Sept. 8, 2021

A New Study of Stellar Streams in the Milky Way

SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 101
*A new study of stellar streams in the Milky Way
A new study of 23 stellar streams in the Milky Way galaxy suggest that the vast majority originated in other galaxies.
*The weird, metallic star hurtling out of the Milky...

SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 101
*A new study of stellar streams in the Milky Way
A new study of 23 stellar streams in the Milky Way galaxy suggest that the vast majority originated in other galaxies.
*The weird, metallic star hurtling out of the Milky Way
Astronomers have spotted a remnant fragment of a white dwarf star being flung out of the galaxy.
*More cracks in the Russian part of the space station
There are growing concerns about the safety of the Russian segments of the International Space Station following the discovery of cracks in the Zarya module – one of the orbiting outpost’s first components.

*Another New Shepard test flight
Hot on the heels of July’s successful first space tourism flight -- Blue Origin has launched New Shepard on its 17th mission -- this time carrying experiments for NASA and various universities.
*The Science Report
Warnings that once every century extreme sea level events will soon take place every year.
Moderna is about to start Phase I clinical trials a new HIV vaccine candidate. based on mRNA.
Pulses of increased rainfall in the Arabian Peninsula helped human migration out of Africa.
South Korea takes delivery of its first ballistic-missile submarine.
Alex on Tech: the Flubot malware scam.
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SpaceTime S24E101 AI Transcript

[00:00:00] Stuart: This is space time series 24, episode 101 four broadcast on the 8th of September, 2021 coming up on space time, and you study of still a streams in the Milky way, the weird metallic star hurdling out of our galaxy and more cracks appearing in the Russian part of the international space station, all that and more coming up on space time.

[00:00:25] VO Guy: Welcome to space time with Stuart Gary

[00:00:45] Stuart: And new study of 23 stellar streams in the Milky way. Galaxy suggest that the vast majority of them originated in other galaxies, still a streams or ribbons of stars, grouped into elongated filaments. Arking around a hearse galaxy the stars. Instead, the streams are identified because they're traveling along a different trajectory compared to the majority of the stars in the galaxy.

[00:01:09] Stuart: And a closer examination reveals that the stars have a similar composition, which is also different from other stars in the galaxy. Still a streams are thought to be reduced when a galaxy has gravitational tidal forces, drag filaments of stars out of nearby globular clusters or neighboring satellite dwarf galaxies.

[00:01:29] Stuart: It's an important part of galactic cannibalism. Globular clusters, a tight spheres containing thousands to millions of stars. All originally formed at the same time. Many are thought to be the remnant cause of dwarf galaxies that have been cannibalized by larger galaxies. They're most commonly found in the galactic halo.

[00:01:49] Stuart: The Milky way has some hundred and 50 of them. Astronomers have identified more than 60 stellar streams in the Milky way galaxy, but only a few have been linked to a known progenitor. The new findings reported in the astrophysical journal letters are based on the third data release from the European space agency's guy emission, which looked at 23 stellar streams in the Milky ways.

[00:02:10] Stuart: Halo the authors use the new guide data, trace the proper motions of the stars in these streams by analyzing the energies in three-dimensional angular momentum of the streams and examining how the streams are distributed in physical space, the authors were able to identify the probable progenitors for most of the stream.

[00:02:29] Stuart: The study's lead author, Anna from the Harvard Smithsonian center for astrophysics. This is only one of the 23 streams. They studied could be traced back to a globular star cluster. Instead, the vast majority appear to have originated from dwarf galaxies cannibalized by the Milky way. The author suggests that while some of the streams were produced by dwarf galaxies themselves, others were likely formed from disrupted globular clusters that orbited those galaxies.

[00:02:56] Stuart: The study also found that several streams had similar properties suggesting they originated from the same set of progenitors of role. The authors found galaxy candidates for 20 of the streams with eight of the streams originating from six specific globular clusters. Understanding the origin of these Stella streams is important because that allows us strontium is to better understand the evolution of our own Milky way.

[00:03:19] Stuart: Galaxy evolution of neighboring galaxies in our local group and the distribution of dark matter around our galaxy. This is space time still the cam the weird metallic star hurdling out of the Milky way, galaxy and more cracks appearing in the Russian part of the international space station, all that, and more still to come on space time.

[00:03:56] Stuart: Astronomers have spotted a remnant fragment of a white Wolf stop being flung out of the galaxy. A report in the astrophysical journal letters says the object known is LP. 43 64. Drive is now about 2000 light years away. And you know, the 3 million kilometers now towards the outer edge, the Milky way astronomists hypothesize the Stella shrapnel was catapulted on its journey.

[00:04:20] Stuart: Following a massive stellar explosion called a supernova. One of the study's authors or deal you put them in from Boston university, says that for the start have gone through a partial detonation and still survive is really unusual and unique. In fact, astronomers Vernie recently started to think that these sorts of stellar objects could exist.

[00:04:41] Stuart: These observations, using data from this as Hubble space telescope and the transiting exoplanet survey, satellite tests provide new insights into these leftover stellar fragments from stars that have suffered similar past catastrophes. The authors found that not only is LP 43, 65 being hurdled out of the galaxy, but based on the brightness patterns in its data, it's also rotating on the way out.

[00:05:06] Stuart: Could've been says the star simply getting brighter and fainter. And the simplest explanation for that is that something on its surface is rotating into an out of view every night hours. Of course, all stars rotate our sun rotates fairly slowly on its axis once every 27 earth days. But for Estella fragment that survived the supernova event, nine hours is considered relatively slow.

[00:05:31] Stuart: What dwarves of the slowly cooling, still a cause of sunlight stars, having ceased their core fusion process they've passed after expanded outer envelope, exposing their wide heart stellar core, a white dwarf, usually about the size of the earth, which is lifted slowly cool over the yarns. And this is the fate that will ultimately befall our side.

[00:05:56] Stuart: But if the white two office in a closed binary system with another star and most stars in the galaxy are in binary or multiple star systems. And if it can draw enough matter of its companion star, clearly, often many do it can grow to a critical mass point, not as the chanters sake, our limits, which is about 1.4, four times the mass of our sun, when it reaches the, this limit, it triggers a Thermo nucleus supernova event.

[00:06:22] Stuart: Now, unlike a core collapse supernova, which will leave behind a neutron star or a black hole, a Thermo nuclear supernova should theoretically destroy the entire star, leaving nothing but shrapnel behind. However, in this case, fragments have clearly survived and finding the rotation rate of a star like LP 43 65.

[00:06:43] Stuart: After a supernova event can provide important clues about the binary system from which it came. See, the thing is supernovae are often very hard to see early enough and therefore it can be hard to know which star did the imploding and which start dumped the extra mess on of what's companion. Now, based on Opie 43, 65 is relatively slow rotation rate, put them on in colleagues, feel confident that this is the shrapnel of the star that actually self-destructed after being fed too much mess from its partner.

[00:07:13] Stuart: When the pair were orbiting each other at high speed. Because the two stairs were orbiting each other so quickly and closely the explosion Slingshot of birth stars. And now we only see the remnants of LP 43 65 stars like Opie 43 65. And not only some of the fastest stars, Nando, astronomers, but also some of the most metal rich stars ever detected stars on the main sequence burning hydrogen into helium.

[00:07:41] Stuart: I composed mostly of just those two elements with any trace amounts of heavier elements. But a star that survived the supernova event is primarily composed of heavier material. The byproducts of the violent nuclear reactions that happen when the star blew itself up. And it's that which makes still a shrapnel like LP 43, 65, especially fascinating to study.

[00:08:04] Stuart: This space-time still the cam growing safety concerns is more cracks are discovered in the Russian section of the international space station and blue Origin's new Shepard undertakes, another successful test flight, all that and more stores. Um, space

[00:08:21] VO Guy: time.

[00:08:38] Stuart: There are growing concerns about the safety of the Russian segments of the international space station. Following the discovery of cracks in the Zaria module, one of the Albany outposts first component. Inertia rocket and space corporation. CIF in Geneve led says superficial fishers have now been discovered at several places on the Zaria cargo module.

[00:08:59] Stuart: He says it's a bad sign and suggest that the fishers will begin to spread over time. According to around 80% of the in-flight systems on the Russian segment of the space station have now reached their use by date. Launched a border Russian proton rocket in November, 1998. The Zaria functional cargo block was the first international space station module to be positioned in orbit.

[00:09:23] Stuart: The 2010 module provided electrical power storage, propulsion, and guidance to the space station during its initial stages of construction. The school bus sized spacecraft was soon joined by the American unity module, which was delivered the following month. Double the space shuttle endeavor on SDS ATS.

[00:09:42] Stuart: The newly discovered cracks in Zaria are the latest in a string of safety concerns, which have plagued the Russian segment of the space station. A leak venting atmosphere into space was detected in the neighboring Russians Vesta module in 2019. That was finally traced and patched in 2020, but then another lake was the tech that unpatched patched in match this year.

[00:10:04] Stuart: And since then yet another lake is developed in the past month, somewhere, a borders as the module, and it's still leaking atmosphere into space, as well as the ongoing structural issues with the Russian components of the space station, the Russian federal space ed zeros cosmos has also been dealing with software failures with a station, shiny new Russian new Yorkers science module, suddenly deciding to ignite its thrusters last month for no apparent reason, sending the entire space station array spinning out of control.

[00:10:34] Stuart: And it's not a case of teething problems with the new Yorker module. There have been continuing delays and technical issues with the module ever since construction began. In fact, it's taken a record quarter of a century to build with problems continuing even during its launch in a scent to orbit. But none of this is new.

[00:10:53] Stuart: There have been serious quality control issues with the manufacturer of other Russian spacecraft as well. In 2018, our hole was accidentally drilled through the Hull of the Soyuz EMIS nine spacecraft. Most likely while it was under construction, it was badly patched and quickly hidden behind insulating foam.

[00:11:12] Stuart: That patch finally opened up and let go. While the spacecraft was docked to the international space station, triggering an emergency LA Golan. Adding to that problem was Roz. Cosmos is a refusal to release details of their investigation into the cause of the whole, and that sparking concerns of an endemic culture in Russia of quality control, failure, and cover up at about the same time as that was happening.

[00:11:36] Stuart: The Soyuz EMIS 10 mission suddenly aborted two minutes after launch with the crew forced to undertake an emergency jettison landed. And official board of inquiry. Eventually the Turman that one of the Soyuz FG first aid strap on boosters had been incorrectly, made it with the core second stage during assembly damaging critical components, but rather than being repaired or replaced, the now damaged booster was simply reattach the correct way.

[00:12:05] Stuart: The damage point hidden from view only to fail during state separation, destroying the launch vehicle during a sale. Russia says its decision to leave the international space station in 2025 and build its own over the outpost stems from growing concerns about the safety of Russia's aging hardware on the ISS.

[00:12:24] Stuart: In fact, it's already began construction of a new core module for a new space station and you all. Moscow's also signed a deal with China. The jointly build a new lunar space station as well appropriate as most of Beijing space technology is based on Russian design. This is space time, still the calm, another test flight for blue origins, new Shepard, and later in the science report, Moderner about start phase one in clinical trials of a new HIV vaccine candidate, based on the same MRI RNA vaccine technology used to fight COVID-19.

[00:12:59] Stuart: All that and more still to come on. Space time.

[00:13:18] Stuart: Well hot on the heels of July successful first space tourism flight blue origin has launched new shepherd on its 17th mission. This time carrying experiments for NASA and various universities. The NS 17 flight reached an altitude of 106 kilometers or 347,000 feet. And lasted about 10 minutes, 9 8, 7

[00:13:41] Alex: 6 5 4 commanded to start to.

[00:13:53] VO Guy: and liftoff of west Texas

[00:13:56] Guest: control new Trevor's has cleared the tower on her way to save from the west Texas desert caring, lunar Lander technology, as well as new Shepard's first ever art installation. We're gaining speed as new shepherd lifts off towards space coming up on max Q, which is the toughest point of flight for the vehicle itself.

[00:14:20] Guest: And we have successfully punched through max Q, where the aerodynamic stresses on the vehicle. We're at the maximum, such a beautiful, clean burn on that B3 engine, Texas desert disappearing away. She is really picking up speed on her. Space new Shepard is now coasting at over 1700 miles per hour. And there we have it main engine cutoff.

[00:14:43] Guest: New Shepard is at 2000 miles per hour, and those experiments are just seconds away from getting there several minutes of microgravity and performing their research. At this point in flight, if there were humans flying in that capsule, they'd be getting up out of their seats, floating around and super importantly for today, those payloads onboard are experiencing three to four hours.

[00:15:06] Guest: Of clean microgravity sciences collecting its data and that booster with its NASA lunar landing sensors are getting ready to come back for a precision landing in the west Texas desert. What we just receive confirmation of Apogee for the crew cops. That Apogee has over that Carmine line, the internationally recognized line of space.

[00:15:27] Guest: And that's the highest point. The crew capsule will travel today, who stir is headed back from space for the eighth time. And those lunar landing sensors are really going to work at this point. As the booster make, it makes its way back to the pad for a precise landing in west Texas. Surely the booster itself is going to reach its atmospheric Pierce point.

[00:15:49] Guest: And what that means is it's when the rocket is returning from space and reentering that atmosphere. So those fins and those control surfaces on the fins will start to have air pressure push against. Those wedge and ring fins are really going to work here. Really important parts of the new Shepard design as that booster makes its way back to the landing pad, which is just two miles north of where that vehicle took off those drag breaks.

[00:16:15] Guest: We'll be deploying shortly. The booster will be reaching its maximum re-entry velocity soon, which is just under Mach for that booster shape causes a lot less drag than the crew capsule. So the booster will win this race back to earth. There go those dragons. This is a critical step in slowing the booster down on its approach to the law city.

[00:16:35] Guest: Decreasing quite rapidly. Those in west Texas are now hearing that Sonic boom new Shepard is on approach that B3 engine relight confirmed.

[00:16:58] VO Guy: beautiful hover. In

[00:17:02] Guest: booster, touchdown, just like she was landing on the moon. Hopefully those NASA landing sensors got some incredible data today there on the pad. After her eighth trip to space for that booster, it just never gets all deck, never such a beautiful flight. We have reacquired the crew cab.

[00:17:21] Guest: Shortly. Those initial drove parachutes will deploy, which slow down the capsule on its return. So excited to see those experiments in they're on their way back. They are go the drone that capsule speed will slow, and the main parachutes will follow shortly here and there go the mains further slowing the crew capsule here on its way back to the west Texas desert.

[00:17:45] Guest: They'll start to completely inflate here. Velocity of the capsule has slowed at this point. Our retro thrust system in the base of the crew capsule will kick up a tremendous amount of dust as it fires for that nice soft landing rest assured the payloads will enjoy quite a soft touchdown in just a few seconds here.

[00:18:06] Guest: 200 feet from the surface. And touchdown of the crew capsule, another beautiful launch and landing for new shepherd. Huge, enormous congratulations to team blue, congratulations to our friends at NASA, especially in the flight opportunities and tipping point programs and congrats to all of the customers who flew with us too.

[00:18:29] Guest: Just another beautiful flight. I cannot wait to see our next crew flight as well, coming up really soon. So everything looks to have gone so well, let's take a look at some of the unofficial. All right. So our maximum ascent velocity, we went to 2,229 miles per hour. Our crew capsule Apogee. The highest point that it reached was 347,430 feet.

[00:18:54] Guest: Our mission start time was at 9:31 AM central time. And our mission elapsed time was 10 minutes and 38 seconds

[00:19:02] Stuart: for the mission, the new Shepard launch vehicle, it was fitted with a deal, but the scent and landing sensor demonstration experiment for NASA. The experiment includes sensors designed to help locate a safe landing site on the moon for upcoming lunar landing missions.

[00:19:17] Stuart: It's the second time at 12 months that NASA has flown the landing senses a board, a new Shepard rocket. The big difference being software changes, designed to improve hazard avoidance maneuvers during final descendant touchdown. So as to reduce error in landings on the moon or other bodies, Also aboard this flight was an experiment for the university of Florida, which is studying the cellular response of plant material to micro gravity.

[00:19:42] Stuart: Also a board was the motor propeller gauging experiment developed by Catledge college, which is looking at innovative new ways of measuring spacecraft propellant levels in micro gravity. This is time.

[00:20:03] Stuart: And so I met a once again, take a break, look at some of the other stories making using science this week with a science report. Well, there's New York mops up from it's one in 500 year flood event. And you study warns that extreme C-level events, which currently occur once every hundred years are likely to take place every year by the turn of the century.

[00:20:24] Stuart: The findings reported in the journal nature. Climate change, uh, based on new computer modeling would suggest that even if humans limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius, extreme sea level events, those triggered by the combination of storm surges, tides and waves that our county expected to hit roughly every century will instead occur annually by the end of the 21st century in around half of the 7,000 coastal areas study.

[00:20:50] Stuart: And the authors found that many of these areas may see annual extreme C-level events occurring even earlier with the tropics being the most vulnerable. However, interestingly, at the same time, some Northern areas may not face increases in the frequency of these events at all. Even if global warming levels hit five degrees Celsius.

[00:21:11] Stuart: Madonna is about the start phase one clinical trials of a new HIV vaccine candidate, based on the same, Mr. And a platform pilot successful COVID-19 vaccine. The trial will test the new aids vaccine safety and measure the relevant immune response generated in a small group of 56 healthy volunteers age between 18 and 50, who are HIV negative.

[00:21:34] Stuart: While there is several effective antiviral cocktails designed to eradicate most traces of HIV and infected people. The virus still finds hiding places to linger in the body. Once it's infected cells, Emma RNA vaccines incurred for a specific virus, target molecule in a package of genetic material, which is delivered to cells to produce the target molecule on their own.

[00:21:56] Stuart: Hopefully triggering immune response. But then it currently has two HIV vaccine candidates, MRNs 1644 and MRNs 1644 V two core archeologist have discovered that pulses of increased rainfall transform the generally arid Arabian peninsula into a route suitable for human population movements across Southwestern Asia on several occasions over the past 400,000 years.

[00:22:24] Stuart: A report in the journal nature claims lakes form. When periods of increased rainfall transform the region into grasslands that were frequented by animals, such as elephants and hippos researchers found that during each green Arabia phase, early humans would spread into the region. Each bringing with them at different kinds of material culture.

[00:22:47] Stuart: South Korea Navy has taken delivery of its first ballistic missile capable submarine. The new warships designed to counter the threat of underwater launched missiles fired from nuclear armed North Korea. Pyongyang has been developing, said Murray launched ballistic missile technology for years displaying four of its missiles.

[00:23:05] Stuart: During recent military parades and new south Korean sub is 83 and a half meters long 9.6 meters wide. And as a displacement of 3000 tons. The diesel powered vessel can stay submerged for 20 days without surfacing and is reported to be fitted with six vertical muscle launched tubes. Well being used this week in the world of tech is the new computer virus that's targeting mostly Android cell phone users.

[00:23:32] Stuart: The flu bot scam sends victims and SMS message from an unrecognized number. Apparently notifying them of a missed call. A voicemail. The problem is if you click onto the link at enable scam has to download malware onto the phone and steal all your passwords and banking details. With the details we're joined by technology editor, Alex hereof Roy from ity doc.

[00:23:55] Stuart: So in recent

[00:23:55] Alex: times, the flu bot virus effecting mobile phones. And we're trying specifically has come into Australia and has been spamming Australians. And it started off by being a missed voicemail message that some people may have assumed it was a message about COVID results or any sort of used to voicemail message.

[00:24:12] Alex: Now, this has morphed into a message that you may have missed the delivery or that there was a delivery on its way. And there is another virus that doesn't have a name and SMS campaign that is also warning you. And these attacks are trying to load your Android phone with malware that will steal all of your passwords.

[00:24:31] Alex: Get the passwords, internet banking. Transfer money at various accounts. And if you have been infected with flu bot, the authorities stating that you need to use antivirus software to clean your phone, AVG, Avast, or some other sort of Android antivirus that you need to then change all the passwords for the various services that you log on.

[00:24:50] Alex: You'll find ways, including banking and that if you're not sure you should also factory reset your phone, but of course, if you do that, you need to make sure you backup all of your photos and notes and anything else that could be on the phone that is easily able to be backed up. Otherwise factory resetting will lose all of that data.

[00:25:07] Alex: Now it's important to note. That supposedly Android phones that have had a special settings switched off. You can load software from third-party sources. So that's software that doesn't come from the Google play store. So this could be apps from the Android app store or from other app stores that are out there.

[00:25:23] Alex: I mean, even the game fortnight was originally, I'm only able to be sideloaded. This is called sideloading. So if you've enabled sideloading apps on your Android, Turn sideloading off. Then you can be susceptible to this Android malware, hopefully by,

[00:25:38] Stuart: and the flu bot malware gets on your phone simply by clicking on the link

[00:25:43] Alex: loads of webpage, which then downloads this dot APK file, which is the extension for Android software.

[00:25:49] Alex: If you click. And, you know, you can ask you, do you want this to be installed? And a lot of people will say, yes, it really depends on how familiar you are with your, and it depends are tricky. Some of this Mallory's and getting through different versions of Android and the Android operating system, I've read that you're supposed to have this particular switch, the active editor so that you can load apps from third party stores.

[00:26:07] Alex: But in Android seven, that was a global setting with an Android eight and above. It's just sort of a per app setting, but it all comes down to you not clicking on it. In SMS messages and being very careful. If I look at my Android phone, I mean, I'm an iPhone user, but I have Android phones as well. And on this Android phones, I've got a whole stack of different messages.

[00:26:24] Alex: One is telling me that, uh, with the new voicemail message there, I have another one that says your service provider has sent you a new notice. And the message has gone back to being badly. Spelled people who've created specs. You do the spear, phishing and other attacks to try and fold. You have become much smarter in using proper grammar and really copying websites very accurately.

[00:26:43] Alex: But because the phone companies are able to track these messages, the bad guys are trying to misspell these messages. So it's got sort of sent you a new notice. It says FCN Y you and you not K E so at first glance. And also it depends. You sort of just think, oh, well, I've got some sort of message that I'll just, I'll just have it.

[00:27:02] Alex: Something from a service provider. There's also messages I'm getting saying, are you short on cash? You know, reply loan for an assessment today. And that's because people obviously are short of cash during the pandemic that might not be able to get the government funds. And another one is telling me that, you know, I got my mother's iPhone, got a message saying, do you want to make cash?

[00:27:19] Alex: You know, send me this message on WhatsApp and I can show you how to make the a hundred to $150 a day. And again, Uh, going to seem to be of interest to some people out there who are desperate. And the other situation is that kids are screaming this at homeschooling there's pressures from work and the bad guys are just trying to catch you at a moment where you're unaware.

[00:27:37] Alex: You click on a link and suddenly your phone has been infected and people can see something on their screen, not realize what it is, click. Okay. And suddenly they were installed. On their phone that they wish they hadn't. And it's the same situation for you on your PC and your Mac. You gotta be careful what it is that you are installing and allowing to slip past your defense.

[00:27:54] Stuart: That's Alex Howard roid from it.

[00:28:14] Stuart: it's the show for now? The space-time is available every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday through apple podcasts, iTunes, Stitcher, Google podcast, pocket casts, Spotify, a cast, Amazon music SoundCloud, YouTube, your favorite podcasts download provider. And from time with Stuart, Space times also broadcast through the national science foundation on science own radio and on both iHeart, radio and tune in radio.

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[00:29:04] Stuart: Just go to space-time with Stuart, for full details. And if you want more space time, please check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show, as well as heaps of images, new stories, loads, videos, and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing, just go to space-time with Stuart,

[00:29:24] Stuart: That's all one word and that's tumbler without the air. You can also follow us through at Stuart Gary on Twitter at space-time with Stuart, Gary on Instagram, through our space-time YouTube channel and on Facebook, just go to forward slash space time with Stewart. And space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian sky and telescope magazine. : Your window on the universe. You've been listening to space-time with Stewart, Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from

[00:29:54] VO Guy: You've been listening to Space-Time with Stuart Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from

Alex Zaharov-Reutt

Technology Editor

Alex Zaharov-Reutt is iTWire's Technology Editor is one of Australia’s best-known technology journalists and consumer tech experts, Alex has appeared in his capacity as technology expert on all of Australia’s free-to-air and pay TV networks on all the major news and current affairs programs, on commercial and public radio, and technology, lifestyle and reality TV shows.