April 26, 2021

History Made

The Astronomy, Technology and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime with Stuart Gary Series 24 Episode 46
*History with the first flight of an aircraft on another world
NASA has made history with the first flight of an aircraft on another world. The Un...

The Astronomy, Technology and Space Science News Podcast.

SpaceTime with Stuart Gary Series 24 Episode 46

*History with the first flight of an aircraft on another world

NASA has made history with the first flight of an aircraft on another world. The United States space agency’s Mars Ingenuity rotorcraft successfully lifted off from the floor of the red planet’s Jezero Crater -- climbing to an altitude of ten metres – maintaining a stable hover for 30 seconds – and then safely landing again.

*The dead star that’s a sign of things to come

Astronomers have discovered their first pulsar using the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope

Murchison is a precursor for the multi-billion-dollar Square Kilometre Array telescope project and researchers say this discovery is likely to be a sign of things to come.

*NASA’s SHIELDS mission to explore local interstellar space

A new NASA mission is about to study interstellar particles that have drifted into our solar system. The mission called the Spatial Heterodyne Interferometric Emission Line Dynamics Spectrometer -- or SHIELDS – is about to launch from the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico aboard a suborbital sounding rocket.

*Soyuz crew returns safely to Earth

Three members of the Expedition 64 crew has returned safely to Earth following half a year aboard the International Space Station. They had launched 185 days earlier on October 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in the central Asian republic of Kazakhstan.

*The Science Report

New studies looking at the risk of blood clotting following COVID-19 infection.

Scientists successfully grow human primate hybrid chimeric embryos.

Archaeologists discover a 3,300-year-old lost city in Egypt’s southern province of Luxor.

The public encouraged to cut through loops or rings of any size before disposing of them in their trash.

Skeptic's guide to fake treatments for kids with autism.


Your support is needed...

SpaceTime is an independently produced podcast (we are not funded by any government grants, big organisations or companies), and we’re working towards becoming a completely listener supported show...meaning we can do away with the commercials and sponsors. We figure the time can be much better spent on researching and producing stories for you, rather than having to chase sponsors to help us pay the bills.

That's where you come in....help us reach our first 1,000 subscribers...at that level the show becomes financially viable and bills can be paid without us breaking into a sweat every month. Every little bit helps...even if you could contribute just $1 per month. It all adds up.

By signing up and becoming a supporter at the $5 or more level, you get immediate access to over 230 commercial-free, double, and triple episode editions of SpaceTime plus extended interview bonus content. You also receive all new episodes on a Monday rather than having to wait the week out. Subscribe via Patreon or Supercast....and share in the rewards. Details at Patreon www.patreon.com/spacetimewithstuartgary or Supercast - https://bitesznetwork.supercast.tech/

Details at https://spacetimewithstuartgary.com or www.bitesz.com


For more SpaceTime visit https://spacetimewithstuartgary.com (mobile friendly).

For enhanced Show Notes...

Support this show http://supporter.acast.com/spacetime.


See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.


SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 46 AI Transcript

[00:00:00] This is space time series 24 episode 46, four broadcast on the 26th of April, 2021. Coming up on space, time history in the making the first flight of an aircraft on another world, the dead star, that's a sign of things to come, and this is Shield's mission to explore local interstellar space. All that and more coming up on space time.

Welcome to space time with steward, Gary.

Nurses made history with the first flight of an aircraft on another world, they are taking a look at the data, just starting to flow into the deep space network antenna on earth. The deep space network is our giant communications network that [00:01:00] early indications data products look nominal. So our downlink lead just announced that data products that just started to arrive and that they look nominal, which is a good indication.

So the helicopter flew earlier. And similarly, whenever we. Send data. It's the same process where there's going to be a delay of when, when we, when we run the data and then when it hits earth. So it's about four hours from when something is executed to when we receive it for larger files though, sometimes that can take longer.

So it all depends, but today we'll be receiving images, still images of the helicopter. The helicopter is equipped with two cameras. One is our onboard navigation camera, and that's the image that we'll receive tonight. And that's going to be a black and white image. That's pointed straight down at the Martian surface and we'll hopefully be showing us hovering above it.

Our second camera is our return to earth camera, and that's our higher resolution camera. That is a color photo and shows more of the Marsh and horizon a snapshot. The beauty shot, if you will, that [00:02:00] image will be utilized for future flight missions. This is downlink data products appear to be in. We will begin processing shortly.

We are beginning to fetch data from Mars 2020. This is downline. We have pulled in data products from Mars 2020 confirming. We received Mars 2020 telemetry confirming that we received Mars 2020 events confirming that we received helicopter data products confirming that we have data products confirming that we unpacked image and one Hertz data.

This is downlink. We have successfully ingested one Hertz data. Confirming that we have helicopter data products, helicopter, telemetry, helicopter events, confirming helicopter file listing. Confirming expected boot counts. This is downlink confirming battery. Uh, data has been received. Rotor motors appear healthy swash plate servos appear healthy overall actuators appear healthy thermal report generation confirming analog report generation confirming [00:03:00] telecom report generation.

This is downlink handing off to flight control for telemetry analysis. This slide control confirming that we have AVRs from ingenuity. And is reporting. Having performed, spin up, takeoff slime, hover descent, landing that's down and spin down. Timid her data.

First form this first slide. Eric after another planet, the image we're looking at on the screen is the image from our onboard navigation camera showing us hovering above the surface of Mars, how incredible everyone is super exciting. So I would say it's a success. The United States space agencies, Mars ingenuity, roto craft successfully lifted off from the floor of the red planets, just row crater climb to an altitude of 10 meters.

Then maintained a stable Hava for 30 seconds and then [00:04:00] safely. And that again, the historic 39.1 second flight demonstrating that powered controlled flight on another planet is possible. But the fall is a week of high drama with mission managers at NASA's jet propulsion laboratory in passing California, forced to upload new software before 1.8 kilogram autonomously controlled solar powered helicopter could fly.

NASA received telemetry of ingenuity, historic flight by way of the sixth world mass perseverance Rover, which had transported the tiny drone on the seven month, 278 million kilometer journey from earth. Ingenuity is made and demonstration flight was autonomous piloted by onboard guidance, navigation and control systems, running algorithms developed by the team at JPL.

Because commands had to be sent to and returned from the red planet of hundreds of billions of kilometers using an array of orbiting satellites and NASA deep space network and its flight. Wasn't observable from earth in real time in Geneva could not be [00:05:00] piloted directly by wave a joystick technology demonstrator, the 49 centimeter tolled tissue box size fuselage of the ingenuity.

Mars helicopter contains no scientific instruments. Instead the rotor craft is simply designed to demonstrate where the future exploration of the red planet could include an aerial perspective. Still the first flight was full of unknowns. See, although the red planet significantly smaller than the earth and therefore has a lower gravity, just one third, that of earth, which is good news.

It also has an extremely thin atmosphere with only 1%, the surface atmospheric pressure of earth, and that's bad because it means there's relatively fewer air molecules for ingenuity twin 1.2 meter wide rollerblades blades to bite into in order to achieve lift. The helicopter contains a mixture of unique components, specially built for the job as well as off the shelf, commercial parts, many from the smartphone industry, which have been tested in deep space for the first time on this mission.

Parked some 64 meters [00:06:00] away during ingenuity is historic first flight. The mass perseverance Rover acted not only as a communications relay link between the helicopter and earth, but it also chronicled the flight operations with its cameras,

perseverance images, showing us grounded. At first, it's actually a video, which is great. It's granted at first and then shows us hovering. Are three meters above the Martian surface and then touching back down. It's amazing, brilliant vision from the rovers mass cam Z and NavCom images providing additional data on the helicopters flight perseverance touched down on the red planet with ingenuity attached to its belly on February the 18th.

And the helicopter was deployed onto the Marsh and surface on April. The third ingenuity is now just over halfway through its 30 sole Marsh and day flight test window. So after analyzing all the data and imagery from the [00:07:00] first flight mission managers quickly undertook a second, slightly longer test flight.

Four days later, the 52 seconds salty. So ingenuity climb to an altitude of five meters Hava briefly, then tilt and fly sideways for just over two meters, then came to a stop Harvard in place again, and made a series of turns to point its camera in different directions before heading back and landing at its original takeoff point.

At least three more tests, flights are planned and mission managers are carefully. Statting their telemetry that determined how to proceed. Autonomous drones like ingenuity are expected to play a major role in future Planetree exploration scouting ahead of rovers, the find the best routes and most interesting geology and undertaking aerial mapping surveys.

This is already preparing to send a much larger rotorcraft Lander dragon fly to satins moon Titan reaching the strange methane and Ethan covered world in 2034. This is space time, still the calm, the did [00:08:00] star. That's a sign of things to come and nest as Shield's mission to explore the local interstellar environment.

All that of most still to come on space time.

astronomers have discovered their first. Palsa using the merchants in widefield array, radio telescope. Murchison is a precursor for the multi-billion dollar square kilometer array, radio telescope project. And researchers say that this discovery is likely to be a sign of things to come. Paul says a rapidly spinning neutron stars, the super dense stellar cause of dead stars, far more massive than the sun that have gone super Nervar at the end of their lives, exploding in blast.

So powerful. They briefly out shining an entire galaxy. As Paul says [00:09:00] rotate. They send out powerful beams of energy swimming across the cosmos, like a lighthouse beacon. If the earth just happens to be in the line of sight for one of these beams, the neutron start appears to blink off and on often dozens of times a second, Nick Swainston from the curtain university node or the international center for radio astronomy research discovered this neutron star Pulser processing data collected as part of an ongoing passer survey.

Paul says our unique cosmic laboratories containing more mess than the sun packed into an object is 20 kilometers or so wide. In fact, just a spoonful of Pasa material would weigh literally millions of tons. They are the densest objects in the universe other than black holes. And they have some of the strongest known magnetic fields, a thousand billion times stronger than what we have on earth.

Paul says can be used by scientists for many applications, including testing the laws of physics under extreme conditions, allowing scientists to undertake experiments that simply couldn't be done [00:10:00] in laboratories on earth. So finding pal size is one of the key science drivers for the square kilometer array project.

What will be the world's largest radio telescope stretching across two continents covering Outback, Western Australia, and Southern Africa. Surfer astronomers have discovered around 2,800 pulsars in total and this discovery instead of large population of palaces, waiting to be found in the Southern hemisphere.

The only discovered Paulsa was the take the more than 3000 light years away in a region South of the galactic plane. It's spinning once every second, which is incredibly fast compared to regular stars and planets, but fairly normal in the world of pulsars. Significantly this discovery was made after looking at just 1% of the data collected in the Pasa survey.

Swainston says this discovery only scratches the surface. And once the project is at full scale, astronomers expect to find hundreds of parts. As in coming, doing surveys with telescopes is always a big undertaking [00:11:00] processing and you have to really start to understand your telescopes. So we're really happy that this is our first one.

Uh, one of the reasons we think that other telescopes hasn't detected, this is because we are a low frequency telescope. So it means we tend to have different types of post-sales and we can observe for a bit longer. So the longer you observe a bit more sensitive, you are, so there are still more posters out there for us to discover.

Uh, this was discovered, uh, pretty far from the galactic plane. So most posts along the galactic plane where there's more matter, this one was fairly far off. So it was actually this part of the squad where we haven't found when you post out. So that in itself was a bit exciting. So it's called J 36 minus.

Unfortunately, I can't name an offer myself. It's just offered the position in the sky 2,800 pulse-ox thereabouts have been discovered so far. Do we know a lot about them? Well, we do know how they're made. But that's really about it. Isn't that we don't really know much about these [00:12:00] super dense objects. I agree.

It's been about 50 years since he discovered the first one, but they're very difficult to understand because they're these extremely dense, these really strong fields. Very unlike anything we have at earth. So it's this new part of physics that we're always trying to understand that unique has different properties and admits in different ways.

So the more we find, hopefully the closer we'll get to understanding all these complexes. We didn't even know what they really made of doing. Yeah. Uh, we've got a rough idea. We know there's protons and electrons coming together for neutrons, but it's the, it's the state they're in. That's so interesting.

Yeah. Yeah. So it's a, it's a plus because it's the full state of matter and it's really complicated. Like there's all these weird things. Like, um, for example, post-op often clips, so we think of them as regular clocks, but sometimes the clocks to the change, how quickly they go very Southern light. And we think that's because of the plasma physics.

And we're starting to understand that. Like once again, it's very new physics, difficult to comprehend [00:13:00] the beams that they create. The thing that makes a Pulser so different from any other type of neutron star is these electromagnetic beams that they do to cross the cosmos, like lighthouses. We know where they're generated just above the surface, near the magnetic poles, but we know exactly how they generate it.

It's one of perhaps the most physical problems we have is time. Look at the emissions. There's lots of different, what we call a mission models, theories about how they invest, but every single one has problems because there's lots of different types of posts. And your model has to explain all these different times of emission.

And there's no single model at the moment. Uh, role neutron stars, pulsars, or do neutron stars stop spinning again. We think that both sides do eventually die after many millions of years, they are no longer have the power to produce radio emissions, but it's hard to tell if the news 1000 posts or not, because it might be a poster and just not pointing towards us.

It might be pointing. Why for the race, one of [00:14:00] the Pathfinder telescope projects for the square kilometer, right. And that's what this is all about. This is telling us that we've found this pulse high. We've got to find more of them in this current survey. And imagine what we're going to find when the ska starts up.

How's that all going? Exactly. So, uh, the mentioned Walker rate is to an extent, just the smaller, cheaper version of it is very promising. Starting to learn how to process such large data quantities, and we all finding posts, but it's getting really exciting. We're hoping to start doing it at the end of this year.

And we were predicted to discover another 6,000 posts out. So almost tripled the amount of posts. I think Swainston from the cotton university node or the international center for radio astronomy research. And this is time. Still the cam nurses Shield's mission to explore local interstellar space and the expedition 64 crew returned safely to worth aboard this Soyuz, spacecraft, all that and more store to come on.

[00:15:00] Space time.

18 billion kilometers away more than four times. The distance from earth orbit to that. A Pluto lies the boundary of our solar system's magnetic bubble. The heliopause here, the sun's magnetic field stretching through space, like an invisible cloud fizzles out to nothing and interstellar space begins.

Astronomers know very little about what lies beyond this boundary. Only the Voyagers one and two spacecraft, a ventured this far. And they're using technology dating back to the 1970s. Fortunately bits of interstellar space can come to us passing right through this border and making their way into the inner solar system.

And, and you NASA missions about to study these interstellar particles [00:16:00] and the process telling us Donald was a little bit more about the region where the solar system ends and interstellar space begins. The mission is called the spacial heterodyne interferometric emission line dynamic, spectrometer or shields, which is about to launch from the white sands missile ranch in New Mexico, aboard a suborbital sounding rocket.

Right now our solar system is a drift in the cluster of clouds in an area cleared out by ancient supernova explosions. Astronomist cool. This region, the local bubble and oblong plot of space, about 300 light years long within the spiraling Origen arm of our Milky way. Galaxy it's a region containing not just as sun and solar system, but hundreds of other stars and systems.

Our solar system orbiting the sun and its magnetic bubble. The heliosphere is traveling through the local bubble at some 23 kilometers per second. And interstellar particles are constantly pelting. The nose of the heliosphere like rain drops against the windshield. [00:17:00] In fact, the heliosphere is very much molded by its surroundings, compressed at some points of pressure and expanding it.

Others, we think it looks like a giant twin tower comet or more likely a croissant. But exactly how and where the heliosphere has lions. The form is uncertain and the Shield's mission will provide some clues about this, as well as the nature of the surrounding interstellar space outside it Shield's mission principal investigator Walt Harris from the university of Arizona in Tucson says this boundary region and any deformities in it is what the Shield's missions telescope will explore.

Harris's team launched an earlier iteration of this telescope as part of a hight mission back in 2014 and after modifying the design, they're ready to launch again. Shields will measure light from neutral hydrogen atoms from interstellar space. Neutral hydrogen has a balanced number of protons and electrons, protons being positively charged and electrons negatively charged.

They even each other out, hence the term [00:18:00] neutral. Neutral atoms can cross magnetic field lines. So they sweep through the heliopause and into our solar system, nearly unfazed, but not completely. And it's the smaller fix of this boundary crossing, which a kit issue it's technique, charge particles flow around the heliopause forming a barrier and neutral particles from interstellar space need to pass through this gauntlet, which alters their paths.

And that's where shields comes in. It's designed to reconstruct the trajectories of these neutral particles that determine where they came from and what they saw along the way. Few minutes after launch shuls will reach the peak of its altitude, about 300 kilometers above the ground, far above the absorbing effects of its atmosphere pointing its telescope towards the nerves of the heliosphere it'll detect light from arriving hydrogen atoms, measuring how that lights, wavelength, stretches, or contracts reveals the particle speed.

Shields will produce a map reconstructing this shape and varying density of matter in the heliopause [00:19:00] Harris hopes, the data will answer tantalizing questions about what interstellar space is like right now. Astronomers think the local bubble is just a 10th. The average gas density of the rest of the interstellar medium in the galaxies main disk, but scientists don't know if matter in the local bubble is distributed evenly, or whether it's bunched up in dense pockets, surrounded by nothingness.

Astronomers also don't know much about the Galaxy's magnetic field, but it should leave a Mark and a heliosphere, which shields can detect compressing the heliopause in a specific way, based on its strengthened orientation, learning what our plot of interstellar space is really like, would be helpful in the distant future.

See, our solar system is really just passing through this current patch of space and about 50,000 years from now, it will pass out of the local bubble, but what will it pass into next? This space-time still the calm expedition, 64 returns safely to work after 185 days in orbit. And later in the science report, researchers [00:20:00] successfully grow human primate hybrid.

Comeric embryos, all that and more store to come. On space time.

three members of the expedition. 64 crew have returned safely to earth following half a year aboard the international space station. They had launched 185 days earlier, back on October the 14th from the Baikonur Cosmodrome at the central Asian Republic of Kazakhstan. The trios soil has Ms. 17 spacecraft parachuted down on the clay blue skies under the cosmic stance steps, commander surrogate, your cough, uh, maintaining a running dialogue with flight controllers at the Russian mission control center.

Reporting on Soyuz systems, the crew, uh, putting their visors down on their helmets. This, uh, in preparation for the [00:21:00] pyrotechnics separation of the three sections of the Soyuz, the top most section called the orbital module and the lower section, the instrumentation and propulsion module, they will be, uh, separating soon that will allow the descent module at the fly on its own.

Uh, with its computers honed in on, uh, the landing site, about 91 miles to the Southeast of the town of Jessica's gun mission control here, we hear you through the noise. How would you read us? We have you loud and clear copy. Mission control Houston, uh, based on the last report from Sergei, your cough, everything, uh, Going very well on board, the Soyuz NS 17, the next a major event coming up in about 11 minutes.

The separation of the three sections of the Soyuz has a, the descent module with the three crew members strapped inside that will then fly free with its onboard computers, uh, targeting the landing site. To the Southeast of the town of  has gone the orbital [00:22:00] module and the instrumentation and propulsion module separate from the descent module that then enters the Earth's atmosphere, building up heat, repelling the heat through its a heat shield before the deployment of a drug shoot.

And then the large main shoot. And uh, with the completion of the deorbit burn a short time ago, uh, the Russian Mia helicopters are all airborne on route to the landing side. This is all very carefully choreographed and timed. The separation of the three sections of the Soyuz will occur at an altitude of about 87 miles.

All done, uh, by automatic commanding from the onboard computers, firing pyrotechnics to enable the three sections to separate from one another in the center section or descent module. So use commander Sergei.  flying under the call sign of, of RA, uh, in the center seat, flanked on his left by Sergei could search cough and on his right by Kate Rubins.

The, uh, landing side coordinates, uh, calculated by the Russian flight control team and Carl [00:23:00] off call for the Soyuz to be targeting a landing spot at 47.2 North 69.3 East. The weather reports. Indicate clear skies have very light winds temperature around 64 degrees Fahrenheit the reports now in, from the Russian mission control center, that module separation has occurred on time.

The Soyuz descent module with the three crew members strapped in their seats and their so-called launch and entry suits are battling toward the lending side Southeast of Jessica's gone the next major event, some three minutes from now. When the vehicle enters the Earth's atmosphere at an altitude of a hundred kilometers, once the Soyuz approaches the landing site, some 15 minutes before touchdown, there was a, uh, intricate, uh, parachute deployment sequence that is triggered by a barometric pressure sensor.

When now the vehicle is about 41,000 feet above the ground. At that point, the main parachute covers first jettison by pyrotechnic devices and [00:24:00] Springs. This will pull out a pair of extraction shoots, which in turn pulls out the drug shoot, which in turn pulls out. The main parachute takes about 20 seconds for all of this to happen.

When the atmospheric pressure that is measured around the Soyuz, um, Reaches the proper levels. A barometric pressure sensor starts a timer that triggers most of the remaining events in the landing sequence at an altitude of about 18,000 feet off the ground commands are issued to jettison the heat shield and to open valves, to vent hydrogen peroxide, uh, fuel for the entry control thrusters and oxygen, or the life support system tank so that, um, the vehicle can be saved for landing.

Without an abundance of hazardous, hazardous gases remaining in the tanks. When the soft landing thrusters fire just milliseconds before touchdown, the Soyuz are now beginning to enter the Earth's atmosphere. This will Mark the first effects of Earth's gravity against the bodies of the three crew members for the first time in 185 days, we're inside [00:25:00] 23 minutes until the anticipated touchdown of the Soyuz to wrap up is 78.4 million mile mission.

The three crew members in the descent module of the  should be seeing the first effects of plasma fireball building around the spacecraft where temperatures rise to about 2,500 degrees of bladed by the soleus heat shield. So I use, uh, computers also, uh, providing entry guidance. To fine tune the path of the spacecraft toward the landing site on the step of Kazakhstan, the spacecraft and the crew members should be emerging from this plasma regime and about three and a half minutes, probably super muscular MCC Moscow.

Flight controllers, the Russian mission control center, attempting to contact the Soyuz, but, uh, as expected communications, not expected to provide a response as the Soyuz descends in the heat peaking regime during it century back to earth, touchdown expected [00:26:00] about 18 and a half minutes from now that you saw your spacecraft should be emerging from this plasma regime about a minute from now.

And, uh, as it approaches the landing site. Communications should be established through, uh, the search and recovery forces in the Antonov 26 fixed wing aircraft around the landing zone, serving as a command and control relay station.

We talked to you.


How are you feeling?

It is seven seven two seven seven two [00:27:00] pressure. What's the maximum


Uh, maybe it's three 95. We thought would be three 95.

well, please make sure that the audio procedures are, and once the he's are prime. Make sure that you put the, the rotational hand control is in a corresponding position

is about one and one and the 10 plus 10, affirmative 10. This is mission control Houston, almost like clockwork. Good communications re-established between mission control [00:28:00] and Carly off, and certainly original cost. The Soyuz commander, the crew, and now out of the plasma regime, atmospheric entry was a nominal occurrence and we're standing by now, uh, for the.

Opening, uh, of the parachutes that command to begin the parachute deployment sequence parachutes should have been commanded to deploy by now. This is mission control Houston. And so use Ms. 17 under its main parachute. The white smoke is the nominal venting of hydrogen peroxide and oxygen into the atmosphere right on time.

Right on schedule with landing planned about. 10 minutes and 50 seconds from now reports. Now from the landing side from the Antonov 26 command and control flying aircraft indicate that the crew is in great shape. They've reported. Everything is nominal on board, the Soyuz descending through a cloudless sky on a Saturday morning in Kazakhstan.

So use Ms. 17 with Rubens. Raise your cough and could spirits cough at board.

[00:29:00] So you use altimeter soon to be activated, to measure the distance between the soil use and land and the rate of descent, all that information being fed into the Soyuz computers that will trigger the soft landing engines firing just milliseconds before time

did. Eight nine zero.

The beeping sound you hear as a radio beacon on the Soyuz spacecraft that, uh, is relaying. Uh it's uh, Position back, uh, for telemetry on the ground. So used very stable. The winds are virtually non-existent, uh, on the ground, uh, at the landing site, according to the latest reports, Russia and Mia helicopters of the search and recovery forces and the embedded NASA personnel are now circling the landing zone, preparing to touch down [00:30:00] in sequential fashion within minutes after the Soyuz lands.

Those search and recovery forces. Maintaining good two-way communications with the crew on board.

Yeah. Okay.

In the descent module, uh, the three crew members have cocked their seats in the landing position, tighten their, uh, Straps against, uh, their so-called launch and entry suits just a bit tighter as they prepare for touchdowns.

sandwiched between the launch of a Soyuz vehicle and next week's launch of a space X crew dragon vehicle saw your spacecraft is minutes away from touchdown on the step of caution.

[00:31:00] 500 meters crew guys ready? Full ending, everything looking good.

Touchdown touchdown confirmed at 11:55 PM. Central time, 12:55 AM. Eastern time, 10:55 AM in Kazakhstan on a Saturday morning after 185 days in space and emission spanning 2,960 orbits of the earth and 78.4 million miles. Kate Rubins surrogate, Resha cough and surrogate could search golf or back on Terra firma.

At this point, uh, the Russian Mia helicopters with the search and recovery forces in tow will begin to [00:32:00] descend one by one first to erect an inflatable medical tent nearby the capsule. And then begin the process of extracting the crew confirmation. Now being received from the search and recovery forces, uh, that the Soyuz Ms.

17 landed upright. So the crew will be extracted from the top hatch on the Soyuz. Once a, a letter is erected alongside the spacecraft six month mission on station included work and over 200 scientific experiments focusing on biology and biotechnology, as well as physics. Material science and earth science experiments.

They also welcome the space X crew one dragon two team and undertook two space walks to install new lithium ion batteries. Replacing the old battery storage system. This is space time.

Anton, that'll take a brief look at some of the other stories [00:33:00] making use in science this week with a science report and you study is found that the risk of rare blood clotting known as cerebral venous thrombosis, following COVID-19 infection is around a hundred times greater than normal and several times higher than what it is following vaccination or following influenza.

The research, which has yet to be peer reviewed, suggests that cerebral venous thrombosis is more common after COVID-19 than after a COVID-19 vaccine, jab from either the  or adeno virus vaccines. Meanwhile, a report in the Lancet medical journal is found that young people are still at risk from catching COVID-19 a second time, despite previously affected people being five times less likely to catch the virus again.

The findings are based on a study of 3000 young us Marine Corps members, which found that one in 10, who had previously caught COVID-19 caught the virus again. While half the participants who had not caught the virus still tested positive during the study, some 3.1 million people have [00:34:00] now been killed by the COVID-19 Corona virus.

And some 150 million have been infected since the deadly disease. First emerged in war and China and was spread around the world. In a case of clearly not having seen the movie planet of the apes researchers have injected human STEM cells into primate embryos, creating human monkey hybrid Comeric embryos, which they then successfully grew for up to 20 days while providing a clear ethical challenge for society.

The Comeric embryo is reported in the journal cell could be used to study early human development and model disease. They could also be used for drug screening and as a way to grow spare organs for transplants researchers injected six day old monkey embryos with 25 extended plurry Perdon human STEM cells, which have the potential to contribute to both embryonic and extra embryonic tissues.

After a day, human cells were detected in 132 embryos and after 10 days 103 of that came, Erik [00:35:00] embryos were still developing. Survival. However soon began declining. And after day 19 only three cameras was still alive. Importantly. However, the percentage of human cells in the embryos remained high throughout the time they continue to grow.

Researchers performed transcriptome analysis of both the human and monkey cells from the embryos, which showed several communication pathways that were either novel or strengthened in the Comeric cells. Research is now one of, I did take a more detailed study of all the molecular pathways that are involved in this interspecies communication that determined which pathways are vital for the developmental archeologists uncovered a 3,300 year old lost city in Egypt.

Southern province of Luxor, the ancient city known as art 10 was founded during the reign of 18th dynasty Pharaoh. Amenhotep the third. The discovery is being held as the second most important archeological find in Egypt since Howard Carter's discovery a hundred years ago of the [00:36:00] tomb of Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings, where he added those immortal words when asked what he could see in the tomb saying wonderful things and everywhere, the Glint of gold so far.

Yeah. Cryptologist of uncovered city streets, flanked by houses with walls up to three meters high. Archeological finds include rings, scarabs colored, pottery vessels, and mud bricks bearing seals of almond Haute at the thirds cat tush, which helped to confirm the city's identity. Historical references said the city included three row palaces of Amenhotep the third, as well as an industrial center and the Empire's administrative headquarters, which was all protected by zigzag security walls with only one single entrance.

The public are being encouraged to cut through any loops or rings of any size in trash before disposing of their garbage. After a new study found that Platypus had become entangled in all sorts of discarded items. A report in the journal of Australian mammalogy [00:37:00] says items recovered from dead or rescued animals included elastic, hair ties, fishing lines, and hospital identification waistbands.

There was even an engine gasket and a plastic ring seal from a food jar. All of these items had cut through the skin and underlying tissue have rescued Platypus researchers estimate that some one and a half percent of all platter posts in metropolitan areas. And up to half a percent of those living in regional areas are now at risk of entanglement related injuries or death families with kids on the autism spectrum are being targeted by con artists, flogging, fake cures and treatments.

Autism is a condition that affects about one in 75 people. It affects how a person thinks, feels interacts with others and experiences their environment and can range from a very mild affliction to a profound disability. Tim minim from Australian skeptic says a parliamentary inquiry into autism as had submissions about how the bank treatments are being peddled.

As Q is by con artists. Parents [00:38:00] often don't know how to respond, how to handle the situation with autistic kids on whichever spectrum they happen to sit. There are plenty of people out there who are willing to offer cures and treatments and whatever, since time immemorial. In this particular case in this century, things such as lead tenements diets, obviously pills or whatever.

So some of them toxic therapies, I mean, you might as well go back to thinking people in water or whatever that the variations over the years, but there's still a lot of snake oil salesman out there. Very happy to take advantage. Some of them might be sincere. You think that they actually believe that they think cure or.

Conditions such as autism, but now they can't. As soon as one treatment is knocked off its perch, another one will pop up again. Unfortunately, you just got to try and take people that autism is a thing and you know, they might not be a cure. And the other thing of course is autism is so very, that's where they.

Cool at the spectrum these days, it goes sometimes [00:39:00] can have profound handicaps while others can go on to become major scientific world changes. I mean, there's a, there's a, uh, a strong belief that, uh, Isaac Newton had autistic tendencies. Einstein certainly. It's such a wide gamut. You want fine. Two people with autism that are identical, the symptoms, the, um, the qualities are different.

It's unfortunate that there are these areas where there'd be a whole of another set of standard sort of diseases and conditions of one sort or another where there's someone sort of peddling. And some of them quite frankly, Might kill the patient. So parents and anyone else have to be very, very careful Tim Mendham from Australian skeptics.

And that's the show for now. Time is [00:40:00] available every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday through Apple podcasts, iTunes, Stitcher, Google podcast, pocket casts, Spotify, a cast, Amazon music bites.com. SoundCloud, YouTube. Your favorite podcasts downloaded provider and from space-time with Stewart, gary.com space times also broadcast through the national science foundation on science own radio and on both iHeart, radio and tune in radio.

And you can help to support our show by visiting the space time store for a range of promotional merchandising goodies, or by becoming a space-time patron, which gives you access to the triple episode, commercial free versions of the show, as well as lots of Burness audio content, which doesn't go away access to our exclusive Facebook group and other rewards.

Just go to space time with Stuart, gary.com for full details. And if you want more space time, please check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show, as well as heaps of images, new stories, loads, videos, and [00:41:00] things on the web. I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stuart, gary.com.

That's all one word and that's tumbler without the aid. You can also follow us through Stuart, Gary on Twitter at space-time with Stuart Gary on Instagram. Through our space-time YouTube channel and on Facebook, just go to facebook.com forward slash space time with Stuart, Gary and space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian sky and telescope magazine.

Your window on the universe. You've been listening to space-time with Stewart, Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from bitesz.com

Nick Swainston

Lab Instructor Physics at Curtin University. My research involves searching for pulsars with the Murchison Widefield Array.