Jan. 5, 2022

Earth and Mars Were Formed from Inner Solar System Material

The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 25 Episode 2
*Earth and Mars were formed from inner Solar System material
A new study has confirmed that the Earth and Mars were formed from material that largely originated...


The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 25 Episode 2
*Earth and Mars were formed from inner Solar System material
A new study has confirmed that the Earth and Mars were formed from material that largely originated in the inner Solar System – with only a tiny few percent originating beyond Jupiter's orbit.
*Black holes carve out gigantic bubbles in a massive galaxy cluster
Astronomers have found four enormous cavities, or bubbles, at the centre of a galactic cluster which appear to have been carved out by a pair of erupting supermassive black holes closely orbiting each other.
*France launches its new signet spy satellites
Arianespace has successfully launched a Vega rocket carrying three new French spy satellites into orbit.
*A Turkish delight in orbit
SpaceX have launched a new Turkish telecommunications satellite.
*The Science Report
Warnings that the Thwaites Glacier could shatter part of the Antarctic ice shelf within five years.
The top 10 government-subsidised medicines prescribed in Australia.
The Australian Army to build self-propelled 155 mm howitzers.
How smart are brain surgeons and rocket scientists really.
Alex on Tech your digital footprint
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Transcript

SpaceTime S25E02 AI Transcript

[00:00:00] Stuart: This is space time series 25 episode two for broadcast on the 5th of January, 2022. Coming up on space time. New evidence confirms the children of the inner solar system. Black holes discovered gouging out, gigantic bubbles in a massive galaxy cluster and France launches its new signet, spy satellites, all that and more coming up on space-time

[00:00:28] VO Guy: welcome to space time with Stuart Gary.

[00:00:47] Stuart: A new study has confirmed that the earth and Mars were formed from material that largely originated in the inner solar system with only a tiny percentage originating beyond Jupiter. The findings reported of the journal science advances provides the most comprehensive comparison. So far of the isotopic composition of the earth and Mars and pristine building material from the inner and outer solar system.

The new findings have far reaching consequences for sciences, understanding of the processes, which form the inner planets of the solar system, the terrestrial worlds, mercury Venus earth and Mars. It means a hypothesis that the fall Rocky planets grew to the present size by accumulating millimeter size DUS pep was from the outer solar system.

Isn't. Approximately 4.6 billion years ago, a collapsing cloud of molecular gas and dust condensed out into a proto-planetary disc orbiting around the young nascent sun out to theories. Describe how over millions of years, the inner Rocky planets formed from this original building material. Coordinator of the most widely accepted theory.

Dustin gas in the inner solar system, uh, created into ever larger chunks first through a static electricity. And then later through gravity, gradually growing bigger and bigger and forming planetesimals as big as the Earth's moon collisions between these planetary embryos eventually produced the inner planets that we see today, mercury Venus earth and.

However, another hypothesis recently emerged, which postulates that millimeter size dust pep was migrated from the outer solar system towards the sun, along their way. They created interplanetary embryos to the inner solar system and step-by-step in lodge them to their present size. Both theories are based on theoretical models and computer simulations aimed at reconstructing the conditions and dynamics of the early solar system.

Both describe a possible path for planetary for me. But which one's right. Which process actually took place the study's lead author, Christophe Burkhart from the university of monster in Germany. Sister, find the answer scientists first need to determine the exact composition of the Rocky planets earth and Mars to achieve this.

They examine icy terms of the rare metals, titanium, zirconium, and molybdenum. These are found in minute traces and the artist's Silicon rich layers of birth planet. Isotopes different versions of the same element, which differ early in the wet, their atomic nucleus. The nucleus has the same number of protons at different numbers of neutrons.

The authors assume that in the early solar system, these in other metal isotopes were not evenly distributed. Rather the abundance depended on the distance from the sun. That's because different elements will condense out at different temperatures and distances from the. They therefore hold valuable information about exactly where in the early solar system, a certain bodies building blocks originated as a reference for the originalist stuck inventory of the outer and inner solar system.

The authors use two types of meteorites is chunks of rock. Usually find their way to earth from the main asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. They consider it to be largely pristine material from the beginnings of our solar system. One type of asteroid is known as a carbonaceous.

That's because it contains a few percent of carbon and they known to have originated beyond Jupiter's orbit. And we're only later relocated to the asteroid belt due to the influence of the growing guests giants, their carbon diplomatic counterparts. The so-called non carbonaceous chondrites were formed in the inner solar system, the precise isotopic composition of earth accessible outer Rocky layers.

And that of both types of media rights have been studied for some time. And now, well, on. However, there has been no such similar comprehensive analysis of Martian rocks. So the authors examined samples of 17 media rights known to have originated on the red planet. These would have been blasted off the surface of the red planet by asteroid impacts floating in space for a while, until eventually being caught up in the Earth's gravity.

The 17 meteorites were assigned into six typical types of mash. The authors also investigated the abundances of the three different metal isotopes. The samples of the Martian meteorites were first powdered and then subjected to complex chemical pre-treatment. The authors used a multi collector plasma, mass spectrometer at the university of monster to detect tiny amounts of titanium.

So cranium and molybdenum isotope. They then performed computer simulations in voted to calculate the ratio in which building materials found today in carbonaceous and on carbonaceous chondrites must've been incorporated into earth and Mars in order to reproduce their measured compositions in doing so.

The authors considered two different phases of a creation to account for the different history of the Titanic herbs, as well as the molybdenum isotopes respect. And like titanium. And so conium molybdenum accumulates mainly in the metallic planetary core. The tiny amount store found today in the silica rich outer layers, and therefore only have been added during the very last phase of Planetree growth.

The researchers' results showed that the outer Rocky layers of both the earth and Mars have little in common with the carbonaceous chondrites. So the outer solar system, in fact, they account for any about 4% of birth planets, original building blocks. If earlier than Mars had many a created from dust grants from the outer solar system, its value should be almost 10 times higher, but the authors also found that the composition of the earth and Mars doesn't exactly match the material from the non carbonaceous chondrites of the inner solar system.

Either the computer simulation suggests that another different kind of building material must also have been employed. Bearcat says the isotopic composition of this third type of building material as inferred by the computer simulations implies that it must have originated in the intimate region of the solar system.

Now because bodies in close proximity to the sun are almost never scattered into the asteroid belt. The materials almost completely absorbed into the inner planets and thus does not occur in meteorites. Mind you, the surprising finding does not change the overall results. The inner planets are indeed children of the inner solar system.

This is space time still the com black holes. Carve-out gigantic bubbles in a massive galaxy cluster and France launches. Its new signet, spy satellites, all that are more store to come on. Space time.

Astronomers have discovered for enormous cavities or bubbles at the center of a galactic cluster. They appear to have been carved out by a pair of erupting supermassive black holes, closely orbiting around each other. But as Scott Ray reported on the prepress physics website, archive.org was made by NASA earth.

Orbiting Chandra x-ray observatory. Yaxley Costas are the largest structures in the universe held together by gravity. They're made up of hundreds to often thousands of galaxies, vast clouds of ionized, gas and mysterious dark matter. Now the ionized gas, which pervades the Costas contains much more mess than the galaxies themselves and it glows brightly and x-rays and an enormous galaxies usually found at the center of each.

And you Chandra study of the galaxy cluster known as RBS 7, 9, 7. Okay. Did some 3.9 billion light years away uncovered two separate pairs of cavities extending away from the center of the cluster. Now these types of cavities or bubbles have been seen before in other galaxy clusters, scientists think they're the result of eruptions from regions near a supermassive black hole in the middle of the massive central galaxy.

As matter is ripped the part of false into a fading black hole. Some of it's diverted by a powerful magnetic field lines into two beams or jets, which shoot out perpendicular to the black hole secretion disc. These jets blow cavities into the surrounding hot gas. The revelation in RBS 7, 9, 7 is that there are two pairs to these jets directed perpendicular to.

Now the most likely explanation for do pairs of cavities from two sets of jets, is that there must be two separate supermassive black holes, probably in the process of eventually merging astronomers originally observed a pair of cavities in the east-west direction, but the pair in the north south direction was only detected in a new match, longer Chandra observation.

This new deeper image uses almost five days of Chandra observing time compared to the 14 hours of the original. The national science. Foundation's very large array, New Mexico as already observed evidence for two pairs of jets has radio emissions, which line up with the cavity's. One of the study's authors, Miriam Getty from the university of blinder in Italy, says the current hypothesis involved supermassive black holes forming a binary system.

But she says it's extremely rare that both of them are observed in an active phase. In this sense, the discovery of two close, active black holes, inflating cavities in RBS 7, 9, 7 is quite extraordinary. Already observation with a European very large baseline interferometer network discovered two radio sources separated by only about 250 light years in RBS seven nine.

Now if Beth sources are supermassive black holes are suspected they're among the closest pair ever detected. The two black holes should continue spiraling towards each other. Generating huge amounts of gravitational waves and eventually merging. However, another possible explanation for the four cavity sitting in RBS 7, 9, 7 involves only one supermassive black hole with jets that somehow manage to flip around in direction quite quick.

And analysis of the Chandra data shows that the age difference for the east Western north south cavities is less than 10 million years. Now, if there's only one black hole responsible for all four cavities and astronomers will need to trace the history of this activity, the key questions will be how the Jet's orientation changed so quickly.

And whether this is all related to the galaxy clusters environment or to the physics of the black hole itself, this space. Stole the calm France launches this new Cygnet spy satellites, and a Turkish delight reaches, orbit, all that a more store to come on. Space time.

Arianne space has successfully launched a vaguer rocket carrying three new friends, spy satellites into orbit. The signals intelligence gathering spacecraft will launch from the European space agencies. Cruise spaceport in French Guiana at . This

bank got quiet, dude. Dope. I do want to pick up

[00:12:15] Narrator: I'm always impressed and it's incredible to see that full daylight. No clouds today. It's absolutely wonderful. It's been flying for 45 seconds. So acquisitioned by the central station and that's a 12th launch for the Aryan space. Launch so far. So we've just had acquisition by central. What does this mean?

It's a telemetry station based in the west of Kiana and as the lawn shows in altitude, thanks to the P 80 stage. We'll only have acquisition by this station so that we have contact with the launch of, for the first phase of the flight. The pat is the first stage and in 40 seconds, it will be separated from the rest of the launch.

The first two minutes, roughly. And once it's finished its boost and it's empty, we separated, it takes a very fast because we have 230 tons of distrust delivered by the pat. And you have to look at this in relation to the weight of the launch was Chis twice as low. So it's an impressive thrust and the launch that takes off very fast, the separation.

P a T it's been confirmed. And we see that these 23, why several stages, why several engines? Well, the principle is to get rid of dead weight when you don't need it anymore. So when a stage is over and as consumed all its propellant, if it keep it on board. Kari dead weighted in space and that's costly. So that's why we have different stages in a log chart so that we can get rid of dead weight.

We go, the trajectory is nominal, says the DDO, okay. That's the end of thrust by that 23, that's coming to an end and we will have the separation of the second

[00:14:12] Stuart: stage payloads were released about 56 minutes after. Designed and built by Airbus defense and space and Thalise. The three series military satellites with the combined mass at 1,346 kilograms at designed to monitor the electronic singles in intelligence networks of other nations.

Prior to this launch early the United States, Russia and China had this level of signal capability. The series satellites are flying in a triangular formation at an altitude of around 700 kilometers monitoring enemy radars at aircraft defense batteries and communication centers.

[00:14:50] Narrator: To ask you a question about the satellites, can we talk about spy satellites?

Well intelligence satellites until now we could take pictures of the earth with our CSO military satellites with Sarah's satellites. Now we. Capture electromagnetic transmissions. Why is that important? Well, when you want to collect intelligence and find out what type of shape is in the China sea or the Mediterranean sea, we listen to the other ships.

So you are monitoring and they're specific to every type of equipment of a Russian ship is not. Uh, uh, Chinese, a radar or early rainy on the one. And when we compare these data, we'll be able to know exactly what shape and nationality we are dealing with. And before that, we didn't know that we had no satellites for the central lab, not in the electromagnetic field.

We only had demonstrators prototypes. We were training, we were testing these technologies, but we were not choosing them in our military operations with Sarah's. As of next year, we will be able to use the intelligence. To, uh, for our operations in the field. So it's a major challenge that before we had to ask this information from our neighbors beforehand, yes, we could cooperate with ally countries.

Now we'll be completely autonomous and sovereign. France is, is, uh, in the, uh, five, uh, first countries worldwide to have this type of capability,

[00:16:11] Stuart: which was the 12th for the vaguer rocket system. And that marks the start of a transition period from the existing. The new Vegas sea, which will undertake its maiden flight sheer.

This is space time, still the come a Turkish delight reaches orbit. And later in the science report, how smart really are brain surgeons and rocket scientists, all that a most. Um, space-time

space X have launched a new Turkish telecommunication satellite. The Turks at five B was flooded, bought a Falcon nine rocket from space launch complex 40 at the Cape Canaveral space for a space in Florida. The first stage booster used on this mission was on its third flight. It returned safely to the planet surface landing on the drone ship is short, full of gravitas, which had been pre-positioned downrange in the north Atlantic ocean.

The 4,500 kilogram Turks at five B was built by Airbus defense and space on a year or 3000 EOR platform. It'll provide television and internet broadcast services covering Turkey, the middle east Europe and Africa. It's just the satellite Turks at five eight was launched by space X a year ago. This is space

[00:17:37] VO Guy: time

[00:17:53] Stuart: and Tom Meditech, another brief look at some of the other stories making use science this week with the science. A new study, warns that giant fractures in the floating eye shades of an activist. Massive Thwaites glacier could shatter part of the eye shelf within five years. The collapse would cause the existing Burrup of ice on land to carve more quickly creating what scientist have described as a doomsday scenario.

The findings reported in the journal nature. One that if weights were to collapse completely, it would raise sea levels by around 65 centimeters. The list of the top 10 government subsidized medicines prescribed in Australia between July 20, 20 and June, 2021 has now been released. According to Australian prescriber magazine, a of the most used medicines were for cholesterol lowering and blood pressure with the risk being for diabetes and for depression and anxiety, the results.

Aren't all that surprising as cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Austria. The inclusion of antidepressant medications on the list was new this year. And has since moved up to number eight, reflecting the rising number of people who are experiencing depression and anxiety disorders.

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Australian army has ordered 30 K nine thunders. Self-propelled 1 55 millimeter howitzers as well as 15 K 10 armored ammunition resupply via. The contract's been awarded to a south Korean company, which will build the weapons in Jalong. The 48 times 52 caliber canine platform has a crew of four or five, depending on configuration.

It has an ammunition capacity of up to 48 rounds with a further 104 rounds supplied through a robotic and resupply vehicle, which is based on the same chassis. The new systems were replaced 36 of the existing towed. Howard's. Well, it seems the old sayings, it's not rocket science or it's not brain surgery might not be the best way to describe stuff requiring a lot of brain power.

And you study reported in the British medical journal as found that rocket scientists and brain surgeons are no smarter than the general population researchers compared the intelligence of 329 aerospace engineers and 72 neuroscientists with 18,257 members of the general. All participants completed validated tests to measure six distinct aspects of cognition, spanning planning, and reasoning, working memory, attention, and emotion, processing abilities, potential influential factors, such as gender handedness and experience in their speciality were all taken into account.

In the analysis. The research shows that aerospace engineers and neurosurgeons were equally matched across most domains, but defeated two aspect. Aerospace engineer had better mental manipulation abilities. Whereas nearest surgeons were better at somatic problem solving aerospace engineers didn't show any significant differences compared to the general population.

And while neurosurgeons were able to solve problems faster than the general population, they showed slower memory recalls. The results suggest that despite the stereotypes, rocket scientists and brain surgeons have the same wide range of cognitive abilities as the general public. But knowing that isn't rocket surgery, the Victorian government has tried to suppress legal proceedings showing that QR code safe COVID check-in contact data tracing isn't being destroyed after 28 days as originally promised, but he's being retained an archive for future.

The revelations reported in Melbourne's Harold sun newspaper follows a protracted legal battle over the QR code data between the Victorian health department and the workplace safety watchdog over access to the archive data. It seems the Victorian government fought to keep this story suppressed in order to prevent the public from learning that contact tracing data isn't being destroyed after 28 days.

And so isn't as secure and confidential as they promised it would. It follows on from previous revelations that Australian federal police, as well as police in Victoria, in Western Australia, and even a credit checking agency had requested QR code checking data to track people's movements while the Western Australian government has now tightened its legislation.

The Victorian government still allows access. Technology editor, Alex from ity.com says it shows that your digital footprint is never totally safe. You can have

[00:22:31] Alex: a whole organization's government saving any persuasion, but promise that QR code information and the tracking of where people are going will be confidential and only be used for the purposes of pricing where virus has gone.

The question is, you know, whenever you're online, you know, you will print your activity is being. I mean, you can use a VPN, you can use ad-blocking software, you can use various things to try and mask activity online, but you've got companies out there who are fingerprinting browsers and doing whatever they can to try and even doing things like fingerprinting fonts to try and track where people are going next, I can make promises about certain things.

And usually the truth comes out that this information wasn't as private as promised, and you don't know who to cross online anymore. We seem to be living in the age where privacy. You know, gone and we'll be the ones telling our children what it was once like to live in a world where things were private to sort of mangled Ronald Reagan's famous saying about, you know, you don't want to be the generation that lets Liberty three, three, your things and tell your children what it was like to once live in a world or a country that was free.

So I guess it was disappointing too, to hear about this, but is any. Yeah, out of the whole internet, you're just cracking. People want to know what ads you've seen, what websites you've visited. I was looking at a site just earlier today and you have to read all these copies. And so I went to the things that said configure, and there's about 50 different things that I have to disable.

It wanted to measure ad performance. I wanted to measure all these different things. And this is one example why apple has advertised in Macko 12, that it is in its previous versions of makeover that exist up until today that they're trying to. Make it much more difficult for companies to attract you crack where you going across the internet, trying to make it so that one Mac looks like every other Mac and there are programs you can buy for your pacy and even for your phones that can block as much of this tracking as possible.

There's an app on iPhone is called one book, for example, and it has an inbuilt firewall. Activates what looks like a VPN. It says cause VPN, but the traffic is actually going anywhere. But what it's doing is blocking all the ads inside of apps. One of the episodes I've been playing with is an app called Wombo w MBO allows you to put your face and make it sing all these different songs.

When I have the VPN slash firewall on, I don't see any ad, but if I turn the VPN firewall off, every time I was made one of these little Wombo video clips, I have to put up with an ad. And obviously they want you to pay money, to be able to switch the ads off and to get faster processing and processing.

But I didn't realize. The app had all of these ads in it because I've had this one block up for some time. And so it was quite a surprise when I disabled that book. Well, I used it on a different phone that I didn't have the one blocker on. And I noticed all of these ads popping up and it was really quite annoying.

They really wanted you to pay the $8 99 cents a month. So there are definitely technologies you can use. To minimize or to block as much of that tracking as possible, but

[00:25:21] Stuart: there's plenty of people out there, the way to go with that sort of

[00:25:23] Alex: stuff. Well, VPNs are certainly one way to ratchet your traffic through a different country or a different service that can't be in theory would trace back to you.

[00:25:32] Stuart: What are we talking about? Dock that go last week? Well, yes.

[00:25:35] Alex: And that's one browser that's coming in 20, 22 sometime. We don't exactly know when, but you know, there's a whole industry now around trying to block the trackers, blocked the fingerprinting and restore some of the privacy. So we've got this battle.

Two sides of tech, one side, trying to increase the amount of tracking and the other side, trying to. And I think we've seen a battle that will continue for a

[00:25:54] Stuart: long, long time. I guess that means if you get something that's free online, it means you're the product. That's right. You

[00:25:59] Alex: might think you're consuming that social network or really that social network is consuming you and selling information about you to advertisers into the high fit.

I mean, that's how often companies will monetize the free service. They have to collect data and collect information, you know, today it's all about. Gathering information and actually making use of the daughter and the drooling down. There's something that we will never able to do anywhere near, as effectively as in the modern age and the decades of credit.

There was a famous saying by the businessman that said, look, I know that 50% of the advertising I do is completely wasted. I just don't know which half, but in the modern world, they know the advertisers now with great specificity where that advertising was dollar. If people have clicked on ads, if that's seen things in emails and when we even now have email programs that will scrape out all of that.

Trackers because an advertiser can know that you've opened an email and even if you've clicked on a button and then theoretically, if you purchase something so you can be tracked very precisely, the analytics are just incredibly accurate. And that's why there's an industry to try and model that information.

[00:27:01] Stuart: Digital privacy. That's Alex from ity.com

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[00:29:00] VO Guy: You've been listening to space-time with Stuart Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from bitesz.com.

Alex Zaharov-Reutt

Technology Editor

Alex Zaharov-Reutt is iTWire's Technology Editor is one of Australia’s best-known technology journalists and consumer tech experts, Alex has appeared in his capacity as technology expert on all of Australia’s free-to-air and pay TV networks on all the major news and current affairs programs, on commercial and public radio, and technology, lifestyle and reality TV shows.