Feb. 6, 2023

S26E16: Juno Team Assessing Spacecraft Camera Issue // Mars Sample Depot Completed // Green Comet’s Extra Tail

S26E16: Juno Team Assessing Spacecraft Camera Issue // Mars Sample Depot Completed // Green Comet’s Extra Tail

SpaceTime Series 26 Episode 16 *Juno team assessing spacecraft camera issue Mission managers are evaluating an issue with NASA’s Juno spacecraft which is on an extended mission to the gas giant Jupiter. *NASA’s Mars Perseverance Rover Completes Mars...

SpaceTime Series 26 Episode 16 *Juno team assessing spacecraft camera issue Mission managers are evaluating an issue with NASA’s Juno spacecraft which is on an extended mission to the gas giant Jupiter. *NASA’s Mars Perseverance Rover Completes Mars Sample Depot. Ten sample tubes containing an amazing variety of Martian geology samples have now been deposited on Martian surface as a back up to identical samples in the cache aboard the Mars Perseverance rover which are destined for eventual transport to Earth. *The Green Comet’s extra tail A couple of weeks ago we reported on a spectacular green comet C/2022 E3 (ZTF) which has just streaked past the Earth and is now back on its way to the dark outer reaches of the solar system. *The Science Report The hunt continues for a missing shipment of radioactive Caesium 137 in Western Australia. A new study warns people are breathing in airborne microplastics – even at home. A new study claims a latte could have anti-inflammatory effects in humans. Skeptics guide to vaccinated blood Listen to SpaceTime on your favorite podcast app with our universal listen link: https://spacetimewithstuartgary.com/listen For more SpaceTime and show links: https://linktr.ee/biteszHQ If you love this podcast, please get someone else to listen to. Thank you… To become a SpaceTime supporter and unlock commercial free editions of the show, gain early access and bonus content, please visit https://bitesz.supercast.com/ . Premium version now available via Spotify and Apple Podcasts. For more podcasts visit our HQ at https://bitesz.com Your support is needed... SpaceTime is an independently produced podcast (we are not funded by any government grants, big organisations or companies), and we’re working towards becoming a completely listener supported show...meaning we can do away with the commercials and sponsors. We figure the time can be much better spent on researching and producing stories for you, rather than having to chase sponsors to help us pay the bills. That's where you come in....help us reach our first 1,000 subscribers...at that level the show becomes financially viable and bills can be paid without us breaking into a sweat every month. Every little bit helps...even if you could contribute just $1 per month. It all adds up. By signing up and becoming a supporter at the $5 or more level, you get immediate access to over 280 commercial-free, double, and triple episode editions of SpaceTime plus extended interview bonus content. You also receive all new episodes on a Monday rather than having to wait the week out. Subscribe via Supercast (you get a month’s free trial to see if it’s really for you or not) ... and share in the rewards. Details at Supercast - https://bitesznetwork.supercast.tech/ Details at https://spacetimewithstuartgary.com or www.bitesz.com
#space #astronomy #science #news #podcast

The Astronomy, Space, Technology & Science News Podcast.

1 00:00:00,250 --> 00:00:07,360 This is Spacetime Series 26, episode 16 for broadcast on the 6 February 2023. 2 00:00:07,730 --> 00:00:13,870 Coming up on Space time problems with NASA's Juno spacecraft currently orbiting Jupiter. 3 00:00:14,210 --> 00:00:18,490 NASA's Perseverance Rover completes the Mars Sample Depot. 4 00:00:18,650 --> 00:00:27,910 And that green comet we spoke about the other week? Well, apparently it's grown an extra tail, although more coming up on Spacetime. 5 00:00:28,970 --> 00:00:32,550 Welcome to Spacetime with Stuart Gary. 6 00:00:48,430 --> 00:00:56,938 Mission managers are evaluating an issue with NASA's Juno spacecraft, which is on an extended mission orbiting the giant gas planet Jupiter. 7 00:00:57,114 --> 00:01:05,438 They're trying to determine why the majority of the images taken by the orbiter's JunoCam weren't acquired during last month's Jovian flyby. 8 00:01:05,614 --> 00:01:15,566 The data received from the spacecraft indicates that the camera experienced an issue similar to one that occurred on the previous close encounter with the gas giant in December. 9 00:01:15,758 --> 00:01:22,946 Back then, mission managers saw an anomalous temperature rise after the camera was powered on in preparation for the flyby. 10 00:01:23,138 --> 00:01:26,582 However, the January 22 flyby saw the same issue. 11 00:01:26,636 --> 00:01:33,382 This is for far longer, 23 hours, as opposed to just 36 minutes for the December close encounter. 12 00:01:33,526 --> 00:01:39,590 This left the first 114 JunoCam images planned for the flyby totally unusable. 13 00:01:39,750 --> 00:01:51,018 As with the previous occurrence, once the anomaly that caused the temperature rise cleared, the camera returned to normal operations and the remaining 44 images were of good quality and quite usable. 14 00:01:51,194 --> 00:01:55,690 These were the mission's 47th and 48th flybys of Jupiter. 15 00:01:55,850 --> 00:02:02,062 Mission managers say the JunoCam will remain powered on for the time being, and the camera appears to continue to operate. 16 00:02:02,126 --> 00:02:09,458 Nominally, JunoCam is a color visible light camera designed to capture images of Jupiter's cloud tops. 17 00:02:09,634 --> 00:02:16,226 The camera was originally designed to operate in Jupiter's high energy radiation environment for at least seven orbits. 18 00:02:16,338 --> 00:02:19,926 But as you can see, it seems to have survived an awful lot longer. 19 00:02:20,108 --> 00:02:27,718 Juno was launched back on August 5, 2011 from the Cape Canaveral Space Force Station in Florida aboard an Atlas Five rocket. 20 00:02:27,814 --> 00:02:51,678 The Lockheed Martin built spacecraft was designed to study the chemical composition of Jupiter's immense atmosphere and cloudtops, peering deep below the obscuring cloud structure to probe convection currents and the deep engines driving its circulation patterns and spectacular surface weather features, cyclonic storms and iconic salmon and cream colored atmospheric bands. 21 00:02:51,854 --> 00:03:05,858 Juno is also measuring Jupiter's gravitational field in order to better understand the internal structure of the solar system's largest planet, as well as its magnetic field, its polar magnetosphere, and its aurora activity. 22 00:03:06,034 --> 00:03:09,274 Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system. 23 00:03:09,472 --> 00:03:15,450 In fact, other than the sun, it contains more mass than the entire rest of the solar system combined. 24 00:03:15,790 --> 00:03:25,726 So by better understanding how this Jovian gas giant formed, scientists can learn more about the formation of the rest of the solar system as well. 25 00:03:25,908 --> 00:03:33,550 The 3625 Kilogram probe achieved Jovian orbit insertion on July 5, 2016. 26 00:03:33,910 --> 00:03:41,140 It's in a highly elongated polar orbit designed to avoid as much of Jupiter's damaging radiation belts as possible. 27 00:03:41,510 --> 00:03:57,742 The orbit allows the spacecraft to swoop down and skim just 3400 km above the swirling Jordan cloud tops before being taken back out to more than eight 1 million kilometres to help protect the spacecraft from Jupiter's deadly radiation. 28 00:03:57,826 --> 00:04:03,270 Juneau's most delicate instruments and control systems are housed in its specially shielded strongbox. 29 00:04:03,430 --> 00:04:11,870 Among its early discoveries, JuneA gathered information about jovy and lightning data that forced scientists to revise their earlier theories. 30 00:04:12,210 --> 00:04:22,618 It provided the first views of Jupiter's north pole, as well as providing insights into Jupiter's auroral activity, its magnetic fields and its tumultuous atmosphere. 31 00:04:22,794 --> 00:04:43,654 In 2021, an analysis of the frequency of interplanetary dust particles primarily on the backs of the solar panels as Juno passed between Earth and the asteroid belt showed that the dust which causes the zodiacal light comes from Mars, rather than from the comets and asteroids which come from the outer solar system as was previously thought. 32 00:04:43,852 --> 00:04:49,686 Juno has also made many discoveries that a challenging existing theory is about Jupiter's formation. 33 00:04:49,878 --> 00:04:55,978 When Juno flew over the poles of Jupiter, it imaged clusters of stable cyclones that exist there. 34 00:04:56,064 --> 00:05:00,034 It found that the magnetosphere of Jupiter is uneven and chaotic. 35 00:05:00,182 --> 00:05:12,202 Using its microwave radiometer, Juno found that the salmon and cream bands which dominate the planet's outer atmosphere actually extend for hundreds of kilometres deep into the planet's clouds. 36 00:05:12,346 --> 00:05:16,398 The interior structure of Jupiter isn't evenly mixed. 37 00:05:16,574 --> 00:05:26,862 This has resulted in the hypothesis that Jupiter doesn't have a solid core as previously thought, but a fuzzy core made out of bits of rock and metallic hydrogen. 38 00:05:27,006 --> 00:05:32,610 This unusual core structure may be the result of a collision that happened early in Jupiter's formation. 39 00:05:32,770 --> 00:05:47,226 The original plans called for a total of 37 orbits around the 143,000 kilometer wide planet, with the original 53.4 Earth day polar orbits eventually contracting down to just 14 Earth days. 40 00:05:47,408 --> 00:05:59,178 However, those plants were scrapped following ongoing concerns about the spacecraft's main engine, meaning that all orbits remained at 53.4 Earth days, which would have meant fewer orbits overall. 41 00:05:59,354 --> 00:06:08,286 The good news is that Juno's cope with Jupiter's extreme radiation belts better than expected, and that's allowed its current extended mission to proceed. 42 00:06:08,478 --> 00:06:16,050 By extending the mission, not only were those missing orbits included, but lots of additional orbits were also added, allowing greater exploration. 43 00:06:16,390 --> 00:06:23,430 Juno will make its 49th passive Jupiter on March 1 of this report from NASA TV. 44 00:06:25,530 --> 00:06:28,470 Jupiter is by far the largest planet in the solar system. 45 00:06:28,540 --> 00:06:30,230 It has an influence on everything else. 46 00:06:30,300 --> 00:06:36,678 So if we want to understand how the planets form, how the solar systems form, we really have to start with Jupiter. 47 00:06:36,774 --> 00:06:50,526 By studying Jupiter, you're going to get one piece of the puzzle not necessarily how life formed, but maybe how the ingredients that made up life eventually got spread around in the early solar system and got to us. 48 00:06:50,628 --> 00:06:53,778 We care about the light elements because that's what we're made of. 49 00:06:53,944 --> 00:07:18,642 We've got a puzzle about where these volatile elements, these lightweight elements like nitrogen, carbon, noble gases, where they came from to determine how much water is in Jupiter is essential to understand how this planet came to form and then how it influenced the formation of all the other planets in the system. 50 00:07:18,796 --> 00:07:31,520 When the Earth formed in the absence of Jupiter, it probably would have gathered very little water and organic molecules, which would have been concentrated in the colder, outer part of the solar system. 51 00:07:31,890 --> 00:07:45,562 What Jupiter evidently did as it formed was to scatter cold material that contain water, ice, and organic materials to the inner solar system, where it could be captured by the Earth and the other terrestrial planets. 52 00:07:45,626 --> 00:07:47,202 We learned about the origin of the solar system. 53 00:07:47,256 --> 00:07:48,766 We're learning about our own origins. 54 00:07:48,798 --> 00:07:54,062 We're learning about how life comes to be, about who we are and what our place is in the universe. 55 00:07:54,126 --> 00:07:58,120 It's about knowledge and about humanity's quest to understand. 56 00:07:58,570 --> 00:08:03,240 For me, that's why we need to study Jupiter and the solar system and almost everything. 57 00:08:06,170 --> 00:08:20,998 And in that report from NASA TV, we heard from Juno project scientist Steve Levin, from NASA's jet propulsion laboratory in Pasadena, California, juno principal investigator Scott Bolton from the southwest research institute in San Antonio, Texas. 58 00:08:21,094 --> 00:08:22,534 Juno atmospheric science. 59 00:08:22,582 --> 00:08:36,266 Investigator Andy Ingasol from Caltech, planetary Formation Investigator Tristan Guillot from the Costa Juror Observatory in France and Planetary Formation Investigator Jonathan Lewin from the University of Arizona. 60 00:08:36,458 --> 00:08:38,480 This is space time. 61 00:08:38,790 --> 00:08:48,194 Still to come, NASA's Mars Perseverance Rover completes construction of the Martian sample depot and will explain the green comets extra tale. 62 00:08:48,322 --> 00:08:49,302 All that and more. 63 00:08:49,356 --> 00:08:51,720 Still to come on space time. 64 00:09:07,930 --> 00:09:16,170 NASA's Mars Perseverance Road Rover has now completed its construction of the Mars sample depot on the surface of the Red Planet. 65 00:09:16,330 --> 00:09:32,878 Ten sample tubes containing an amazing variety of Martian geology samples have now been deposited on the Martian surface, thereby providing a backup to the ten identical samples in the cache aboard the Mars Perseverance Rover, which are destined for eventual transport back to Earth. 66 00:09:33,054 --> 00:09:40,242 Less than six weeks after beginning setting up the sample depot, the ten samples were carefully positioned on the Martian soil. 67 00:09:40,386 --> 00:09:50,550 Throughout its science campaigns, the six world car sized rover has been collecting pairs of samples from rocks which mission managers deemed scientifically significant. 68 00:09:50,710 --> 00:09:57,750 One sample from each pair now sits in a carefully arranged depot in the Three Forks region of Jesro Crater. 69 00:09:57,910 --> 00:10:02,810 Now, this project wasn't just a case of dumping a bunch of metal containers under the ground. 70 00:10:02,970 --> 00:10:10,814 The titanium tubes were placed in an intricate zigzag pattern, with each sample between five and 15 meters from the next. 71 00:10:11,012 --> 00:10:16,718 Each had to be carefully positioned so that they didn't block access to any of the other samples. 72 00:10:16,814 --> 00:10:34,598 And the exact coordinates of each, together with the correct glove adapter combination needed to be carefully recorded so that future mission managers knew exactly where to look and how to safely recover them if needed, either by means of another rover on the ground or by a roticopter from the air. 73 00:10:34,764 --> 00:10:45,254 These depot samples will serve as a backup set, while the other half remain inside Perseverance's cage, which will be the primary means of conveying the samples to a sample retrieval. 74 00:10:45,302 --> 00:10:45,702 Lander. 75 00:10:45,766 --> 00:11:01,086 As part of the sample return campaign, mission, scientists believe the igneous and sedimentary rock cores provide an excellent cross section of the geological processes that took place in Jesro shortly after the crater's formation 4 billion years ago. 76 00:11:01,268 --> 00:11:13,438 The rover also deposited an atmospheric sample and what scientists call a witness tube, which is used to determine if the samples being collected have been contaminated with material that's traveled with the rover from Earth. 77 00:11:13,614 --> 00:11:23,874 The depot is located on flat ground not far from the base of a raised fanshaped ancient river delta that formed long ago when a stream flowed into the lake. 78 00:11:24,002 --> 00:11:36,134 Perseverance's deputy project manager Rick Welsh from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California says, now, with the three forks deeper in their rear view mirror, perseverance can now head up the delta. 79 00:11:36,262 --> 00:11:44,990 The rover will make its ascent up through the Hawksbill Gap previously explored once past their geologic unit the science team calls Rocky Top. 80 00:11:45,060 --> 00:11:49,920 It'll be in new, unexplored territory and begin studying the delta top. 81 00:11:50,370 --> 00:12:01,410 Passing the Rocky Top outcrop represents the end of the Rovers Delta Front campaign and the beginning of the Rovers Delta Top campaign because of the geologic transition that takes place at that level. 82 00:12:01,560 --> 00:12:12,530 Perseverance project scientist Ken Farley from Caltech says that from the base of the delta up to the level where Rocky Tops located, the rocks appeared to have been deposited in a lake environment. 83 00:12:12,690 --> 00:12:19,282 And those above Rocky Top appear to have been created in or near the end of the Martian river flowing into the lake. 84 00:12:19,426 --> 00:12:29,158 As Perseverance as sends the delta into the river setting, scientists expect to move into rocks that are composed of larger grains from sand to large boulders. 85 00:12:29,334 --> 00:12:41,178 And these materials are likely to have originated in rocks outside of Jesu Crater where they were eroded and eventually washed out into the crater as river sediment. 86 00:12:41,354 --> 00:12:58,434 One of the first stops the rover will make during the new science campaign is at a location mission managers are calling the Cavillainer Unit, essentially a Martian sandbar units made up of sediment that eons ago was deposited in the bend of one of gizro's inflowing river channels. 87 00:12:58,562 --> 00:13:12,566 The science team believes the Cavillionaire Unit will be an excellent location to hunt for intriguing outcrops of sandstone, perhaps mudstone, and it might even get a glimpse of the geological processes taking place beyond the walls of the crater. 88 00:13:12,758 --> 00:13:23,326 Of course, the key objective of Perseverance's mission on Mars is astrobiology, including searching for samples that may contain signs of ancient microbial life. 89 00:13:23,508 --> 00:13:28,990 And a river delta region with nutrients and lots of water is a great place to look. 90 00:13:29,140 --> 00:13:38,398 The rover is also characterizing the planet's geology and past climate paving the way for human exploration of the Red Planet sometime in the next decade. 91 00:13:38,574 --> 00:13:44,718 This is spacetime still to come the green comet grows an extra tail. 92 00:13:44,814 --> 00:13:46,562 We'll explain how that happens. 93 00:13:46,696 --> 00:13:57,566 And later in the Science Report, the hunt continues for a missing shipment of radioactive caesium 137 which quite literally fell off the back of a truck in Western Australia. 94 00:13:57,698 --> 00:13:59,820 It's a truly amazing story. 95 00:14:00,270 --> 00:14:03,580 All that and more still to come on Space Time. 96 00:14:19,010 --> 00:14:31,746 A couple of weeks ago, we reported on a spectacular green comet, c 2022 E three ZTF which has just streaked past the Earth and is now back on its way to the dark outer reaches of our solar system. 97 00:14:31,928 --> 00:14:44,678 The comet was clearly visible in dark skies away from city lights, providing sky watches with a spectacular sight originating in the distant ore cloud, possibly more than a lightyear away. 98 00:14:44,764 --> 00:14:57,318 The green comet takes over 55,000 years to complete its orbit meaning at last visit to the inner solar system when Earth was still in the Stone Age and the enderthals roamed Europe and Central Asia. 99 00:14:57,494 --> 00:15:13,982 Vorteur Cloud is a hypothetical sphere of comets icy debris in frozen worlds, some possibly from other star systems or interstellar space which are being caught up at the sun's gravitational pool and are now following the solar system as it orbits around the galaxy. 100 00:15:14,126 --> 00:15:22,926 The greenish tinge on the comet comes from chemical reactions as various volatile particles vaporize off into space from deep inside the comet. 101 00:15:23,038 --> 00:15:35,922 But what's made it especially interesting for now is that in addition to its fully formed coma and twin tails, c 2022 E three ZTF also appears to display a third so called antitale. 102 00:15:36,066 --> 00:15:52,670 This bizarre third tail is made up of the same material as the comet's other two tails one made of dust, which is blown off the comet by the solar wind and the other made of gas and ionized particles from within the comet itself that sublimate directly from solid cometry material. 103 00:15:53,170 --> 00:15:55,706 These twin tails are clearly visible. 104 00:15:55,898 --> 00:16:02,830 The dust tail reflects sunlight while the gas within the other tail becomes ionized, giving off a faint glow. 105 00:16:03,170 --> 00:16:06,750 Eventually, this release gas cools and becomes invisible. 106 00:16:06,910 --> 00:16:12,498 But the leftover dust is left to drift in the comet's wake as it makes its way around the sun. 107 00:16:12,664 --> 00:16:14,642 And that's where the antitale comes in. 108 00:16:14,696 --> 00:16:35,030 See, it's not actually part of the comet itself, but it's an optical illusion caused by the Earth passing through the comet's orbital plane that causes some of this dust to be re illuminated by the sun, appearing as a bright streak, which can look like it's streaming out of the comet in the opposite direction to its tails, depending on the comet's trajectory and orientation. 109 00:16:53,330 --> 00:16:59,460 and time now to take a brief look at some of the other stories making science this week with a science report. 110 00:16:59,990 --> 00:17:16,770 Well, the big question today is how does a radioactive shipment of caesium 137 just quite literally fall off the back of a truck? Caesium 137 was inside a tiny six by eight millimeter button size silver pellet smaller than a five cent coin. 111 00:17:16,930 --> 00:17:27,782 It was fitted inside a radioactive gauge and stowed in the large lead line radiation casing bolted into a special transportation pallet, which had been loaded onto the truck. 112 00:17:27,926 --> 00:17:42,362 Hazmat teams and emergency services have been scouring some 1400 kilometres of highway 95 between the Rio Tinto mine at Newman in the Western Australian Pilbara and the state's capital of Perth, looking for the pellet. 113 00:17:42,506 --> 00:17:54,798 Caesium 137 is commonly used in mining operations to detect the flow of liquid through pipes, to measure the thickness of materials and, as in this case, reportedly for calibrating radiation gauges. 114 00:17:54,974 --> 00:18:12,038 West Australian government authorities claimed the pellet was in its transport container when it departed the mine, but the Caesium 137 pellets, together with some screws and a bolt from the gauge, were not there when the container was checked sometime after its arrival at the Deeper near Perth. 115 00:18:12,214 --> 00:18:17,958 Authorities say they don't believe the radioactive pellet was stolen or deliberately removed. 116 00:18:18,134 --> 00:18:26,122 Instead, they're speculating the constant vibration of the moving truck caused the gauge to shake loose inside the container during the trip. 117 00:18:26,266 --> 00:18:37,106 That resulted in the pellets, some screws and a bolt falling out through the hole left by the bolt and onto the deck at the back of the truck before eventually rolling off onto the road. 118 00:18:37,288 --> 00:18:48,430 No explanation how it came out of the container, however, and that raises some serious questions about the radiation security of the container, which is being used for the transport by Rio Tinto. 119 00:18:48,590 --> 00:18:57,638 The current fear is that the radioactive pellets fallen on the road and then became wedged in the tire tread of another vehicle, which means it could be anywhere right now. 120 00:18:57,804 --> 00:19:08,010 Caesium 137 emits both beta radiation, which are basically free flying electrons and positrons, as well as high energy photons in the form of gamma radiation. 121 00:19:08,350 --> 00:19:18,080 While the beta radiation will be blocked by the shell of the capsule, the gamma radiation will stream right through it, delivering some 662 kiloelectron volts of energy. 122 00:19:18,450 --> 00:19:26,654 The source has an activity of 19 gigabeckerls, which means it's emitting about 19 billion high energy photons every second. 123 00:19:26,852 --> 00:19:34,690 The eczem 137 ceramic source commonly used in radiation gauges, emits some two milliseavets of radiation an hour. 124 00:19:34,760 --> 00:19:38,098 That's the equivalent of ten chest xrays an hour. 125 00:19:38,264 --> 00:19:43,574 The authorities warn that if you happen to find the pellet, you should stay at least 5 meters away from it. 126 00:19:43,692 --> 00:19:55,238 Western Australia's Department of Fire and Emergency Services says while the capsule could not be weaponized, it could cause acute sickness, radiation burns and other long term risks, such as cancer. 127 00:19:55,414 --> 00:19:59,260 Cesium 137 is a half life of over 30 years. 128 00:19:59,630 --> 00:20:05,680 That means the capsule itself will remain somewhat radioactive for at least the next 300 years. 129 00:20:06,930 --> 00:20:13,290 A new study warns that people are breathing in airborne micro plastics even when they're in their homes. 130 00:20:13,450 --> 00:20:24,810 The findings, reported in the Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, show that you're likely to be exposed to thousands of airborne microplastics every year, and that would primarily be indoors. 131 00:20:24,990 --> 00:20:41,942 The study investigated the abundance, distribution form and possible sources of microplastics in both indoor and outdoor sites, finding concentrations are between one and 28 times higher indoors now, with people spending approximately 90% of their time indoors. 132 00:20:42,006 --> 00:20:55,280 And based on the indoor to outdoor microplastic levels identified in the study, the researchers calculate that the average human would be breathing in some 2675 airborne microplastic particles every year. 133 00:20:56,450 --> 00:21:03,838 Better good news now, and a new study claims a latte could have some antiinflammatory effects in humans. 134 00:21:04,014 --> 00:21:14,850 Scientists from the University of Copenhagen say a combination of proteins and antioxidants founding coffee with milk seems to double the antiinflammatory properties in immune cells. 135 00:21:15,190 --> 00:21:25,398 Whenever bacteria, viruses and other foreign substances enter your body, your immune system reacts by deploying white blood cells in chemical substances to protect you. 136 00:21:25,564 --> 00:21:35,366 The reaction, commonly known as inflammation, also occurs when you overload tendons and muscles and is characteristic of diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. 137 00:21:35,558 --> 00:21:42,122 Antioxidants known as polyphenols are found in humans as well as plants, including fruits and vegetables. 138 00:21:42,266 --> 00:21:50,346 Now, in their study, the researchers investigated how polyphenols behave when combined with amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. 139 00:21:50,538 --> 00:22:01,742 Their findings, reported in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, show that polyphenols react with amino acids, causing an enhanced inhibitory effect on inflammation in immune cells. 140 00:22:01,886 --> 00:22:13,640 The authors observed that immune cells treated with a combination of polyphenols and amino acids were twice as effective in fighting inflammation as cells which had only had polyphenols added to them. 141 00:22:14,570 --> 00:22:28,090 A baby in New Zealand has been placed in his doctor's care after his parents refused to consent for a blood transfusion unless the hospital could prove that the blood hadn't come from a donor who had been vaccinated against COVID-19. 142 00:22:28,510 --> 00:22:37,642 Tim Mendham from Australian Skeptics says New Zealand's Blood Service has received growing calls from antivaxxers demanding nonvaccinated blood. 143 00:22:37,706 --> 00:22:49,790 There's been a couple of cases recently of parents of young babies refusing or preferring not to give transfusions to their babies for surgery unless the blood is proved to be unvaccinated. 144 00:22:49,870 --> 00:22:56,018 The fear, they claim, is that vaccinated blood gives off COVID or anything else that can affect their child. 145 00:22:56,104 --> 00:22:59,954 Now, there was one particular case, which got a lot of publicity, of a six month old baby. 146 00:23:00,002 --> 00:23:03,954 The parents refused to have vaccinated blood transfusion. 147 00:23:04,002 --> 00:23:12,866 The doctors took it to court, and the court gave temporary guardianship to the doctors and surgeons and things, who then performed what was urgent surgery. 148 00:23:12,898 --> 00:23:17,894 It had to be done in the next day or so, so there was no time to mess around trying to find unvaccinated blood. 149 00:23:17,942 --> 00:23:25,354 Not that the blood is actually classified that way by the blood banks anyway, that the surgery happened, it was fine, it happened, but it's not the only one. 150 00:23:25,472 --> 00:23:28,974 As I said, the second one, about a week later in New Zealand, was doing the same thing. 151 00:23:29,092 --> 00:23:31,866 They refused to sort of sit around and get guardianship. 152 00:23:31,898 --> 00:23:35,962 They were going to take their baby to India where they would get safe blood in quotes. 153 00:23:36,026 --> 00:23:38,042 I don't think India is the place to do that, whatever. 154 00:23:38,116 --> 00:23:42,942 But yeah, they were flying overseas to try and find a place where they could get unvaccinated blood. 155 00:23:43,006 --> 00:23:43,454 Apparently. 156 00:23:43,502 --> 00:23:57,682 This has been the thing that's been going on at least for a lot of 2022 around the world, various places people have been asking for unvaccinated blood, even though there is no scientific evidence that vaccinated blood is dangerous to pass on any sort of COVID related diseases. 157 00:23:57,746 --> 00:23:58,786 It's a strange phenomenon. 158 00:23:58,818 --> 00:24:00,478 It's just part of the antivaxx movement. 159 00:24:00,514 --> 00:24:07,402 It's part of the hysteria and scare tactics that have been promoted by the antivaxxers on any particular thing they can name. 160 00:24:07,456 --> 00:24:16,582 Because lately the trend has been blaming deaths of famous people on their being vaccinated, basically grabbing anyone who died recently, saying, see vaccination, vaccination. 161 00:24:16,646 --> 00:24:17,274 That's the trouble. 162 00:24:17,322 --> 00:24:19,258 The vast majority of people are vaccinated. 163 00:24:19,354 --> 00:24:22,318 They're trying to find unvaccinated blood, for a start, is difficult. 164 00:24:22,404 --> 00:24:34,830 That there's an ethical issue about what's called distributive justice, I think it is, where you can only go so far in demanding your rights and then you start interfering with the ability of the system if you like to look after everybody equally. 165 00:24:34,910 --> 00:24:42,870 So if you're saying you have to have unvaccinated blood and you send the hospital blood bank scurrying around trying to find it, it's basically taking resources away from other people. 166 00:24:42,940 --> 00:24:48,262 So you can go so far in your rights in quotes, but not to the effect of actually harming other people. 167 00:24:48,316 --> 00:24:55,930 I think it was a big thing not all that long ago of people actually stockpiling their own blood supplies to make sure it's pure for future use. 168 00:24:56,000 --> 00:24:56,474 That's right. 169 00:24:56,512 --> 00:25:05,454 There were also cases of people stockpiling their blood in case they caught HOV later on and had to be tested to see if they could participate in social activities or sport and that sort of thing. 170 00:25:05,492 --> 00:25:16,238 The fact that you're vaccinated, all that's doing is teaching your body how to make the antibodies needed and the original vaccination material disappears in a couple of days anyway. 171 00:25:16,324 --> 00:25:17,246 That's right. 172 00:25:17,428 --> 00:25:22,590 It's not a live virus that's being injected into you that's timing them from Australian skeptics. 173 00:25:37,930 --> 00:25:39,974 And that's the show for now. 174 00:25:40,172 --> 00:25:59,374 Space time is available every Monday, Wednesday and Friday through Apple Podcast, itunes, Stitcher, Google Podcast, PocketCasts, Spotify, Acast, Amazon Music Bites.com, SoundCloud, YouTube, your favorite podcast download provider and From Spacetime with Stuartgarry.com. 175 00:25:59,572 --> 00:26:00,426 Spacetime's. 176 00:26:00,458 --> 00:26:07,582 Also broadcasts through the National Science Foundation on Science Zone radio and on both iHeartRadio and tune in radio. 177 00:26:07,726 --> 00:26:14,014 And you can help to support our show by visiting the Spacetime store for a range of promotional merchandising goodies. 178 00:26:14,142 --> 00:26:27,190 Or by becoming a Spacetime patron, which gives you access to triple episode, commercial free versions of the show, as well as lots of bonus audio content which doesn't go to air, access to our exclusive Facebook group and other rewards. 179 00:26:27,530 --> 00:26:43,494 Just go to Spacetime with Stuartgarry.com for full details and if you want more space time, please check out our blog, where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show, as well as heaps of images, news stories, loads of videos and things on the web I find interesting or amusing. 180 00:26:43,622 --> 00:26:47,374 Just go to Spacetime with Stuartgarry dot tumblr.com. 181 00:26:47,572 --> 00:26:51,022 That's all one word and that's tumblr without the e. 182 00:26:51,156 --> 00:27:00,378 You can also follow us through at stuartgarry, on Twitter, at Spacetime with Stuartgarry, on Instagram, through our Spacetime YouTube channel and on Facebook. 183 00:27:00,474 --> 00:27:09,666 Just go to Facebook.com spacetime with Stuartgarry and Spacetime is brought to you in collaboration with Australian Sky Telescope magazine. 184 00:27:09,778 --> 00:27:11,698 Your window on the Universe. 185 00:27:11,874 --> 00:27:18,740 You've been listening to Space time with Stuart Gary? This has been another quality podcast production from Bites.com.