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This is Spacetime Series 26, episode eleven for broadcast on the 25 January 2023.
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Coming up on Spacetime the Martian moon Phobos could be starting to tear apart planet Earth's latest climate report and Russia to launch a rescue Soyuz to the International Space Station in order to retrieve their stranded crew.
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All that and more, coming up on Spacetime.
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Welcome to Spacetime with Stuart Gary.
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A new study suggests that the 22 kilometerwide Martian moon Phobos is starting to show the first signs of a process that will eventually tear it apart.
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Unlike its little brother, Dimos, Phobos, the innermost of the two Martian moons has developed a striking pattern of parallel linear lines running across its surface.
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These grooves are a distinctive global feature of Ferbos, and they're not present on demos.
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How they formed has been perplexing planetary geologists for over 40 years, since they were first imaged in geologic detail by NASA's Viking missions.
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Now, a new study reported in the Planetary Science Journal proposes that these grooves are actually surface expressions of underlying canyons or fissures, which are partially hidden in cytobos, and that they're early signs that the moon is quite literally falling apart due to increasing gravitational tidal forces exerted by Mars.
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Apart from its weird linear markings, the other special thing about Phobos is its orbit, which is very close to Mars, only 6000 km above the Martian surface.
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That means gravitational tides are causing it to spiral inwards at a rate of about 2 meters every 100 years.
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In other words, Mars is pulling it down, and it's pulling it down fast.
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And these forces are causing Ferbos to reach what's known as its roach limit.
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That's the point where the gravitational title forces imposed by Mars on one side of the tiny moon become so much stronger than those that are imposed on the other side of the moon that Ferbos is quite literally ripped.
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Apart, most likely becoming a Martian ring system, probably in as little as 40 million years from now, and quite possibly making Mars the brightest planet in Earth sky.
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But the very idea that Ferboss's parallel linear grooves are actually stretch marks caused by surface tectonic mechanisms has so far been impossible to demonstrate.
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The problem with the idea is that the stretch marks, if that's what they are, would require a somewhat stronger outer layer that can survive getting fractured when the shape of Ferbos changes beneath it.
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Ferbos has an Esurface porosity of at least 40%.
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So it would seem impossible to sustain networks of major crevasses in a pile of what amounts to fluffy dust, even in a gravity of less than one 1000th that of Earth.
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Using the most highly detailed supercomputer simulations of the problem to date, scientists explored the idea that the loose dust rests on top of a somewhat cohesive subsurface layer, a material that is also weak, but still has enough strength to sustain deep fissures.
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The loose dust then drains into those cracks and the new model does give a strong match to the observations that scientists have made of Ferboss so far.
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So the models represent the upper 150 meters of phobos'surface as two separate rectangular piles with the uppermost 50 meters being very loose and the deepest section having slight cohesion.
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The authors then placed these rectangular piles at various locations on Ferbos representing the potato shaped moon as an ellipse.
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From this they calculated the biaxial strain that would be experienced by each patch while Ferbos's interior deformed beneath them to the increasing tide.
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And the resulting structures were found to bear a startling resemblance in size, spacing and orientation to many of the grooves observed at midlatitudes on Ferbos including their parallel patterns and even their pitted to scalloped to linear morphologies tidal strain as it increases opens up parallel narrow fissures in the substrate.
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This triggers drainage of weaker material in the upper layer to the deeper fissures leading to the formation and evolution of complex groove morphologies that can further evolve.
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Japan's upcoming Martian Moons exploration or MMX mission scheduled for launch in the mid 2020s with a land at rover and sample return will shed more light on this puzzling and ultimately transitory moon.
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The new study predicts Ferboss's demise has already begun and that its surface grooves and underlying canyons represent the early stages of this.
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According to the new model, ferbus is already at a precarious place a landscape that's being dramatically transformed through the opening and reworking of granular features and the drainage of loose material into these cracks until the entire moon eventually simply breaks apart.
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This is spacetime.
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Still to come planet Earth's latest climate report and Russia to launch a rescue Soyuz to the International Space Station in order to retrieve their stranded cosmonauts.
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All that and more still to come on space time.
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NASA says 2022 was Planet Earth's fifth warmest year on record.
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NASA administrator Bill Nelson says the warming climate is already making a mark with forest fires intensifying, hurricanes getting stronger, droughts wreaking havoc and sea levels rising.
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Scientists with the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland say 2022 would have been even hotter were it not for an overall cooling effect caused by a series of repeated La Nina weather events.
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The NASA satellite data shows that global temperatures in 2022 was zero point 89 degrees Celsius above the average the NASA's baseline period between 1951 and 1980.
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The NASA data supports a new report by the Ward Meteorological Organization which found that the past eight years have been the eight hottest ever recorded.
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2022 was also the 8th consecutive year where annual global temperatures were at least one degree Celsius above the preindustrial levels of 1850 to 1900.
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The Arctic region continues to experience the strongest warming trends close to four times the global average.
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Meanwhile, a separate study reported in the journal Nature warns that the Greenland ice sheet is now the warmest at speed in the last thousand years.
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The findings are based on a detailed examination of ice coal records between the year 1100 right through to the year 2011.
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The data shows that between 2001 and 2011, the ice sheet was on average one five degrees Celsius warmer than during the 20th century.
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The data represents the first multisite ice coal record of the northern Greenland Traverse since 1995, and the researchers say these temperatures been accompanied by an increase in meltwater runoff, which may further accelerate the rate at which further ice is lost from the sheet.
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The Greenland findings are also consistent with the European Space Agency's satellite data, which is showing how climate change is causing diminishing ice cover globally.
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The ESA satellites are observing the planet's cryosphere and providing key information to help scientists understand and respond to global thoroughing.
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This report from ESA TV.
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Climate change is impacting our planet and society as never before.
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This is why the European Space Agency is using Earth observation satellites to measure and determine the consequences of human activity on a global scale.
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One of the most damaging effects seen from space is the global trend of melting ice on our planet.
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This ice is called the cryosphere.
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It's comprised of ice sheets, such as the Antarctic sea ice, like in the Arctic, but also of glaciers and permafrost regions.
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While the melting of the ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland are the best known examples, satellite measurements indicate that in the last half century, glaciers across the globe have also lost a significant amount of ice.
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Over the course of the last century, we've seen quite dramatic changes in these different elements of the cryosphere.
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Notably, we've seen significant losses in Arctic sea ice, we've seen decline in the volume of ice locked up in glaciers, and we've also been witnessing changes in the large ice sheets, Greenland and Antarctica.
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The consequence, of course, is that sea level is rising as water is transferred from ice on land into the ocean.
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While half of the sea level rise comes from thermal expansion caused by warming ocean water, melting glacier ice is the second largest contributor.
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Research shows that over the last 50 years, glaciers have lost more than 9 trillion tons of ice, raising the sea level by 2.7 CM.
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Although yearly data measurements may fluctuate, a global trend is visible whereby the rate of ice loss has increased.
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At the current rate, about three times the volume of all ice stored in the European Alps is lost every year.
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This corresponds to around 30% of the current rate of sea level rise.
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While rising sea levels are threatening many coastal areas across the world with severe flooding and more extreme storms, melting glaciers will also impact people living downstream of these glaciers who depend on this seemingly eternal water resource, especially during the summer or dry season.
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Glaciers have a huge impact on the population on Earth, in particular in Southeast Asia, where millions of people are dependent on mountain water resources.
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During the summer season, we see the melting of the glacier and the mountain snowpack.
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This, of course, releases water which is used for irrigation in the fields.
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It's used for generating hydroelectric power and it's also used for drinking water.
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And so we're very much concerned with how climate warming has an impact on the seasonal stream flow and the way in which the water resource can be managed in the future from space.
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Several of ESA's Earth observation satellites and the EU's Copernicus satellites monitor our global ice cover.
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CryoSat, for instance, is dedicated to measuring the thickness of polar ice and changes in the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica where a sentinel one is used to track sea ice.
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With this kind of satellite data going back more than 25 years scientists can calculate the volume of ice loss on a global scale.
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It also furthers their climate models and allows them to make predictions about the rate and impact of future ice loss.
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Another worrying aspect of the global thaw is the impact it has on permafrost.
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This is the almost permanently frozen ground around the Arctic regions.
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Scientists are concerned that when this ground thaws methane that was trapped in the soil will be released into our atmosphere, amplifying the greenhouse effect.
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But it's not the only self replicating effect being triggered by the melting of snow and ice.
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We talk about the impact of melting snow and ice services in terms of what's known as the Albedo effect.
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When snow is dry, it's very reflective and, of course, that helps to reflect sunlight back out into space and the consequences.
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We can reduce the amount of melting this way.
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However, as ice and snow melt the Albedo and the reflectivity becomes lower and this has the effect of absorbing more of the solar energy.
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This contributes to further warming and further melting.
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And so it's a runaway progressive effect caused by the reduction in the Albedo.
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It's clear that monitoring our planet's cryosphere is of great importance as it influences the lives of millions of people.
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The European Space Agency recognizes this.
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Three of the six high priority sentinel missions are aimed at addressing urgent climate and operational user needs related to ice sheets, snow and sea ice.
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With these tools from space we can look at our planet and see which policies are needed to slow the global thaw.
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This is space time.
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Still to come russia to launch a rescue Soyuz to the International Space Station in order to retrieve their stranded cosmonauts.
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And later in the science report more than 250 Titanosaur egg fossils found by paleontologists at a dig site in India.
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All that and more still to come on Space time.
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The Russian Federal Space Agency at Roscosmos has confirmed that it will send up an empty Soyuz spacecraft to the International Space Station next month in order to bring home three stranded cosmonauts whose existing Soyuz Ms 22 capsule sprung a major coolant leak.
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Last month, Soyuz Ms 22 began leaking coolant on december the 14 shortly before Russian cosmonauts were to begin a spacewalk mission.
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Managers believe the leak was caused either by the impact of a tiny micrometeoroid or a piece of space junk.
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However, the Russians are denying the idea of the space debris.
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That's probably because, together with their Chinese allies they're responsible for most of the space junk up there.
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Whatever the cause, the impact left ammonia coolant streaming out of one of the Soyuz radiator cooling systems.
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Now, ammonia is highly corrosive on metals and that sparked fears there may be more extensive damage.
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There are also concerns over potential high temperatures inside the damaged Ms 22 capsule during atmospheric reentry.
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The crew were slated to return to Earth aboard the Soyuz Ms 22 in March, but they stay aboard.
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The space station will now be extended by several months until a new Soyuz can be prepared for their replacement crew.
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Meanwhile, the unmanned replacement Soyuz, the Ms 23 will be launched from the Bacon, or Cosmo drone in the Central Asian Republic of Kazakhstan on February 20 carrying extra supplies instead of crew.
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That Soyuz Ms 23 had been chaired to detect three cosmonauts to the orbiting outpost on March 16.
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The Soyuz Ms 22 will now be undocked remotely and returned to Earth unmanned, probably in March following the arrival of the replacement vehicle.
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But Ms 22 won't come home completely empty.
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They'll use it to bring back equipment and experiments that are not temperature sensitive.
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Meanwhile, as a backup, Plan B space station crew have added an additional seat to the SpaceX Dragon capsule, Endurance, which is currently docked to the space station.
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It flew up with a crew of four in October for a six month mission but it can handle up to a crew of seven and so could be used in an emergency if the Soyuz Ms 23 doesn't make it.
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We'll keep you informed.
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and time that will take another brief look at some of the other stories making news in Science this week with the Science Report.
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A new generation of GLP one agonist obesity drugs is allowing people to safely lose weight without strenuous exercise.
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Wokovi has just been approved for use in Australia by the Therapeutic Goods and Drugs Administration.
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It's just one of several gut hormone mimicking drugs based on diabetes treatments which have already been approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States.
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It's unclear exactly how these drugs work or how long people will need to take the pricey medication in order to maintain their weight loss.
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But here in Australia, you can expect to pay around two grand for a month's treatment.
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It's administered as a once a week, self injected EpiPen type dose and there are common side effects including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and constipation.
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Long term side effects are still being understood while we govy targets GLP one hormone receptors another.
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Similar drug yet to be approved in Australia, Teresepatide, targets both GLP One and GIP receptors.
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Tests show that results in average 22.5% weight loss over 72 weeks.
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That's on a 1.5 milligram dose for tozepatide, compared to 14.9% weight loss for wiggovy on a 2.4 milligram dose.
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A new study has shown that moist heat treatment of N 95 face masks eliminates both bacteria and the Saskovi two coronavirus, which causes COVID-19.
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The findings, reported in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, shows that moist heat treatment for 60 minutes at 70 degrees Celsius with 50% relative humidity didn't damage the mask structure or affect its function.
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And researchers found the treatment would allow the same mask to be used up to ten times.
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Paleontologists have uncovered more than 250 tatanosaur egg fossils had a dig site in India.
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The rookery contained some 92 individual nests, suggesting that the large serapad dinosaurs may have had colonial nesting behaviors similar to many modern birds.
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The study, reported in the journal Plus One also found that there were at least six different types of egg species in the rookery.
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That suggests there must have been a higher diversity of titanosaurs in the area than earlier stolida remains had shown.
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Titanosaurs are a type of cerapod, large herbivorous dinosaurs with elephantlike bodies and legs and a very long neck and small head at one end and a very, very long tail at the other.
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Paleontologists also found that the nest were spaced very close together, leaving little room for adult dinosaurs to move about.
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The authors think that may mean that the adults would simply leave the hatch.
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Dinosaurs defend for themselves.
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It's been a big week for Apple with the launch of the new M Two Pro and M Two Max chips, as well as a new Mac Mini.
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And HomePod with the details, we're joined by technology editor Alexahara of Royd from iTWire.com.
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Yes, Apple has indeed launched new products and had the new M Two Pro and the M Two Max processors, which are about 20% in general, faster than the M One Pro and Max before them.
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And of course, you can now get the M Two Pro and Max.
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In the 14 and 16 inch MacBook Pros.
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They have effectively the same configuration or the same chassis as last time.
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But this time, instead of being HDMI 2.0, it's HDMI 2.1, which means that if you plug One 4K monitor, you can get that at up to 240 Hz, which is important for gamers and for gaming in terms of fluid motion.
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But these MacBook Pros can get also multiple monitors via the Thunderbolt connections.
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But Apple also launched a new Mac Mini.
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Now, the Mac Mini has come out with the M Two processor, the same one that you'll find in the MacBook Air and the 13 inch MacBook Pro.
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And that has actually come down to 999 Australian dollars, down from 1099 from last year.
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And in the US.
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This is $599 US.
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So this is a solid desktop computer.
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Now, this configuration, this baseline configuration is only in inverted commerce, 8GB of Ram and 256 gigabyte SSD.
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But the Apple is able to much more smoothly use the Ram that it has available to it than on, say, Android systems, on Windows systems and so on.
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An eight gig machine in 2023 with a 256 gig SSD is still a very powerful computer for doing even video editing and those sorts of things.
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It's quite incredible.
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Obviously, if you have more Ram to throw at the machine and you can afford the bigger SSDs and so much the better.
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But even the baseline machines will do very well.
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Now the Mac Mini with M two pro.
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That one starts at $1,999.
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In Australia, I think it's 1299 US.
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And that comes with 16 gigs of Ram and a 512 gig SSD.
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It also has a higher four counts.
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And, of course, the M Two Pro is a more powerful chip than the plain old M Two.
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So, long awaited updates from Apple and the new machines, which they did wish to launch them, actually, last year, but there were problems in getting the number of processors out that were caused by all sorts of factors and Apple had to wait until this way to launch these new products.
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Tell us briefly about the new HomePod that launched the next day.
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Yeah, so the original HomePod came out about five years ago and had seven tweeters and all this incredible stuff to bounce the sound around the room and sound quite spectacular, magnificent.
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These were a bit more expensive than the Alexis and the Google Nests, so they didn't do so well in the market.
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And in fact, Apple launched its HomePod Mini for about, I think it's 149 Australian, I think about 99 US.
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But they were a bit smaller.
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They didn't have quite the Apple is now going with the HomePod two second generation using the same processor as in the Apple Watch.
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So it's an upgraded processor.
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Obviously, it has much better audio quality than the HomePod Mini.
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The configuration of the tweeters and speakers and what they're using to drive those, because it's a little bit different, seems to be a little bit less capable than the one they launched previously, but they've got the smarter technology inside now.
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Still no screen, as such, like you would see with the Amazon Alexa or a Google Nest.
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I mean, there is a screen on the top that you can change the volume and see various things.
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But it's not that iPad style of Alexa style device that Google has announced actually, that this year it'll come out with an Android tablet that can dock a top of a speaker base that will sort of turn it into an Android tablet, google Nest tablet, all in one.
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And you can take it with you, but bring it home and then dock it.
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So a lot of competition in this space.
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And Apple is also rumored to be working on an iPad style HomePod.
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But in the meantime, the newer, bigger version two of the original HomePod is launched, full 79 in Australia.
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And hopefully this one is more popular than the original home.
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They're fully meta comparable.
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Yes, absolutely fully meta comparable.
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I forgot to mention that it's able to control all of the different smart home devices and like a smart home hub.
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And obviously, if you pair it with an Apple TV, you can get the home theater experience.
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You have multiple HomePods together, you'll get the multichannel sound.
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So, yeah, definitely one of the key factors is in that home automation space.
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And the Matter standard is the one that is meant to unify all of the Amazon, Alexa, Google Assistant and HomeKit devices into one standard.
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So it doesn't matter which device you buy, as long as it's made compatible.
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You can be an Amazon household, a Google household or an Apple household and still take full advantage of the capabilities of the smartphone device that's Alexarovroy from itwyatt.com.
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And that's the shot for now.
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Spacetime is available every Monday, Wednesday and Friday through Apple Podcast, itunes, Stitcher, Google Podcast, PocketCasts, Spotify, Acast, Amazon Music Bites.com, SoundCloud, YouTube, your favorite podcast download provider and From Spacetime with Stuartgarry.com.
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00:25:22,098 --> 00:25:29,302
Also broadcasts through the National Science Foundation on Science Zone radio and on both iHeartRadio and tune in radio.
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And you can help to support our show by visiting the Spacetime Store for a range of promotional merchandising goodies.
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Or by becoming a Spacetime patron, which gives you access to triple episode, commercial free versions of the show, as well as lots of bonus audio content which doesn't go to where, access to our exclusive Facebook group and other rewards.
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Just go to Spacetime with Stuartgarry.com for full details.
00:25:53,386 --> 00:26:05,166
And if you want more space time, please check out our blog, where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show, as well as heaps of images, news stories, loads of videos and things on the web I find interesting or amusing.
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Just go to spacetime with Stuartgarry Tumblr.com.
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That's all one word and that's Tumblr without the e.
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You can also follow us through at stuartgarry, on Twitter, at Spacetime with Stuartgarry, on Instagram, through our Spacetime YouTube channel and on Facebook.
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Just go to Facebook.com spacetime with Stuartgarry and Spacetime is brought to you in collaboration with Australian Sky Telescope magazine.
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Your window on the Universe.
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You've been listening to Spacetime with Stuart Gary.
00:26:43,430 --> 00:26:43,680