Sept. 13, 2021

First Evidence for a New Type of Supernova

The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 103
*First evidence for a new type of supernova
Astronomers have gathered evidence of what appears to be a new type of supernova.
*Cosmic filament discovery...


The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 103
*First evidence for a new type of supernova
Astronomers have gathered evidence of what appears to be a new type of supernova.
*Cosmic filament discovery supports Lambda Cold Dark Matter hypothesis
Astronomers have discovered the longest intergalactic filament ever seen. The discovery strongly supports the Lambda Cold Dark Matter model explaining the evolution of the universe over the past 13.82 billion years since the big bang.
*More than a million near Earth objects now detected
The European Space Agency’s Planetary defence office catalogue of asteroids with good orbital information has now surpassed a million.
*Virgin Galactic grounded by FAA
The US Federal Aviation Administration -- the FAA -- has grounded Virgin Galactic as it investigates why its last flight to the edge of space deviated from its planned trajectory.
*The Science Report
Delta variant of COVID-19 is eight times less sensitive to the antibodies generated by vaccination.
A grim picture for Australia’s most endangered plants and animals.
Bisexuals have more than twice the rates of asthma and other lung diseases as straight people.
Skeptic's guide to 9-11
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Transcript

SpaceTime S24E103 AI Transcript

[00:00:00] Stuart: This is space time series 24 episode, 103 for broadcasts on the 13th of September, 2021. Coming up on space time, first evidence for a new type of supernova, new support for the Lambda cold dark matter hypothesis and Virgin galactic grounded by the FAA. Oh, that and more coming up on space time.

[00:00:25] VO Guy: Welcome to Space Time with Stuart Gary

[00:00:45] Stuart: astronomers have gathered evidence for what appears to be a new type of supernova. Supernova mark the spectacular explosive death of a star in a blast. So powerful. It can briefly art shine, an entire galaxy. They can occur when a did still a core of a sunlight star, not as a white dwarf draws material off a close companion star until it reaches a point known as the Chandra sacar limit, which is around 1.4, four times the mass of our sun.

This Chandra's Segarra limit his barrier for something known as electron degeneracy. This is the quantum mechanical effect arising from the poly exclusion principle at prevents more than one Fermi arm, which is a subatomic particle, such as an electron from being in the same minimum energy level, quantum state.

At the same time, when a white dwarf exceeds this Chandra Sacre limit, it triggers a thermonuclear supernova explosion, which will destroy the progenitor stem. If a white to have close to this limit, gravitationally drags, additional material onto its surface to the point where it exceeds this change of sake, our limit, it can trigger a massive thermonuclear supernova explosion destroying the white dwarf.

A supernova can also occur when a staff far more massive than the sun runs out of fuel for core nuclear fuel. Now this causes the delicate balancing act between nuclear energy, pushing outwards from the stars core and gravity crashing down towards its center from continuing and gravity wins causing the Stila core to collapse, inwards and triggering a shockwave causing what's called a core collapse.

Supernova explosion. Now, these stars have so much mass that their immense gravitational collapse is able to punch through the electron degeneracy barrier of the Chandra's sake, our limit crushing the cause negatively charged electrons and positively charged protons together to form neutrons. In other words, creating a neutron star.

Now if the progenitor stars big enough, instead of forming a neutron star it'll collapse down, even further creating a black hole, an area of infinite density in zero volume where gravitational forces are so strong. Nothing not even light can escape because most as a born in close binary systems and neutron star in such a system can end up spiraling into a close companion study.

And that would trigger another core collapse supernova, but such an event has not previously been seen, at least not until now. Astronomers is using data from the very large array sky survey have detected a new, very luminous radio source. Cataloged is VT J 12 one double zero one plus 4 95 96 47. This object wasn't present in earlier radius survey.

And follow up radio and optical spectroscopy share that the radius sources consistent with an expanding supernova remnant, which is interacting with surrounding material, which appears to have been injected from the same star a few centuries before its explosion. The authors are associating this source with an unidentified x-ray transient, which occurred at the same location back in 2014.

And that suggests the explosion produced a relativistic jet. A report in the journal. Science says this combination of properties is consistent with predictions for emerging triggered supernova. The first ever detected this space-time. Still the calm astronomers detect the longest intergalactic, cosmic filament ever seen, which they say strong support for the land, that cold dark matter hypothesis and the European space edges.

He sets a new record with the detection of their millionth near earth object or that, and more stowed. On space time,

astronomers have discovered the longest indigo lactic cosmic film had ever seen. I've heard discovery, strongly supports. What's known as the Lambda Kodak meta model, which is one of the most popular hypotheses to explain the evolution of the universe over the past 30.82 billion years. Since the big bang, this stream of gas is massive.

Some 50 million light years. A report in the journal, astronomy and astrophysics says it was detected in a system of three galaxy clusters known as able 33 91 95, which is located some 700 million light years away. The findings further support earlier observations, showing that these gossamer thin threads gas contain most of the universe is missing normal.

Baryonic mass. These filaments weave their way through the galaxies galaxy clusters. And superclusters that surround vast voids and combined to make up the large scale cosmic web like structure of the universe. One of the big problems astronomers have is that so much of that universe is missing a mysterious force called dark energy is causing the universe has red of expansion to accelerate.

And while scientists know that mass causes gravity, they have no idea what causes this vacuum energy, this dark energy, which seems to act opposite to gravity, but they know there's a lot of it there. Cause it makes up about 69% of the is total matter energy budget. Meanwhile, an invisible substance called dark matter makes up another 27%.

Scientists have no idea what that is either, but they can see its gravitational influence on normal. So called baryonic matter. That's the stuff that stars, planets houses, people, trees, dogs, cats, and cars are made out of astronomists can see dark matter, holding galaxies together, stopping them from flinging a part as they rotate.

Now, all that means that only about 4% of the total matter energy budget of the universe can be accounted for. But even this tiny amount of so called normal or baryonic matter comes with questions. It's because about half of what scientists calculate should be, there can actually be accounted for. But over the last few years, there's been more and more evidence that the missing baryonic matter is contained in these gossamer thin gas filaments threading between galaxies, galaxy, casters, and superclusters, which surround the vast voids of the large scale cosmic web like structure of the universe.

Importantly, this latest discovery is strikingly similar to the predictions generated by computer simulations. It supports the idea that the universe expanded out from a big bang evenly in all directions with its matter, almost uniformly distributed, almost uniformly, but not completely. There were some areas which were slightly denser than others.

And these generated slightly more gravity, which over time, often millions to billions of years attracted more and more matter. Eventually for me, the stars and galaxies we see today at the same time, the space between them became emptier and emptier. Eventually forming the voids. The end result is the large-scale cosmic way.

One of the study's authors, Thomas robbery from the university of bond says the gossamer thin guests film, it's connecting the galaxies and clusters is the evidence supporting the Lambda called dark matter hypothesis. He says this gases escape detection so far because the enormous expansion of the filament is diluted the matter in them.

In fact, it contains just 10 particles per cubic meter, which is much less than the best vacuum we can create. The observations were made using Germany's space telescope, it's equipped with detectives sensitive to the type of x-ray radiation that's submitted by the guests in these filaments. It also has a large field of view, very much like a wide angle lens, and that allows it to capture a relatively large portion of the sky and a single measurement and all with relatively high resolution.

Meanwhile astronomy is using the CSI rows as cap astray in square kilometer array, Pathfinder radio telescope provided additional data to the team. Professor Ray Norris from the university of Western Sydney says the S cap observations, complement their receded data to reveal a striking richness of structure and activity in the merging cluster system.

I'm understanding that the

[00:09:20] Guest: university is the off the big bang. All the hydrogen gas is formed off big bang

forces and. Well, the web like structure, which call the cosmic web. So what we expect in these models is the, all the galaxies we see. It should be a strong along filaments sheets with great voids in the train. So that's what I say. He tells us based on our understanding of darkness and dark engines. And when we look at the calendar and they see, see that he's looks like.

We've never tested the gas in the film, which we expect. So what we've found in this fuse up that we've published is we've actually detected these filaments, joining the galaxies. And so this was another confirmed model with.

[00:10:14] Stuart: And not only does it help to confirm that it also explains where all the missing baryonic matter is because this has been one of the big puzzles, not just the missing dark matter that through trendy to talk about or what the dark matter even is.

But the big head-scratcher has been well, where's all the normal matter, a lot of it's missing.

[00:10:31] Guest: So, yeah. So when we count all the maps that we see in stars and gallons, There's still not enough. We still expect to see more. And what we've discovered in this filament oldest masters strung out between the galaxies, which very nicely explains the missing.

How has this

[00:10:51] Stuart: research carried out? This was a huge international collaboration led by the university of bond.

[00:10:58] Guest: Right now, there are these two new instruments, which are both so bang the sky. And one of them, which is built by the Germans is looking at x-rays. And the other one as cap Australia is looking in radio waves.

So it boasting the vice the thing, but very different wavelengths. And in this collaboration, we come together, we realize one of the things it's not a collaboration is open. And so. A result. We've got to use both telescopes, email seats, huh? Uh, larger as the sky and look around and see what we're saying.

So he rose the detector, the bridge, they detected the hot gas. We didn't see it without a captain. That's interesting because that tells you what we expected. So say all the electrons by turbulence in the sky, and we would see the radio missions and these electrons, and we don't that tells you that the electrons are not being whipped up by substances.

Quiet mood. And I mean, w what we do standard right there. We see galaxies along the filaments and those falling down into the clusters clusters where that kind of joined each other. And the gala is just falling down smooth. Uh, uh, bye.

[00:12:20] Stuart: When we talk about something that's 700 million light years away. We think of that as being a long way away, but I guess on the scale of things, that's not.

[00:12:29] Guest: Yeah. So we look at things by the way. So I'm of course, as we got further away, we go back inside because if we look at something like 10 billion light is white, that means. The light or radio waves. And that's something it's helped me in years to travel, not subject to us. And so we actually seeing it as it was 10 billion years ago when the lights were radio, is that, so when we look out further than universe are looking back in time, when you see very out of the universe and it's really good for this stuff, because we can see.

When you see the trust is like this, the other joint. I mean, it goes further back in time by look the objects further away and we can see the price or clusters when the trust is the first forming when the web is first pulling together. And so we can see all the stages of the formation on the customer web.

It's a

[00:13:24] Stuart: bit like trying to see the forest for all the trees. Is it a difficult job to be able to place ourselves in the universe on that scale?

[00:13:35] Guest: Yeah, of course in the trade. I mean, one of the problems is that we've had these fantastic telescopes from the past, which are able to see exquisite each trail in these things.

But what we really need is we need telescopes at the sea launch areas. I missed this bald Eagle SITA, and that's crappy too. They're really good at looking at large damage the sky. So ASCAP telescope, it can see deep. Does that mean it's real magic? Is it concede large areas? And so we're seeing things that people have never seen before, just because they have to stand back.

Who've been studying the trees where I see the precedence

[00:14:18] Stuart: as well.

[00:14:26] Guest: Was said long time ago, but that's a really good question. So we've known for a while that models, the dark matter problems. So we know that there's master that we don't see, we see stars going around galaxies and it's as if there's missing maps, which we call dark matter is an idea that maybe there's no document.

Maybe it's just. Mom's has modified you sign in dynamics. Maybe our laws, the graph slightly wrong is a good idea, but the trouble is it problems piecemeal. It doesn't actually give you an old son to save me. And it doesn't predict stuff that we're saying. So for example, this discovery of the cosmic web we've now found.

Totally protected by our ideas if is not by month. So I would say this is what fuels Monday, Sunday, Monday has been. Um,

[00:15:26] Stuart: this is not good from the university of Western Sydney. And this is space time, still the com more than a million near earth objects detected and Virgin galactic grounded by the FAA or that are more still to come on. Space time.

European space agencies, penetrate defense office catalog of asteroids with good orbital information has now surpassed the million in fact, August alone. So the discovery of 294 near-Earth objects that brings the total number of Neos discovered this year to 1,714. Overall the million milestone figure includes 26,498.

near-Earth asteroids and 115 comments. Yeah, these are objects as orbits. Bring them close to or across the earth orbit around the sun and all those 26 and a half thousand objects. 1,190. I considered to be on the high-risk list. The most notable on the latest list is 2021 QM one. It's a moderately large 50 meter wide object with multiple possible impacts with earth over the next century.

But the good news is possible. Doesn't mean very likely because the total impact probability is only about one in 15,000. So I guess you can afford to sleep comfortably tonight. This is space time still to come Virgin galactic grounded by the FAA. And later in the science report, a grim picture for Australia's most endangered plants and animals, or that are more store to car.

On space time.

the United States federal aviation administration. The FAA has grounded Virgin galactic as it investigates. Why its last flight to the edge of space deviated from its planned trajectory. That July 11th flight by the spaceship to unity carried Virgin galactic boss, Richard Branson, to an altitude of 86 kilometers.

The FAA says it's keeping a close sign. Virgin. Galactic's an investigation of the mishap, which occurred during the ascent over spaceport America in New Mexico. The report suggests that Unity's climb was too shallow with a nose insufficiently verdict. Now Virgin galactic says unity did encounter high altitude winds and they changed the trajectory.

But overall, the flight remained within mission parameters, achieving Mac three and another Jude of 86 kilometers before safely returning to the earth. It's unclear whether Unity's next flight, which will carry members of the Italian air force will still take place as shed late this month or early next.

Virgin galactic reopened ticket sales last month, selling trips to the edge of space at $450,000 a seat. And that's a shopping grease on the $250,000 ticket price. They were charging previously. The company says that so far around 600 people have booked seats. This is space time.

And Tom Matta, take a brief look at some of the other stories making use in science this week with a science report and new study has found that the Delta variant of the COVID-19 Corona virus is eight times less sensitive to the antibodies generated by vaccination with Pfizer AstraZeneca compared to the original China wool hand virus strain.

The findings reported in the journal nature also found that the daughter error was more efficient at replicating than the alpha variant and was able to replicate and auntie cells better than the Kappa variant. Thanks largely did changes in the daughter, spike protein. The authors say this makes plain the dominance of Delta.

The research also found that the AstraZeneca vaccine was the less effective against the Dota very than other variants prompting the authors. They conclude that we need strategies to boost vaccine responses against variants. May wall, a separate report. This one in the new England journal of medicine claims the Pfizer Madonna and AstraZeneca vaccines are still highly effective against severe COVID-19 requiring emergency department hospitalization or intensive care unit admission.

The study looked at more than 60,000 emergency department visits or hospital admissions. And then estimated vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of a positive test for SARS cov, two infection among vaccinated patients. With those among un-vaccinated patients, they found the Pfizer Moderner MRNs vaccines were 91% effective against COVID-19 infection leading to an emergency department visit while the AstraZeneca vaccine was 73% effective.

The effectiveness was similar in at-risk populations, such as those over 85. And those with chronic medical conditions, the world health organization says that more than 8 million people have been killed by the COVID-19 Corona virus with well over 4.6 million confirmed fatalities and in excess of 230 million infected people.

The first comprehensive list of the threats posed to Australia's most endangered plants and animals reveals a grim picture about the future of some of the country's most loved natives. The findings reported in the journal, ecology and evolution includes an in-depth analysis of almost 1800 plants and animals listed as threatened under Australian Commonwealth law, including 1,339 plants and 456 animals.

The university of Queensland led study has compelled the dataset listing the threats to Australian species from habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation among its many findings. The swift parrot is facing 17 different threats, including habitat loss from logging and agriculture, invasive weeds and the many and varying effects of climate change.

Similarly koalas are facing nine threats, including habitat loss from agriculture and urban development, dog attack and disease. The findings have been provided to the federal and state governments as well as conservation groups, including BirdLife Australia, the worldwide fund for nature and the nature Conservancy.

And you study claims that bisexuals have more than twice the rates of asthma and lung diseases compared straight. The findings are reported in the annals of the American thoracic society are based on a survey of 12,209 adults enrolled in the American national longitudinal study of adolescent to adult health.

The authors found that 29% of bisexual adults reported experiencing lung disease compared to just 14% of heterosexual. Researchers think higher levels of discrimination experienced by bisexual. People could be leading to more stress and inflammation or stress hormones, which would worsen any asthma condition.

Bisexual adults have already been shown to have worse health outcomes across a number of physical and mental health domains on the streets of Manhattan. Tuesday, September the 11th, 2001 was a beautiful, sparkling clear blues summer. Millions of new Yorkers were going about their business. As they did every day.

Kids going to school, people shopping, others going to work. The streets were packed. Traffic was at a crawl as it always is. And the subways were crowded with commuters from New Jersey, long island and beyond. However, all that suddenly changed at 8:46 AM. As American airlines flight 11 broad thunderously overhead, and then shocking.

Crashed full throttle into the north tower of the world trade center in lower Manhattan. The impact created a scene from hell burning bodies and debris rain down under the streets, black billowing smoke, climbed high into the sky and everywhere the smell of jet fuel. Fill the air. At first, it all seemed like a horrible accident, but then 17 minutes later at 9:03 AM, a second aircraft United airlines flight, 1 75 suddenly slammed into the world trade center, south tower, and it was clear that America was under attack.

Both the iconic 110 story towers collapsed within an hour and 42 minutes. And surrounding buildings, including seven world trade center were also significantly damaged or destroyed. The two airlines had been hijacked by Islamic terrorists, part of a radical group called Al-Qaeda or the bay. As the world was coming to terms with what had just happened in Manhattan at 9:37 AM a third hijack plane, American airlines flight, 77 crashed into the west side of the Pentagon in Arlington Virginia causing a partial collapse, a fourth and final hijacked aircraft.

United airlines flight. 93 was also flying the direction of Washington DC heading for out of the white house or the us Capitol. But by this time, the planes passengers aware of what was happening in New York and Washington attempted to regain control the aircraft from the hijackers. Ultimately succeeded in diverting the plane from its intended target, sacrificing their own lives by forcing the plane to crash into an empty field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania at 10:03 AM.

It was America's first strike back against the terrorism on this terrible day. In awesome. 3000 innocent men, women and children were killed in the attacks. A further 25,000 were injured and another 3000, mostly first responders would die later from the toxic pollution generated by the attack. Despite all the eye witness accounts, all the forensic evidence and even the recorded admissions of guilt by Al-Qaeda boss's summer bin Laden.

There are still conspiracy theorists out there who refuse to accept the evidence. Cementum from Australian skeptic says the facts. It was an act

[00:26:17] Tim Mendham: of Islamic terrorism, all the evidence. That's the answer is the idea worthy with a building, similarly blown up on purpose rather than planes flying into them.

Although they were planes flying into the middle, it was seen from multiple angles by multiple people, but it wasn't actually replied up. And there's moments in which the

[00:26:37] Guest: American government could

[00:26:38] Tim Mendham: effectively wage war on other countries, et cetera, as a revenge or whatever, but all the evidence points to that, it was people flying planes that normal fuel load into the buildings, into the Pentagon and ultra effect on the twin towers on the Pentagon and the plane that crashed in Pennsylvania was thanks to the passengers.

That's fine too. The evidence says mean covenant, covenant, covenant covet. Best place to go is pumping on mechanics, which, and has done, sorry, investigations for years and years. And they put out a book and it's regularly updated and that sort of stuff, theories, the conspiracy theories are not that well updated, but they keep recycling the same ones over and over again.

The classic one is that the five from burning fuel is not hot enough to melt steel. So why did the building collapse? Because it doesn't need to be hot enough to be hot enough to soften it. And then the gravity, the weight of the building takes over from there and all sorts of theories popping to mechanics, the best place to go, to see a detailed, and you can just do pop the mechanics, mind 11 and you'll.

Yes. Captain's point of view. It was a real terrorist action. It's Friday night. It's not company development that doesn't need to be the physical aspects of the planes crashing into the buildings was enough to cause the destruction and, uh, you know, they can go into all the scientific details you want to go into.

It's one of those ones that is just a perennial cause it's moon landing, whether with Kennedy assassination that have a longevity far beyond their worth and really, you know, why bother. And it's a sad situation. I think when people just refuse, refused. And the refuse to hae independent judgements about by governments, Billy, how the painful acts of terrorism, unfortunately, maybe they could follow the engineering principles.

[00:28:19] Stuart: What does it say about the people who keep pushing these conspiracy lines or these people who are so inferior in their own minds, that they, they need to give the impression that they have special knowledge that no one else has special moments

[00:28:32] Tim Mendham: and no one else has with like, shame it, if you want. It is a strange thing.

It's if you get back the $64 question of why, why a conspiracy theorist, conspiracist, um, why did they believe such things? It's a multitude of reasons. One is obviously personal. Obviously you you're talking about people who are unhappy in their lives, et cetera. They've been put upon. They've had bad luck.

I feel like people were acting against them and that helps create the environment in which everything is someone hurting them rather than their own actions. Bad luck and other things is sort of, yeah. Mistrust of government. Some people are in it for the notoriety. Obviously some of the leaders that they are, they enjoy the fame and the fortune, whatever.

Some people just like stirring. Some people are paranoid and it's a multitude of reasons. I've actually discussed this in, um, in a magazine. Why people creationists? Why are people UFO, kinetics? Why are people find the living? They just don't think about nine 11. They claim to be scientifically based. So they're not staffing sites just.

Real sites. And so therefore, you know, they they're trying to place themselves in the reasonable category, but their results are not reasonable, but I lack reason. So, you know, why are they like that?

Typically coming in there would be very intelligent people out. There are unintelligent people. There are educated people there on educated people amongst the believers, in these things. They run the again, Exercise. He does this, obviously something they have in common as a, as a sense of disbelief paranoia,

[00:30:01] Stuart: that's to Mendham from Australian skeptics.

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Editor with Australian Skeptics