that, so there were a couple of surveys.

The past decade and compilation of observations called the  and way to now, you want to increase that map? I'd take it. Yeah. Our next plan is to increase, increase that map and do the entire galaxy and have you over the magnetic field of our entire galaxy would, would be, which would be. Uh, shoot the important, what did you choose?

The two slices of the pie you chose? Were there any particular reasons for that or is that something in that [00:17:00] direction, those directions or interest? Yes, actually there was. And so in that general direction, we also observe the so-called the Academy gray hotspot. Which is basically an excess of, uh,  what's like headed in that direction.

so that's where we think the cosmic rays are coming from, or some of them, uh, we, we don't know. Because, uh, the, the, the fact that we see them project, the sky with w direction doesn't mean it doesn't necessarily mean that they're coming from like the galaxy and right behind that, that, uh, uh, region, this guy, because of a deflection from the grant, am I going to defeat it?

I think in that direction that, uh, we've selected to generate the moment specific, uh, specifically extra large supermassive black holes. Uh, we're looking, we're looking into that. We're not sure yet time will tell you exactly.  from the Australian national university. [00:18:00] And this is space time, still the com a major milestone for space X as they launch the same Falcon nine rocket for the 10th time and later in the science report, vision reactions discovered smoldering away in the wreckage of the Chenault bowl, nuclear power plant, all that, and much more still to come.

On space time,

space X has passed the major milestone, carry out a successful 10th flight using the same Falcon nine first stage booster. The booster numbered B 10 51 was used to launch the 27th of cluster of 60 styling, broadband telecommunication satellites. The mission was flown from space launch complex 40 at the Cape Canaveral space for a station in [00:19:00] Florida after Mika or managing cutout and the state separation, the boosters successfully returned to worth landing on the drone ship.

Just read the instructions, which was pre-positioned 630 kilometers down range in the North Atlantic ocean. Space X originally designed the block five version of the FACA nine first stage for 10 launches. But they're now considering extending that as pre-phone rockets all appear to be doing well, the company says it's using its internal Starlink missions to test the limits of the boosters reliability.

As for this booster, be 10 51, it's only a required minor refurbishment between each flight. Space X bossy. Elon Musk says there's been no significant wear and tear of any of the magic components. Meaning that with engine replacement, H Vista could theoretically I'll have to 100 times be 10 51 first floor back in 2019, watching the unmanned crew dragon capsule on the demo.

One mission to the international space station. It's also [00:20:00] launched a trio of Canadian earth, observation satellites, a Sirius XM, broadband telecommunication, satellite, and seven different styling missions. Space X is so confident with the reliability they had boosters. And now equipping the 70 made a toll rockets with a series of upgrades, including more robust thermal protection systems are more durable and a stage.

That's the bit between the top of the core stage and the upper stage. They're improved that the Tanium grid fins used to control the boosters during their re-entry into its atmosphere. And they're being given more powerful engines. Last year space X also positioned both of their drone ships. Of course, I still love you and just read the instructions on the East coast, thereby allowing loans, frequencies to be increased to less than a week between flights.

In fact, this latest 27th Starlink mission launched just five days after the last and like the last 60 satellites on board. This mission we're all safely deployed into a 580 kilometer high orbit. For the record, the turtle number of [00:21:00] Starlink satellites now launched stands at 1,625 of which 1,554 of the turned and 60 gram spacecraft is still in orbit space.

XC is hoping to eventually launch over 30,000 styling satellites, providing broadband internet coverage over match of the planet. This mission was also the 14th Falcon nine launch so far this year. This is space time.

And Tom had to take a brief look at some of the other stories making use in science this week, where the science report increased levels of neutrons emanating from an inaccessible basement area at the Schnabel nuclear power station indicate that fission reactions are again, smoldering away at the side.

The number four reactor at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Ukraine exploded during a failed test in 1986 in what's become known as the [00:22:00] world's worst nuclear disaster. Now a report of the journal science claims new readings are showing that radioactive neutron emissions have increased by 40% since 2016.

And that suggests a growing fusion reaction is underway deep inside the wreckage of the plant. The focus of attention is the Magwood reactor hall basement known as room three Oh five, two. It's in tomb, deep, under hundreds of tons of highly radioactive steel and concrete rubble. And it contains a congealed mixture of highly radioactive melted lava, including about 170 tons or 95% of the number four reactors uranium fuel load, as well as the fuel rods or conium cladding, the graphite control rods and hundreds of tons of sanding concrete, which was dumped on at the core to try and extinguish the fire.

The deadly black molten lava mixture that's resulted slowly oozed into the basement. After the meltdown, computer modeling suggests that [00:23:00] neutrons in the lava, a splitting uranium nuclei causing fission to take place the specter of self-sustaining Fision or criticality in this highly radioactive ruin has long haunted scientists.

So what's gone on. Well it's thought the giant sarcophagus hardly constructed over the reactor site. After the explosion was riddled with holes, allowing water to seep in, and that water moderated neutron reactions in the uranium lover. However, a far more massive concrete instilling casement is now in term of the entire number four reactors site.

And that's prevented further water seepage and with the water level and the basement dropping there is nothing to sufficiently slow the neutrons down. And it's that, which their fear is causing the increases in radiation. On the other hand, once the water dries up completely, the neutrons will be moving too fast to be captured, and that should prevent fishing from occurring for now.

However, the radiation continues to seep out and levels continue to increase. Now [00:24:00] it's important to point out that there's no chance of a repeat of the 1986 explosion with center radioactive cloud over much of Europe. However, there are concerns that the fission reaction now underway and the wreckage will accelerate exponentially.

And that could lead to a smaller, uncontrolled, explosive reaction, which could bring down unstable structures inside the sarcophagus spreading a massive cloud of radioactive dust. Scientists are looking at a couple of possible solutions. One would involve drilling into the basement and then spraying the entire area with the neutron absorbers, such as ghetto lineage.

Another option would involve developing a robotic drill, capable of withstanding the intense radiation long enough to drill directly into the lava itself and insert a series of boron control rods in order to restrict the neutrons activities, whatever happens for now and for the foreseeable future, the number four reactive side at Chernobyl will remain the deadliest place on earth.

[00:25:00] As the horrific COVID-19 death toll and infection rate continues to spiral across India scientists. They're working to try and understand the Corona virus variants now circulating across the subcontinent, the countries recording some 400,000 new infections every day. Taking the Tuttle from this ferocious latest wave to more than 22 million.

A report in the journal nature claims there's growing evidence that a new variant known as B one six one seven, which was first detected in India might be more transmissible and better at evading immunity than other variants. The studies are also suggesting that this Indian variant might be causing more severe disease.

Almost three and a half million people have now been killed by the COVID 19 Corona virus with another 160 million infected since the deadly disease first emerged in Warhammer, China and was spreading around the world. The earliest known yeah, liberate burial by modern humans in Africa has been discovered with the [00:26:00] body of the young child and researchers have named Metallica, which means childhood Swahili.

A report in the general nature is dated Totos burial in a cave in Kenya to around 78,000 years ago, with the arrangement of the bone fragments, suggesting that two and a half to three year old was buried on its side in a fetal position. Anthropologists found the body was covered in dirt from the cave floor, and it appears to have been rapidly covered, would suggest that it was a burial.

Sad to say this burial shows clear differences from those of, in the NFL's and early modern humans in Eurasia providing new insights into the evolution of homo sapiens in Africa. Yeah. And do you study as well that people are consuming up to four milligrams of plastic for every 100 grams of rice. They ate with that number jumping up to 13 milligrams per serve for instant rice.

Findings by scientists from the university of Queensland is the first to quantify levels of microplastics and rice. But there is some good news, a report in [00:27:00] the journal of hazardous materials found that washing rice, before cooking reduced plastic contamination between 20 and 40%, it's been revealed that the late Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh had a keen interest in aliens.

UFO's. Cementum from Australian skeptic says, then you shouldn't be a big surprise as members of the Royal family have also shown interest in things like home. Apparently he did. They, the truth can be revealed. Royal family is not particularly well-known for being the most scientifically literate. They have been certainly Prince Phillip.

And I think the queen as well has been supporters of a certain amount of alternative medicine, cures and things like that. But Prince Philip apparently had a big belief in. UFO's aliens had some stuff. He was a subscriber to a magazine called flying social review. He had lots of books on extraterrestrial and campus and that sort of stuff.

And it was, it was a big thing for him. He used to write to a famous, a urologist UFO, ologist analytically named Timothy. Good to describe yourself as the leading authority [00:28:00] on UFO's and alien presence. And Phillip wrote to this guy good that there are many reasons to believe that extraterrestrials exist.

Because there so much evidence from reliable witnesses. Well, unfortunately the evidence from witnesses is not particularly reliable and the sightings and other manifestations are subject to a lot of dismissive debate. Did Phil to any well-known physicist about this topic? That's what I'd like to know.

It's hard to say because I mean, not that much about Phillip's personal life, but I dare say he was in touch with some scientists, et cetera, but it's often through his Eckery who was his offsider, who. Moderately he's conduit to some of these things he gave way back when this guy, the go ahead to look into any credible accounts of alien and cannabis or USI siding.

So it was a big deal. It was an ongoing thing paying for a lot of his life. Obviously he had the UFI movement where he got a boost up after the second world war and the early fifties, et cetera. And that's really when he started sort of making a lot of inquiries to Penn, apparently sort of having his beliefs [00:29:00] because the guy was a pilot.

He should have known better. Well, the thing you find that there's no guarantee that people aren't going to believe something when yes, you would hope that pilots would see more things, less prone to such things. But I mean, people keep writing, Oh, he's a policeman. He must know what he's talking about.

Policemen don't deal with Eileen. Fairly often. They have time for pilots, pilots reports saying things that they. Kind of explain them that makes it a flying saucer or an alien followers of UFOs. The Hypertherm flying saucer. Fair enough. You can blame the media for that. They're the ones who invented flying Sosa.

Um, the guy who was Arnold was a surname guy who said he saw objects moving near Mount Rainier in Washington state, I think. And that was the source of a lot of the, yeah, the mania. He didn't say. He said that he decided there was social shapes. It was something halfway. They, and that was then picked up by the media was saying though, flying sources and ever since then, that became the shape of the classic shape as these alien craft.

Now you can [00:30:00] say an identified flying object, but that implies flying implies some sort of control and identified this objects means it is a thing, but flying as a program, unidentified aerial phenomenon, which is the UAP, which is one of the other alternatives, it's a bit broader. But it can also mean I'm identified up in the sky and it's a phenomenon that could be a cloud clamped that only identified.

But you know, it's not something you can say way up there that I don't know whether it is, but it's up there and it could be way up in spice. It could be Venus. I'm sure all your, all your listeners are well aware of Venus being one of the major things. Ubiquitous. Venus. Yes. It was definitely not Venus. I want to say, Oh, you could see Venus think.

Could you, uh, Oh, it was in the way of me. Yeah. So, you know, if you look that way, you should have seen that Venus anyway. I'm sure. Um, Prince Phillip is now sort of, he she'll be able to, unfortunately we probably have going to have to wait a while to hear back from him though. He's also, he's he's uncle [00:31:00] Louis Mountbatten.

Believer in flying sources, maybe he passed on the, on the dream Mendham from Australian skeptics.

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Your window on the universe. You've been listening to space-time with [00:33:00] Stewart, Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from