Jan. 25, 2023

S26E11: Martian Moon Phobos Starting to Tear Apart // Earth’s Latest Climate Report // Russian Rescue Mission

S26E11: Martian Moon Phobos Starting to Tear Apart // Earth’s Latest Climate Report // Russian Rescue Mission

SpaceTime Series 26 Episode 11 *Martian moon Phobos starting to tear apart A new study suggests the 22 kilometre wide Martian moon Phobos is showing the first signs of the process that will eventually tear it apart. *Planet Earth’s latest climate...

SpaceTime Series 26 Episode 11 *Martian moon Phobos starting to tear apart A new study suggests the 22 kilometre wide Martian moon Phobos is showing the first signs of the process that will eventually tear it apart. *Planet Earth’s latest climate report NASA says 2022 was Planet Earth’s fifth warmest year on record. Scientists with the Goddard Space Flight Centre say 2022 would have been even hotter were it not for the overall cooling effect of La Niña. *Russia to launch a rescue Soyuz to the ISS to return their stranded crew The Russian Federal Space Agency Roscosmos say it will send an empty Soyuz spacecraft up to the International Space Station next month to bring home three stranded cosmonauts whose Soyuz MS-22 capsule sprung a major coolant leak last month. *The Science Report New diabetic drug approved for weight loss in Australia. Study shows moist heat treatment of N95 face masks allows them to be reused up to 10 times. More than 250 titanosaur egg fossils found at a dig site in India. Alex on Tech: new technology from Apple Listen to SpaceTime on your favorite podcast app with our universal listen link: https://spacetimewithstuartgary.com/listen For more SpaceTime and show links: https://linktr.ee/biteszHQ If you love this podcast, please get someone else to listen to. Thank you… To become a SpaceTime supporter and unlock commercial free editions of the show, gain early access and bonus content, please visit https://bitesz.supercast.com/ . Premium version now available via Spotify and Apple Podcasts. For more podcasts visit our HQ at https://bitesz.com Your support is needed... SpaceTime is an independently produced podcast (we are not funded by any government grants, big organisations or companies), and we’re working towards becoming a completely listener supported show...meaning we can do away with the commercials and sponsors. We figure the time can be much better spent on researching and producing stories for you, rather than having to chase sponsors to help us pay the bills. That's where you come in....help us reach our first 1,000 subscribers...at that level the show becomes financially viable and bills can be paid without us breaking into a sweat every month. Every little bit helps...even if you could contribute just $1 per month. It all adds up. By signing up and becoming a supporter at the $5 or more level, you get immediate access to over 280 commercial-free, double, and triple episode editions of SpaceTime plus extended interview bonus content. You also receive all new episodes on a Monday rather than having to wait the week out. Subscribe via Supercast (you get a month’s free trial to see if it’s really for you or not) ... and share in the rewards. Details at Supercast - https://bitesznetwork.supercast.tech/ Details at https://spacetimewithstuartgary.com or www.bitesz.com

The Astronomy, Space, Technology & Science News Podcast.

1 00:00:00,730 --> 00:00:08,000 This is Spacetime Series 26, episode eleven for broadcast on the 25 January 2023. 2 00:00:08,370 --> 00:00:24,910 Coming up on Spacetime the Martian moon Phobos could be starting to tear apart planet Earth's latest climate report and Russia to launch a rescue Soyuz to the International Space Station in order to retrieve their stranded crew. 3 00:00:25,210 --> 00:00:28,870 All that and more, coming up on Spacetime. 4 00:00:30,090 --> 00:00:33,590 Welcome to Spacetime with Stuart Gary. 5 00:00:49,810 --> 00:01:00,270 A new study suggests that the 22 kilometerwide Martian moon Phobos is starting to show the first signs of a process that will eventually tear it apart. 6 00:01:00,610 --> 00:01:11,646 Unlike its little brother, Dimos, Phobos, the innermost of the two Martian moons has developed a striking pattern of parallel linear lines running across its surface. 7 00:01:11,838 --> 00:01:17,698 These grooves are a distinctive global feature of Ferbos, and they're not present on demos. 8 00:01:17,874 --> 00:01:27,110 How they formed has been perplexing planetary geologists for over 40 years, since they were first imaged in geologic detail by NASA's Viking missions. 9 00:01:27,470 --> 00:01:48,670 Now, a new study reported in the Planetary Science Journal proposes that these grooves are actually surface expressions of underlying canyons or fissures, which are partially hidden in cytobos, and that they're early signs that the moon is quite literally falling apart due to increasing gravitational tidal forces exerted by Mars. 10 00:01:49,010 --> 00:01:59,758 Apart from its weird linear markings, the other special thing about Phobos is its orbit, which is very close to Mars, only 6000 km above the Martian surface. 11 00:01:59,934 --> 00:02:07,640 That means gravitational tides are causing it to spiral inwards at a rate of about 2 meters every 100 years. 12 00:02:08,170 --> 00:02:13,000 In other words, Mars is pulling it down, and it's pulling it down fast. 13 00:02:13,450 --> 00:02:18,418 And these forces are causing Ferbos to reach what's known as its roach limit. 14 00:02:18,514 --> 00:02:30,986 That's the point where the gravitational title forces imposed by Mars on one side of the tiny moon become so much stronger than those that are imposed on the other side of the moon that Ferbos is quite literally ripped. 15 00:02:31,018 --> 00:02:42,030 Apart, most likely becoming a Martian ring system, probably in as little as 40 million years from now, and quite possibly making Mars the brightest planet in Earth sky. 16 00:02:42,790 --> 00:02:53,810 But the very idea that Ferboss's parallel linear grooves are actually stretch marks caused by surface tectonic mechanisms has so far been impossible to demonstrate. 17 00:02:54,150 --> 00:03:05,382 The problem with the idea is that the stretch marks, if that's what they are, would require a somewhat stronger outer layer that can survive getting fractured when the shape of Ferbos changes beneath it. 18 00:03:05,516 --> 00:03:09,110 Ferbos has an Esurface porosity of at least 40%. 19 00:03:09,260 --> 00:03:19,926 So it would seem impossible to sustain networks of major crevasses in a pile of what amounts to fluffy dust, even in a gravity of less than one 1000th that of Earth. 20 00:03:20,118 --> 00:03:36,846 Using the most highly detailed supercomputer simulations of the problem to date, scientists explored the idea that the loose dust rests on top of a somewhat cohesive subsurface layer, a material that is also weak, but still has enough strength to sustain deep fissures. 21 00:03:37,038 --> 00:03:47,174 The loose dust then drains into those cracks and the new model does give a strong match to the observations that scientists have made of Ferboss so far. 22 00:03:47,372 --> 00:04:00,102 So the models represent the upper 150 meters of phobos'surface as two separate rectangular piles with the uppermost 50 meters being very loose and the deepest section having slight cohesion. 23 00:04:00,246 --> 00:04:08,102 The authors then placed these rectangular piles at various locations on Ferbos representing the potato shaped moon as an ellipse. 24 00:04:08,246 --> 00:04:18,026 From this they calculated the biaxial strain that would be experienced by each patch while Ferbos's interior deformed beneath them to the increasing tide. 25 00:04:18,218 --> 00:04:40,242 And the resulting structures were found to bear a startling resemblance in size, spacing and orientation to many of the grooves observed at midlatitudes on Ferbos including their parallel patterns and even their pitted to scalloped to linear morphologies tidal strain as it increases opens up parallel narrow fissures in the substrate. 26 00:04:40,386 --> 00:04:50,970 This triggers drainage of weaker material in the upper layer to the deeper fissures leading to the formation and evolution of complex groove morphologies that can further evolve. 27 00:04:51,710 --> 00:05:05,390 Japan's upcoming Martian Moons exploration or MMX mission scheduled for launch in the mid 2020s with a land at rover and sample return will shed more light on this puzzling and ultimately transitory moon. 28 00:05:05,970 --> 00:05:15,918 The new study predicts Ferboss's demise has already begun and that its surface grooves and underlying canyons represent the early stages of this. 29 00:05:16,084 --> 00:05:35,750 According to the new model, ferbus is already at a precarious place a landscape that's being dramatically transformed through the opening and reworking of granular features and the drainage of loose material into these cracks until the entire moon eventually simply breaks apart. 30 00:05:36,410 --> 00:05:38,230 This is spacetime. 31 00:05:38,590 --> 00:05:49,334 Still to come planet Earth's latest climate report and Russia to launch a rescue Soyuz to the International Space Station in order to retrieve their stranded cosmonauts. 32 00:05:49,462 --> 00:05:52,880 All that and more still to come on space time. 33 00:06:07,750 --> 00:06:12,646 NASA says 2022 was Planet Earth's fifth warmest year on record. 34 00:06:12,828 --> 00:06:26,250 NASA administrator Bill Nelson says the warming climate is already making a mark with forest fires intensifying, hurricanes getting stronger, droughts wreaking havoc and sea levels rising. 35 00:06:26,750 --> 00:06:39,946 Scientists with the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland say 2022 would have been even hotter were it not for an overall cooling effect caused by a series of repeated La Nina weather events. 36 00:06:40,138 --> 00:06:53,170 The NASA satellite data shows that global temperatures in 2022 was zero point 89 degrees Celsius above the average the NASA's baseline period between 1951 and 1980. 37 00:06:53,590 --> 00:07:03,160 The NASA data supports a new report by the Ward Meteorological Organization which found that the past eight years have been the eight hottest ever recorded. 38 00:07:03,690 --> 00:07:15,340 2022 was also the 8th consecutive year where annual global temperatures were at least one degree Celsius above the preindustrial levels of 1850 to 1900. 39 00:07:15,710 --> 00:07:22,990 The Arctic region continues to experience the strongest warming trends close to four times the global average. 40 00:07:23,810 --> 00:07:32,800 Meanwhile, a separate study reported in the journal Nature warns that the Greenland ice sheet is now the warmest at speed in the last thousand years. 41 00:07:33,170 --> 00:07:41,486 The findings are based on a detailed examination of ice coal records between the year 1100 right through to the year 2011. 42 00:07:41,678 --> 00:07:51,698 The data shows that between 2001 and 2011, the ice sheet was on average one five degrees Celsius warmer than during the 20th century. 43 00:07:51,874 --> 00:08:09,450 The data represents the first multisite ice coal record of the northern Greenland Traverse since 1995, and the researchers say these temperatures been accompanied by an increase in meltwater runoff, which may further accelerate the rate at which further ice is lost from the sheet. 44 00:08:10,130 --> 00:08:20,106 The Greenland findings are also consistent with the European Space Agency's satellite data, which is showing how climate change is causing diminishing ice cover globally. 45 00:08:20,298 --> 00:08:29,678 The ESA satellites are observing the planet's cryosphere and providing key information to help scientists understand and respond to global thoroughing. 46 00:08:29,854 --> 00:08:32,370 This report from ESA TV. 47 00:08:32,870 --> 00:08:37,160 Climate change is impacting our planet and society as never before. 48 00:08:37,530 --> 00:08:47,602 This is why the European Space Agency is using Earth observation satellites to measure and determine the consequences of human activity on a global scale. 49 00:08:47,746 --> 00:08:53,510 One of the most damaging effects seen from space is the global trend of melting ice on our planet. 50 00:08:53,670 --> 00:08:55,850 This ice is called the cryosphere. 51 00:08:56,190 --> 00:09:04,298 It's comprised of ice sheets, such as the Antarctic sea ice, like in the Arctic, but also of glaciers and permafrost regions. 52 00:09:04,474 --> 00:09:17,918 While the melting of the ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland are the best known examples, satellite measurements indicate that in the last half century, glaciers across the globe have also lost a significant amount of ice. 53 00:09:18,014 --> 00:09:25,666 Over the course of the last century, we've seen quite dramatic changes in these different elements of the cryosphere. 54 00:09:25,858 --> 00:09:39,938 Notably, we've seen significant losses in Arctic sea ice, we've seen decline in the volume of ice locked up in glaciers, and we've also been witnessing changes in the large ice sheets, Greenland and Antarctica. 55 00:09:40,034 --> 00:09:46,390 The consequence, of course, is that sea level is rising as water is transferred from ice on land into the ocean. 56 00:09:46,470 --> 00:09:55,950 While half of the sea level rise comes from thermal expansion caused by warming ocean water, melting glacier ice is the second largest contributor. 57 00:09:56,450 --> 00:10:06,718 Research shows that over the last 50 years, glaciers have lost more than 9 trillion tons of ice, raising the sea level by 2.7 CM. 58 00:10:06,894 --> 00:10:14,530 Although yearly data measurements may fluctuate, a global trend is visible whereby the rate of ice loss has increased. 59 00:10:15,110 --> 00:10:22,120 At the current rate, about three times the volume of all ice stored in the European Alps is lost every year. 60 00:10:22,810 --> 00:10:27,530 This corresponds to around 30% of the current rate of sea level rise. 61 00:10:28,430 --> 00:10:48,650 While rising sea levels are threatening many coastal areas across the world with severe flooding and more extreme storms, melting glaciers will also impact people living downstream of these glaciers who depend on this seemingly eternal water resource, especially during the summer or dry season. 62 00:10:48,810 --> 00:10:58,370 Glaciers have a huge impact on the population on Earth, in particular in Southeast Asia, where millions of people are dependent on mountain water resources. 63 00:10:59,350 --> 00:11:04,626 During the summer season, we see the melting of the glacier and the mountain snowpack. 64 00:11:04,738 --> 00:11:09,170 This, of course, releases water which is used for irrigation in the fields. 65 00:11:09,250 --> 00:11:14,822 It's used for generating hydroelectric power and it's also used for drinking water. 66 00:11:14,876 --> 00:11:26,042 And so we're very much concerned with how climate warming has an impact on the seasonal stream flow and the way in which the water resource can be managed in the future from space. 67 00:11:26,176 --> 00:11:33,680 Several of ESA's Earth observation satellites and the EU's Copernicus satellites monitor our global ice cover. 68 00:11:34,610 --> 00:11:47,090 CryoSat, for instance, is dedicated to measuring the thickness of polar ice and changes in the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica where a sentinel one is used to track sea ice. 69 00:11:47,990 --> 00:11:57,218 With this kind of satellite data going back more than 25 years scientists can calculate the volume of ice loss on a global scale. 70 00:11:57,394 --> 00:12:04,870 It also furthers their climate models and allows them to make predictions about the rate and impact of future ice loss. 71 00:12:05,930 --> 00:12:11,366 Another worrying aspect of the global thaw is the impact it has on permafrost. 72 00:12:11,558 --> 00:12:16,250 This is the almost permanently frozen ground around the Arctic regions. 73 00:12:17,390 --> 00:12:27,760 Scientists are concerned that when this ground thaws methane that was trapped in the soil will be released into our atmosphere, amplifying the greenhouse effect. 74 00:12:28,930 --> 00:12:34,610 But it's not the only self replicating effect being triggered by the melting of snow and ice. 75 00:12:35,030 --> 00:12:41,380 We talk about the impact of melting snow and ice services in terms of what's known as the Albedo effect. 76 00:12:42,310 --> 00:12:50,850 When snow is dry, it's very reflective and, of course, that helps to reflect sunlight back out into space and the consequences. 77 00:12:50,930 --> 00:12:54,262 We can reduce the amount of melting this way. 78 00:12:54,396 --> 00:13:05,290 However, as ice and snow melt the Albedo and the reflectivity becomes lower and this has the effect of absorbing more of the solar energy. 79 00:13:05,440 --> 00:13:08,566 This contributes to further warming and further melting. 80 00:13:08,678 --> 00:13:14,570 And so it's a runaway progressive effect caused by the reduction in the Albedo. 81 00:13:14,650 --> 00:13:22,340 It's clear that monitoring our planet's cryosphere is of great importance as it influences the lives of millions of people. 82 00:13:23,030 --> 00:13:26,338 The European Space Agency recognizes this. 83 00:13:26,424 --> 00:13:38,390 Three of the six high priority sentinel missions are aimed at addressing urgent climate and operational user needs related to ice sheets, snow and sea ice. 84 00:13:39,050 --> 00:13:47,586 With these tools from space we can look at our planet and see which policies are needed to slow the global thaw. 85 00:13:47,698 --> 00:13:49,400 This is space time. 86 00:13:49,930 --> 00:13:58,230 Still to come russia to launch a rescue Soyuz to the International Space Station in order to retrieve their stranded cosmonauts. 87 00:13:58,390 --> 00:14:07,318 And later in the science report more than 250 Titanosaur egg fossils found by paleontologists at a dig site in India. 88 00:14:07,494 --> 00:14:11,260 All that and more still to come on Space time. 89 00:14:26,950 --> 00:14:44,054 The Russian Federal Space Agency at Roscosmos has confirmed that it will send up an empty Soyuz spacecraft to the International Space Station next month in order to bring home three stranded cosmonauts whose existing Soyuz Ms 22 capsule sprung a major coolant leak. 90 00:14:44,102 --> 00:14:54,074 Last month, Soyuz Ms 22 began leaking coolant on december the 14 shortly before Russian cosmonauts were to begin a spacewalk mission. 91 00:14:54,122 --> 00:15:01,482 Managers believe the leak was caused either by the impact of a tiny micrometeoroid or a piece of space junk. 92 00:15:01,626 --> 00:15:05,070 However, the Russians are denying the idea of the space debris. 93 00:15:05,150 --> 00:15:11,362 That's probably because, together with their Chinese allies they're responsible for most of the space junk up there. 94 00:15:11,496 --> 00:15:18,690 Whatever the cause, the impact left ammonia coolant streaming out of one of the Soyuz radiator cooling systems. 95 00:15:18,850 --> 00:15:25,346 Now, ammonia is highly corrosive on metals and that sparked fears there may be more extensive damage. 96 00:15:25,538 --> 00:15:33,050 There are also concerns over potential high temperatures inside the damaged Ms 22 capsule during atmospheric reentry. 97 00:15:33,390 --> 00:15:39,046 The crew were slated to return to Earth aboard the Soyuz Ms 22 in March, but they stay aboard. 98 00:15:39,078 --> 00:15:45,642 The space station will now be extended by several months until a new Soyuz can be prepared for their replacement crew. 99 00:15:45,786 --> 00:15:57,886 Meanwhile, the unmanned replacement Soyuz, the Ms 23 will be launched from the Bacon, or Cosmo drone in the Central Asian Republic of Kazakhstan on February 20 carrying extra supplies instead of crew. 100 00:15:58,078 --> 00:16:04,414 That Soyuz Ms 23 had been chaired to detect three cosmonauts to the orbiting outpost on March 16. 101 00:16:04,462 --> 00:16:14,146 The Soyuz Ms 22 will now be undocked remotely and returned to Earth unmanned, probably in March following the arrival of the replacement vehicle. 102 00:16:14,338 --> 00:16:17,602 But Ms 22 won't come home completely empty. 103 00:16:17,746 --> 00:16:22,490 They'll use it to bring back equipment and experiments that are not temperature sensitive. 104 00:16:23,150 --> 00:16:32,730 Meanwhile, as a backup, Plan B space station crew have added an additional seat to the SpaceX Dragon capsule, Endurance, which is currently docked to the space station. 105 00:16:33,070 --> 00:16:44,962 It flew up with a crew of four in October for a six month mission but it can handle up to a crew of seven and so could be used in an emergency if the Soyuz Ms 23 doesn't make it. 106 00:16:45,096 --> 00:16:46,830 We'll keep you informed. 107 00:17:04,390 --> 00:17:10,860 and time that will take another brief look at some of the other stories making news in Science this week with the Science Report. 108 00:17:11,710 --> 00:17:20,406 A new generation of GLP one agonist obesity drugs is allowing people to safely lose weight without strenuous exercise. 109 00:17:20,598 --> 00:17:26,430 Wokovi has just been approved for use in Australia by the Therapeutic Goods and Drugs Administration. 110 00:17:26,770 --> 00:17:36,660 It's just one of several gut hormone mimicking drugs based on diabetes treatments which have already been approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States. 111 00:17:37,030 --> 00:17:45,810 It's unclear exactly how these drugs work or how long people will need to take the pricey medication in order to maintain their weight loss. 112 00:17:45,970 --> 00:17:50,818 But here in Australia, you can expect to pay around two grand for a month's treatment. 113 00:17:50,994 --> 00:18:01,530 It's administered as a once a week, self injected EpiPen type dose and there are common side effects including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and constipation. 114 00:18:02,030 --> 00:18:09,338 Long term side effects are still being understood while we govy targets GLP one hormone receptors another. 115 00:18:09,424 --> 00:18:17,066 Similar drug yet to be approved in Australia, Teresepatide, targets both GLP One and GIP receptors. 116 00:18:17,258 --> 00:18:22,994 Tests show that results in average 22.5% weight loss over 72 weeks. 117 00:18:23,112 --> 00:18:32,690 That's on a 1.5 milligram dose for tozepatide, compared to 14.9% weight loss for wiggovy on a 2.4 milligram dose. 118 00:18:33,910 --> 00:18:44,550 A new study has shown that moist heat treatment of N 95 face masks eliminates both bacteria and the Saskovi two coronavirus, which causes COVID-19. 119 00:18:44,890 --> 00:18:58,618 The findings, reported in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, shows that moist heat treatment for 60 minutes at 70 degrees Celsius with 50% relative humidity didn't damage the mask structure or affect its function. 120 00:18:58,784 --> 00:19:03,760 And researchers found the treatment would allow the same mask to be used up to ten times. 121 00:19:05,250 --> 00:19:12,110 Paleontologists have uncovered more than 250 tatanosaur egg fossils had a dig site in India. 122 00:19:12,270 --> 00:19:23,310 The rookery contained some 92 individual nests, suggesting that the large serapad dinosaurs may have had colonial nesting behaviors similar to many modern birds. 123 00:19:23,470 --> 00:19:30,850 The study, reported in the journal Plus One also found that there were at least six different types of egg species in the rookery. 124 00:19:31,010 --> 00:19:37,826 That suggests there must have been a higher diversity of titanosaurs in the area than earlier stolida remains had shown. 125 00:19:38,018 --> 00:19:49,418 Titanosaurs are a type of cerapod, large herbivorous dinosaurs with elephantlike bodies and legs and a very long neck and small head at one end and a very, very long tail at the other. 126 00:19:49,584 --> 00:19:57,486 Paleontologists also found that the nest were spaced very close together, leaving little room for adult dinosaurs to move about. 127 00:19:57,668 --> 00:20:01,466 The authors think that may mean that the adults would simply leave the hatch. 128 00:20:01,498 --> 00:20:03,520 Dinosaurs defend for themselves. 129 00:20:05,090 --> 00:20:11,678 It's been a big week for Apple with the launch of the new M Two Pro and M Two Max chips, as well as a new Mac Mini. 130 00:20:11,694 --> 00:20:18,774 And HomePod with the details, we're joined by technology editor Alexahara of Royd from iTWire.com. 131 00:20:18,892 --> 00:20:30,890 Yes, Apple has indeed launched new products and had the new M Two Pro and the M Two Max processors, which are about 20% in general, faster than the M One Pro and Max before them. 132 00:20:30,960 --> 00:20:33,814 And of course, you can now get the M Two Pro and Max. 133 00:20:33,862 --> 00:20:36,662 In the 14 and 16 inch MacBook Pros. 134 00:20:36,726 --> 00:20:41,466 They have effectively the same configuration or the same chassis as last time. 135 00:20:41,488 --> 00:20:56,014 But this time, instead of being HDMI 2.0, it's HDMI 2.1, which means that if you plug One 4K monitor, you can get that at up to 240 Hz, which is important for gamers and for gaming in terms of fluid motion. 136 00:20:56,062 --> 00:21:01,678 But these MacBook Pros can get also multiple monitors via the Thunderbolt connections. 137 00:21:01,774 --> 00:21:04,158 But Apple also launched a new Mac Mini. 138 00:21:04,174 --> 00:21:11,686 Now, the Mac Mini has come out with the M Two processor, the same one that you'll find in the MacBook Air and the 13 inch MacBook Pro. 139 00:21:11,788 --> 00:21:17,974 And that has actually come down to 999 Australian dollars, down from 1099 from last year. 140 00:21:18,012 --> 00:21:18,614 And in the US. 141 00:21:18,652 --> 00:21:20,474 This is $599 US. 142 00:21:20,512 --> 00:21:22,490 So this is a solid desktop computer. 143 00:21:22,560 --> 00:21:30,870 Now, this configuration, this baseline configuration is only in inverted commerce, 8GB of Ram and 256 gigabyte SSD. 144 00:21:30,950 --> 00:21:39,422 But the Apple is able to much more smoothly use the Ram that it has available to it than on, say, Android systems, on Windows systems and so on. 145 00:21:39,476 --> 00:21:47,794 An eight gig machine in 2023 with a 256 gig SSD is still a very powerful computer for doing even video editing and those sorts of things. 146 00:21:47,832 --> 00:21:48,862 It's quite incredible. 147 00:21:48,926 --> 00:21:54,722 Obviously, if you have more Ram to throw at the machine and you can afford the bigger SSDs and so much the better. 148 00:21:54,776 --> 00:21:56,754 But even the baseline machines will do very well. 149 00:21:56,792 --> 00:21:59,414 Now the Mac Mini with M two pro. 150 00:21:59,532 --> 00:22:02,838 That one starts at $1,999. 151 00:22:02,924 --> 00:22:04,774 In Australia, I think it's 1299 US. 152 00:22:04,812 --> 00:22:08,642 And that comes with 16 gigs of Ram and a 512 gig SSD. 153 00:22:08,706 --> 00:22:10,598 It also has a higher four counts. 154 00:22:10,614 --> 00:22:15,578 And, of course, the M Two Pro is a more powerful chip than the plain old M Two. 155 00:22:15,664 --> 00:22:31,118 So, long awaited updates from Apple and the new machines, which they did wish to launch them, actually, last year, but there were problems in getting the number of processors out that were caused by all sorts of factors and Apple had to wait until this way to launch these new products. 156 00:22:31,204 --> 00:22:33,950 Tell us briefly about the new HomePod that launched the next day. 157 00:22:34,020 --> 00:22:42,382 Yeah, so the original HomePod came out about five years ago and had seven tweeters and all this incredible stuff to bounce the sound around the room and sound quite spectacular, magnificent. 158 00:22:42,446 --> 00:22:48,562 These were a bit more expensive than the Alexis and the Google Nests, so they didn't do so well in the market. 159 00:22:48,616 --> 00:22:54,742 And in fact, Apple launched its HomePod Mini for about, I think it's 149 Australian, I think about 99 US. 160 00:22:54,796 --> 00:22:55,906 But they were a bit smaller. 161 00:22:55,938 --> 00:23:03,882 They didn't have quite the Apple is now going with the HomePod two second generation using the same processor as in the Apple Watch. 162 00:23:03,936 --> 00:23:05,382 So it's an upgraded processor. 163 00:23:05,446 --> 00:23:08,966 Obviously, it has much better audio quality than the HomePod Mini. 164 00:23:08,998 --> 00:23:18,862 The configuration of the tweeters and speakers and what they're using to drive those, because it's a little bit different, seems to be a little bit less capable than the one they launched previously, but they've got the smarter technology inside now. 165 00:23:18,916 --> 00:23:23,578 Still no screen, as such, like you would see with the Amazon Alexa or a Google Nest. 166 00:23:23,594 --> 00:23:26,994 I mean, there is a screen on the top that you can change the volume and see various things. 167 00:23:27,032 --> 00:23:43,174 But it's not that iPad style of Alexa style device that Google has announced actually, that this year it'll come out with an Android tablet that can dock a top of a speaker base that will sort of turn it into an Android tablet, google Nest tablet, all in one. 168 00:23:43,212 --> 00:23:45,766 And you can take it with you, but bring it home and then dock it. 169 00:23:45,788 --> 00:23:47,302 So a lot of competition in this space. 170 00:23:47,356 --> 00:23:50,886 And Apple is also rumored to be working on an iPad style HomePod. 171 00:23:50,918 --> 00:23:56,502 But in the meantime, the newer, bigger version two of the original HomePod is launched, full 79 in Australia. 172 00:23:56,566 --> 00:24:00,234 And hopefully this one is more popular than the original home. 173 00:24:00,272 --> 00:24:02,006 They're fully meta comparable. 174 00:24:02,198 --> 00:24:04,054 Yes, absolutely fully meta comparable. 175 00:24:04,102 --> 00:24:09,610 I forgot to mention that it's able to control all of the different smart home devices and like a smart home hub. 176 00:24:09,690 --> 00:24:13,758 And obviously, if you pair it with an Apple TV, you can get the home theater experience. 177 00:24:13,844 --> 00:24:17,362 You have multiple HomePods together, you'll get the multichannel sound. 178 00:24:17,496 --> 00:24:22,242 So, yeah, definitely one of the key factors is in that home automation space. 179 00:24:22,296 --> 00:24:30,390 And the Matter standard is the one that is meant to unify all of the Amazon, Alexa, Google Assistant and HomeKit devices into one standard. 180 00:24:30,460 --> 00:24:33,762 So it doesn't matter which device you buy, as long as it's made compatible. 181 00:24:33,826 --> 00:24:44,140 You can be an Amazon household, a Google household or an Apple household and still take full advantage of the capabilities of the smartphone device that's Alexarovroy from itwyatt.com. 182 00:24:59,630 --> 00:25:01,650 And that's the shot for now. 183 00:25:01,840 --> 00:25:21,094 Spacetime is available every Monday, Wednesday and Friday through Apple Podcast, itunes, 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