Oct. 18, 2021

Plans Announced for an Aussie Lunar Rover

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The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science...


To become a SpaceTime supporter and unlock commercial free editions of the show, gain early access and bonus content, please visit https://bitesz.supercast.com/ . Premium version now available via Spotify.

The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 118
*Plans announced for an Aussie lunar rover
NASA has asked the Australian Space Agency to develop a robotic rover to find, study and transport regolith on the lunar surface.
*Astronomers conduct a supernova post mortem
Astronomers have delved deep into the remains of a thermonuclear supernova explosion. The new data reported in the Astrophysical Journal has allowed scientists to study the devastated remains of the progenitor white dwarf star which triggered the blast – in incredible detail.
*A new hypothetical protoplanet
A team of planetary scientists have come up with a something new to look for in the heavens called a synestia -- a huge, at this stage still hypothetical spinning, donut-shaped mass of hot, vaporized rock, formed as planet-sized objects smash into each other.
*Space the final frontier
‘I hope I never recover from it’ – they were the words of a highly emotional William Shatner following his journey into space aboard Blue Origin’s New Shepard.
*The Science Report
Australians advised to get a booster third COVID-19 vaccination shot.
60% of Antarctic ice shelves vulnerable to melt-induced cracks which could trigger ice shelf collapse.
Roof top solar systems could provide is more than the world’s total energy consumption in 2018.
Converting to renewable energy will cost Australian consumers over a trillion dollars.
Skeptic's guide to the dangers of hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
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The Astronomy, Space, Technology & Science News Podcast.

Transcript

SpaceTime S24E118 AI Transcript

[00:00:00] Stuart: This is space-time series 24 episode, 118 for broadcast on the 18th of October, 2021. Coming up on space time, plans announced for an Aussie lunar Rover, astronomers conduct a supernova post-mortem and a new hypothetical Prado. All that and more coming up on space time.

VO GUY: Welcome to SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

[00:00:45] Guest: NASA has asked the Australian space agency to develop a robotic Rover, to find study and transport regular I'm the lunar surface. The Rover will be designed, built and tested in Australia before being transported to the United States for launch the microwave oven sized vehicle will work is part of a NASA operated in situ resource utilization Brody.

The mission, which we'll launch in 2026 or collect regular for processing by equipment of board, the Lander in order to demonstrate the ability to extract oxygen from locally source material on the moon, lunar soul contains oxygen in the form of chemical compounds with elements like iron and Silicon.

This small scale technology demonstration will aid in the design of large and more capable units in the. Long-term plans include converting lunar water ice deposits into its hydrogen and oxygen constituents, feces, rocket fuel, as well as providing crews with air to breathe and water to drink other experiments we'll eventually see lunar, irregular processed and the construction materials on the moon.

It's all part of the extended Atomus mission, which was a human's return of the lunar surface in 2025. And eventually use the moon as a jumping off spot for missions to Mars and beyond. The Australian developed Rover is part of Canberra's $150 million moon to Mars initiative announced by prime minister.

Scott Morrison at NASA headquarters in Washington in 2019 with a primary aim of boosting growth in the Australian space sector. And at least tripling its current size spaces captured our imagination for generations

in 1969. We help the world watch on in or as America put man on the moon acquire. Um,

now as we look to the future, the world will just make history of our own

Australia.

this space-time still the KM astronomers conduct, a supernova post-mortem and a new hypothetical predator planet. All that a more stored account. Um, space time

astronomist of dove deep into the remains of a thermonuclear supernova explode. The new data reported in the astrophysical journal has allowed scientists to study in incredible detail. The devastated remains the progenitor white dwarf star, which triggered the blast. What drawers are among the most stable of stars.

They're the cause of sunlight stars, which have reached the end of their lives. Stars, shine by fusion of hydrogen, into helium in their core. And when they start to run out of core, hide it, didn't in the fusion process, begins to start. Gravity starts to take over and the star against the contract and this contraction eventually increases core temperature and pressure sufficiently for the core helium to begin to fuse into carbon and oxygen.

While at the same time, a shell of hydrogen begins burning outside the core, and that causes the stars out of guesses envelope to expand. That expansion means the surface of the stars gaseous envelope is now further away from the contracted core. And so it cools down, turning the star into a red giant.

When our son reaches the stage of its life and around 7 billion years from now, its surface will have expanded out to engulf, mercury, Venus, and most likely the earth as well. Eventually the doom star runs out of core helium diffuse. And as it's not massive enough to fuse heavier elements together, the star effectively dies.

It's bloated out. An envelope floats away is a spectacular cloud called a planetary Nebula, exposing its wide out. Still a core as a white dwarf, a super dense object about the size of the earth. Astronomers. Think about 97% of all stars in the universe will become white or. However, not all of them survive.

See a white dwarf in a binary system with the nearby companion star can become a sort of cosmic powder keg. If the companions orbit brings it to close the white dwarfs, intense gravity, it can pull material off the companion star. This material then builds up on the white dwarf until it reaches a tipping point known as the Chandra Sacre limit about 1.4, four times the mass of our sun.

And once a white Wolf passes this limit, it becomes so unstable. It triggers a spectacular Stiller explosion called a Thermo nuclear or type one, a supernova. The last thing that started. Now what's generally accepted that such encounters between white walls and companion stairs are one likely source for thermonuclear supernova, explosions, many details.

The process aren't well understood. And one way to investigate the explosion mechanism is to go sifting through the debris and objector, left behind by the supernova. And that's what the authors of this report. They used radio observations from the CSI arrows, Australia telescope, compact array at narrow Bri the national science.

Foundation's very large array in the United States to get there with NASA's Chandra x-ray and spits it. Infrared space telescopes to study G 3 44 0.7 minus 0.1 a supernova remnant located some 19,600 light years away. The x-ray observations by Chandra were key to the study. That's because x-rays are one of the best ways to study supernova, remnants and measure the composition and distribution of the metals.

They contain astronomers refer to all elements other than hydrogen and helium. The elements generated in the big bang 13.8 billion years ago as metals astronomers estimate that G 3 44 0.7 minus 0.1 is somewhere between 3000 and 6,000 years old. On the other hand, the most well known of widely studied thermonuclear supernova, remnants, such as caplet, Tyco, and SN one double zero six, all exploded within the last thousand years or so.

Therefore, this deeper look into this much older supernova remnant with Chandra gives astronomers a window into an important later phase in the evolution of these events, both the expanding blast wave and the stellar debris produce x-rays in supernova, remnant. Isn't that a breeze moving outwards from the initial explosion.

It collides with surrounding interstellar gas and dust, because you get to slow down. And this creates a sort of reverse shock wave traveling back towards the center of the explosion, like an echo. And as it travels back towards the source, it's slamming into debris still on the outward journey, causing that the breeder heat at the millions of degrees and making it glow in x-rays.

Uh, thermonuclear supernova, remnants like Capla Tyco and are still too young for the reverse shock front to have time to plausibly travel backwards, to hate all the debris in the remnant center. However, the relatively advanced age of G 3 44 0.7 minus 0.1 means that reverse shopfront has already moved back through the entire debris field.

That's lit up that debris and that's let scientists see what's going on. The Chandra data's showing x-ray emissions from Ireland Silicon with the region, with the highest density of iron surrounded by ArcLight structures containing the Silicon. Similar ArcLight structures were also found for sulfur argon calcium.

The Chandra data also suggests that the region with the highest density iron as being heated by the reverse shock front more recently than the elements in the ArcLight structures, implying that this is located near the center of the Stiller explosion. The findings support predictions for models for thermonuclear supernova, explosions, which show that heavier elements are produced in the interior of an exploding white dwarf.

Interestingly, however, the data also shows that the densest iron is located to one side of the supernova remnant geometric center. The authors think there's a, is likely being caused by guests surrounding the remnant being denser on one side than the other, an interesting puzzle for. This is space time still to come a new hypothetical protoplanet and space.

The final frontier, all that a more store to come on. Space time.

A team of planetary scientist have come up with something new to look for in the heavens, which they're calling a Sonesta here, a huge, and at this stage still hypothetical spinning donut shape, mass of heart vaporized rock formed this planet sized objects smash into each other. Now, if the hypothesis is correct, at some point early in its history, some 4.6 billion years ago, how earth two was likely a scenario.

The objects described in the journal of geophysical research, planets are proposed by planetary scientists, Simon Locke, from Harvard university and Sarah Stewart from the university of California Davis. Current theories for planetary formation propose that Rocky planet Sach's Mars, the earth and Venus are all formed early in the existence of our solar system as smaller objects collided together.

These collisions was so violent. The resulting bodies melted and partially vaporized, eventually cooling and solidifying into the Nelly's vertical planets. We know today, but of course a rotating object has angular momentum and that needs to be conserved in a collision lock. And Stuart suggests that when you think of angular momentum, you should be thinking of a skater spinning on ice.

If she extends her arm, she'll slow Herrera to spin and to spin faster, she holds her arms in close, but her angular momentum remains the same. Now consider two skaters turning on ice. If they catch out of each other, the angular momentum of each adds together. So their turtle angular momentum remains the same lock and Stuart model.

What happens when the ice scares earth size Rocky planets colliding with other large bodies with both high energy and high angular moments. They looked at the statistics of giant impacts, finding that they can form a completely new structure. The authors found that over a range of high temperatures and high angular momentum planet sized bodies could form a new much larger toroidal structure and indented disc sort of like a donut with a center field in the object is mostly vaporized rock with no solid or liquid surface.

And the author's name, then you opt to Jace and Estia from sin many together and of the Greek goddess of architecture and structures. The kid is in STF. Formation is that some of the structures material actually goes into orbit in a spinning solid sphere. Every point from the core of the surface is rotating at the same rate, but in a giant impact, the material of the planet can become molten of gaseous and expand in volume.

And if it gets big enough and is moving fast enough, parts of the object will pass the velocity needed to keep material in orbit. And that's when it forms a huge disc chips in STR burst up off as he suggests the giant impacts caused by that's the form of disc of solid or molten material surrounding the planet.

But for the same massive planet SMS, there will be a much larger than a solid planet where the do. The author suggests that most planets likely experienced collisions that could form us in Esther. At some point during their formation, they propose the foreign object, like say the earth, this an Stu wouldn't last very long, perhaps a hundred years or so before it lost enough heat to condense back into a solid object, but they propose that's an STS form by a larger or hotter objects such as gas giants, or even stars could potentially last much longer.

It's an STS structure. Doesn't suggest new ways to think about the moon's formation, the smooth it's remarkably similar to the earth in composition and most Karen theories about how the moon formed involve a giant impact between the predator worth and a masseuse planet called theor, which caused both bodies to melt together and through a lot of material into orbit, which eventually coalesced to form the moon, but such an impact could they radically instead of from the Sonesta, from which the earth and moon birth condense.

Planetary scientists, Dr. Simon, a tool from acquire university says, no, I was actually observed this semester directly. So basically it's this kind of body that you get immediately after the collision between two planets, as we currently understand them to planet sized objects. So part of this is driven by the formation, how to be a smooth.

Um, the basic idea is that you had to planet three finds objects that collided, and they done some theoretical calculations that where they've done all these, because they basically collided through planetary mass objects together. And just to see what would happen. And one of the outcomes seems to be that you get rather than getting too.

I know it's in the moon. Like we have is you, you get sort of these three large donut of hot vaporized rock that is sort of spinning around a very, very, very large, much bigger than say the actual two planets, because you've got the feds vaporized rock in a sort of a, an astronomist would probably call it a tourist, which is really a fancy name for donut.

And you'd have some central region, which was more dense than there. Vaporized this cloud of material going around in a donut shape around the outside. And it's sort of unclear to me how long this could persist out along the, before it sort of started either dispersing or just collapsing because, you know, angular momentum is the key here and they felt so situations.

We don't really understand that. Elementum very well in my opinion. So it's, yeah, it's very, it's a very, very interesting ID. This Cinespia idea. I'm not really keen on the nightstand. But, um, no that it is what it is, but I, I liked the concept that it could happen. The one key part here is this is very, very theoretical.

No one has observed anything that looks like this. And that's in part because it's very, very difficult because of scale. He is still only a little bit larger than a planet, maybe not to the orbit of the moon or a bit beyond. It's very, very difficult to observe this kind of things. When we look at planets that appear to have rings around them, that's what they have.

They have rings around them. They, uh, uh, all the gas giants do, and we assume the earth did when, uh, Thea slammed into it. And the moon resulted. Could it have been a Sonesta rather than a ring or is, is this an STD? Really? Just a fat ring. The rings, uh, more likely the debris left over from the formation of the giant planets moon.

So the planet for the planet itself on the giant planet form that the center, and then there's a whole lot of other material around the outside. And then it gradually created into the various moon. And then there were any sort of leftover material went into the Greenville. Of course, satin is a little bit different because it's in fact fed via a Geyser from one of the.

One of its moons, the rings are continuously being renewed, but certainly, yeah, I think that any, any ring structure is quite different to this because there, even if you had a collision, although I think in, when we looked at comments and that sort of thing that has collided into Jupiter rent run into Jupiter, they've basically been just different.

Completely, but that's because you have a very large thing with a very, very small thing. Whereas in this scenario, you're looking at earth flows objects, you're looking at something like Mars and something like earth that sort of ballpark colliding. And so the, and they're very Rocky. So the, I think that has a big impact on the outcome.

It really means that the existence of a Sonesta would depend very much upon which eventual model of planetary formation. Yeah, it does. It does. I mean, I sort of feel like, uh, the, the various models of ton of formation probably occurred just depends on their initial conditions. Um, that's my, that's a hunch.

I wouldn't call that, uh, uh, you know, backed up by anything, but that's, that's my, my hunters that they, they, they both will work in the right scenario. Planetary accretion model, uh, is basically where the staff forms at the center of a very large cloud of. Uh, and any other material roll, whatever, and it forms the, you have these very large collapses material, and then you've got the nuclear mission time you star, and then any material leftover.

That's rotating around that stuff. That's opening it. And then eventually you get little impacts and collisions, but the bits of material there, the rock and gas and ice and whatever, collide and stick together and gradually create become larger and larger. And they, as I become larger, they attract more material.

And so they eventually stop become what you would call a planet testimony. So it's small planet and they get bigger and bigger and bigger. And in the case of gas giants, uh, you have, the idea is you might have. Dense core of material, but then you get guests that just gets sort of drawn to it. And it creates onto, onto that in the case of the terrestrial planets, the Rocky planets it's dust rock, and maybe ice and that kind of thing.

But the ice is obviously going to be vaporized. And so you just have this molten thing because that's like a lot as a little bit, some phases collide, they get very, very hot. And so that sort of does feed into this Sonesta idea in the sense that you have these two things that collide. And then I. Large amount of vaporize and rock.

The other model is the gravitational instability model of planet formation. And that's. Where rather than the accretion, you, you have it forms, that's a little bit more like star formation. You, you get regions of high density that sort of collapsed on themselves. And, and I think that made my personal, once again, it's more of a hunch, but I think.

Yeah, the latest evidence we're getting from jets coming out of brown doors, almost a light long indicate that the, uh, that model may well be correct, at least for brown, which sort of filled that gap between the largest planets and the smallest stars. Yeah. And that actually changes our ideas of if something like Jupiter, a failed star.

Or piled brown Wolf, because if it formed through integration mechanism rather than gravitational instability, then it's probably more, just a very large planet. Whereas a brown dwarf that formed potentially by the gravitational instability is much more like a failed star. How does an STS fit in with those two models?

Um, well basically the Finity fits in much better with the accretion model, I think because you have these two Rocky objects. Impact each other. And then they spew out this large, very vast cloud of vaporized rock and, and that forms, you know, this sort of donut shape cloud, that obits, uh, the central, the central core of, uh, whatever's left over from the collision from the impact.

I think it fits in better with when you're looking at Rocky planets rather than sort of that's planetary scientist, Dr. Simon, a two from Aquar university. And this space time still the calm space, the final frontier and phase one, a and B Australians being advised to get a boost, a third COVID-19 vaccination shot or that a more store to come on.

Space-time.

Space the final frontier.

These are the voyages of the Starship enterprise. It's five-year mission to explore strange new. To seek out new life and new civilizations to boldly go where no man has gone before.

to see the blue cover by now, you're staring at the black. The covering of blue is the sheet, this blanket, this comforter blue that we have around, we said, oh, it's blue sky. And there's something you should do it all of a sudden. That's what you were whip off a sheet off when you were asleep. And you're looking into blackness into black ugliness.

You look blue down there and the flack up there and it's, it's just, there is mother of. Early comfort. Is there death? I don't know death. Is that the way death is fun? It's gone. It was so moving. This is experience unbelievable. You see it? Yeah. Your wait, my stomach went off of that. But not as weird as the covering of balloon.

This is what I've never, oh, it's one thing to say, oh, the sky of a fragile child. True. But what isn't true, what is unknown is there's this soft blue, the beauty of that color. And it's so thin. And you're through it in an instant. So you're through 50 miles, whatever the mathematic test, like a beat and a beat, and suddenly you're through the blue and you're into black and you're into, you know, it's Raj mysterious and galaxies and things, but what you see as bold and what you see down there as well.

And that's the difference is the most profound experience I'm so filled with emotion about what just happened. I just it's extraordinary. Extraordinary. I hope I never recover from this. I hope. Uh, maintained, but I feel now I don't want to lose it. It's so, so much larger than, than the, I hope I never recover from it.

They were the words of our highly emotional William Shatner following his journey to the edge of space aboard blue origins, new shepherd. It was the second man flight for the space tourism venture at the inclusion of James T. Kirk, captain of the Starship enterprise in the star Trek franchise and showed global coverage.

For Shatner, seeing how thin the Earth's life giving atmosphere was and how quickly one passes through its protection. The way to the blackness of space was a profound life-changing experience. 11 minutes sub-orbital ballistic. Reached an altitude of 106 kilometers. Chris boss, housing, Glenda breeds, Audrey crowds and William Shatner about to go.

We're very few humans have gone before ladies and gentlemen. It's time to launch this rocket Godspeed new shepherd. I'm going to say ten nine, eight, seven six five four commanders. And start to.

the tower. She is on her space with the second human space flight crew

on our first milestone here on his flight, the space we have confirmed max queue. This is when the aerodynamic stresses on the vehicle were at their maximum new Shepard. Second human. With Audrey powers, William Shatner, our customers, Glen of Reis and Chris' boss housing onboard. They are well on their way to space.

So far, a nominal flight, a clean burn on our blue engine, three new Shepard, giving them a beautiful flight to space. This morning, the rocket is climbing towards an altitude. We're aiming just over the Carmen limey, internationally recognized line of space of a hundred kilometers. That is about 320. A thousand feet and now we've had main engine cutoff.

The B3 engine has shut off and in just a moment, we are going to separate the capsule from the booster. And at that point, our astronauts will have the opportunity to get out of their harnesses and enjoy the beauties of zero G clean separation between the capsule and the booster. They are continuing their ascent over the Karman line.

And there they are over 328,000 feet over a hundred kilometers. Welcome to space. The newest astronauts onboard our crew capsule just about hit their Apogee at about 351,000 feet. So far a nominal flight for our second human crew. So exciting Jackie to have sent captain Kirk himself, William Shatner to space as well as our two customers.

Chris' boss housing from Australia to all the fans turning at tuning in from down under a big shout out to you guys, as well as Glenda reas and our very own Audrey. They are coming back home. The booster of course is going to beat the capsule back home. It is more aerodynamically shaped, of course, at the base of the capsule.

It's kind of a blunt end. So it's less aerodynamic. What we're going to see coming up shortly is at the top of the rocket. We have the ring. The, uh, the there's, uh, some what we call the PI fins that extend from the ring fin, uh, as well as the drag breaks, the, the, uh, the PI fins, the wedge fins helps stabilize the vehicle, uh, like kind of like the feathers of the back of an arrow.

And then the drag breaks, it cuts the velocity dramatically. The wedge fins are. The descent. We are going to expect the B3 engine to relight just about 3,600 feet or about 1200 meters above ground level. Let's wait for that. Now the drag rigs have deployed and here we come, new Shepard

and touchdown. Welcome back new shepherd, the fourth light to space and back for that vehicle provided a beautiful flight to space for our second human. Well, I, that gets me every time we do this live down here in Texas, the Sonic boom is so cool. Drag brakes are folding back in as have the wedge fins just looks like you could a fuel her up and go again.

What do you think, Jackie? And even when you know, to expect the Sonic, boom, it still catches you off guard every time. Talk about a rumble, new Shepard rocket there in the west Texas desert, but of course. The show is not over the capsule is descending. We are waiting for first, the drug break, excuse me. The drug shoots to deploy.

Those are very much like the guide parachutes. They will subsequently be, uh, followed by the, uh, the main parachutes that will fully, that will full first reef and then fully inflate. And there go the DRO parachutes, and here come the mains. Woof. What a flight. You can already start to hear the cheers from outside the R R stage here in west Texas.

And here comes our crew back into the desert newest astronauts, 5 96, 97, 98 and 99. Standby touchdown, standby, touchdown, touchdown, and the capsule touched. Welcome back the newest astronauts, Audrey powers, William Shatner, our customers Glendive reas and CrisPaz house. What a day for you. Welcome back.

This is space time

and Tom had to take a brief look at some of the other stories, making news in science this week with a science. The Australian technical advisory group on immunization at Taji as recommended a COVID-19 booster shot, be given to people who are severely immunocompromised at Taji says either the Pfizer or Medina M RNA vaccine should be used for the third dose booster rather than the AstraZeneca vaccine.

It says the booster dose should be administered between two and six months after the second dose of vaccine. The study shows a waning of immunity curves between five and six months after the second dose of both Pfizer and AstraZeneca. And this waning is great for older adults. And with the Australian pig vaccination occurring back in August, waning immunity will be noticeable by around February, 2022.

And with many older people getting vaccinated early, especially those in residential aged care it's felt they may now already be at risk without a third boost. The world health organization says more than 8 million people have been killed by the COVID-19 Corona virus with over 4.9 million confirmed fatalities and over 240 million people infected since the deadly disease was first spread out a word China, and you study wars that some 60% of the Antarctic ice shelves, maybe vulnerable to melt and juice cracks, which could trigger.

I shaft collapse. Uh, report of the journal nature, warns that global warming means more melt water could flow into these cracks, causing them to grow larger through a process called hydro fracturing, driving I off collapse. I shows the flooding extensions of ice sheets. I can help slow the flow of ice into the ocean through a process known as buttressing allowing more melt water to flow into the oceans would have major consequences for Antarctic mass loss and global sea level rise.

And you study has found that the amount of energy rooftop solar systems could potentially provide is greater than the world's total energy consumption in 2018. The findings reported in the journal nature communications map that 130 million square kilometers of global land surface and identified some 0.2 million square kilometers of rooftops that could be is for solar panel.

The author's calculated that these rooftops could generate 27 pedal watt hours per year. With the greatest energy generation potential being in Asia, north America and Europe, the author say it would cost somewhere between 40 and $280 per megawatt hour. With places like India in China being among the cheapest at 66 and $68 per megawatt hour, respectively, Australia, and New Zealand being around $90 per megawatt hour and the UK and us being the most costly at 251 and $238 per megawatt hour.

There was a study by the CSRO has found that converting to renewable energy would cost the Australian consumers over a trillion dollars. The findings mean every household power bill would need to increase by around a hundred dollars per month. And that doesn't include the transition for transport. At the same time.

Another study, this one by Stanford university has found that the global transition to a hundred percent renewable energy by 2050 would cost $73 trillion. The report published in the journal. One earth provides detailed roadmaps for how 143 countries, which account for 99.7% of global greenhouse gas emissions could transit to a hundred percent renewables by 2050.

The analysis excludes the use of nuclear power biofuels or so-called clean coal. In the United States, the roadmap would require the construction of 288,000 new five megawatt, wind turbines and 16,100 megawatt solar farms, but no word on what happens at night or when the wind stops blowing has happened in the UK last week, forcing British power companies to import electricity from European coal and nuclear power stations at highly inflated prices.

The study also didn't look at what the cost of battery storage would add to the bill or the financial environmental costs of the rarest needed to produce. Meanwhile a new report by the Helsinki bay center for research on energy and clean air. And the US-based global energy monitor says the world's largest greenhouse gas blew to China, which produces almost a quarter of the word.

SIA two output is currently building or planning to build 43 new coal fired power stations and 18 you blast furnaces. That's equivalent to at about one and a half percent to China's Caren annual emissions. At the moment China produces more greenhouse gas emissions in 16 days than Australia does an entire year and alternative health practice promoting hyperbaric oxygen therapy and its clinical director have been fired, a combined total of nearly $727,000 in the Melbourne county court.

After one of their patients done. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy involves administering pure oxygen in a pressurized environment with a heightened air pressure, allowing a patient's lungs together, much more oxygen that will be possible on the normal conditions that without proper medical supervision, the treatment can cause lung damage, a fluid buildup or a rupture of the middle layer, sinus damage, vision problems, and oxygen poisoning, which can cause lung failure fluid in the lungs or seizures.

Tim minim from Australian skeptics says there are a very limited range of medical conditions for which the treatment is actually recommend. There are people who are still sort of selling this, the hyperbaric chambers and things like that to sort of increase the amount of oxygen intake. They go into a chamber, which is, you know, like a little phone booth type thing, and they pump a lot of oxygen and then you breathe in oxygen to my function.

But this company has a customer who was suffering from a long-time customer. So you've been going for a while who had multiple sclerosis and induced epilepsy and a history of life-threatening seizures. So not a great person to put under stress. And apparently he was left on his own. Staff were not properly trained in how to look after him.

They found him unconscious in this chamber, took him out to the hospital. They got. Lighter companies paying fine $550,000. The owner who's a former chiropractor has been fined $175,000. So it's a significant amount of money, but nothing compared to the person who had died. Of course, but mainly the reason they've been fined is not because of the effectiveness or efficacy of oxygen treatment, oxygen therapy, but because the.

I able to look after him properly. So it's more an admin thing. Then there's a health thing now where the people should then go and say, well, let's look at this whole concept of oxygen therapy. That's a problem area that if you're looking at not trying to staff properly is one thing, but not training your staff properly in an area of therapy, which is probably uncertain.

If I can say put it that way should be the real issue. So there's issues with the therapy itself. But in this particular case, fairly hefty fines applied because the work of safety processes within the company, weren't, weren't up to scratch. From Australian skeptics

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Just go to space time with Stuart, gary.com for full details. And if you want more space time, please check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show, as well as heaps of images, new stories, loads, videos, and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stuart, gary.tumbler.com.

That's all one word and that's tumbler without the aid. You can also follow us through at Stuart Gary on Twitter at space-time with steward Gary on Instagram. Through us FaceTime YouTube channel and on Facebook, just go to facebook.com forward slash space time with Stuart, Gary and space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian sky and telescope magazine, your window on the universe.

VO GUY: You've been listening to SpaceTime with Stuart Gary. This has been another quality podcast production and from bitesz.com.

Tim Mendham

Editor

Editor with Australian Skeptics