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The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 25 Episode 4
*New study measures antimatter’s reaction to gravity
The Astronomy, Space, Technology & Science News Podcast.
ST S25E04 AI Transcript
This is space time series 25 episode four, for broadcast on the 10th of January, 2022. Coming up on space time new study determines that antimatter falls down just like regular matter, a joint European and Russian mission to explore minerals on the moon and the James Webb space, telescope deploys its gold, antenna. All that and more coming up on space time.
Welcome to space time with Stuart Gary
a new study has confirmed that both matter and antimatter respond the same way to grab it. The research carried out at CERN, the European organization for nuclear research would appear to finally answer that longstanding question of whether stuff made of anti-matter would fall down the same way as stuff made of matter.
Does of course, logic tells you that matter and anti-matter should do the same thing after all they only different electrical charge. So on the subatomic scale, the anti-medic counterpart to the positively charged proton is the negatively charged Anti-Prom. And the anti-medic harder part to the negative recharged.
Electron is the positively charged positron is part of an experiment to measure it to an extremely precise degree, the exact charge to mass ratios of protons. And antiprotons the base collaboration at CERN found that matter. And antimatter did respond to gravity in the same way matter, and anti-matter create some of the most intriguing problems in physics today.
One of the great mysteries is barrier on asymmetry. That is despite the fact that they seem equivalent the universes. We know it is made up almost entirely of matter, very little anti-matter and that's puzzling because equal amounts of matter and antimatter should have been created in the big bang 13.8 billion years ago.
And the thing is matter and anti-matter annihilate each other when they come into country. So theoretically the universe should have been destroyed in the blue gamma Ray flash almost immediately after it formed yet. Here it is. So that means there must be something different in the properties between matter.
And antimatter other than charge to explain why we exist. That's part of this quest scientists have explored whether matter and antimatter interact the same way with gravity or with the anti matter would experience gravity a little bit different compared to me. The trouble is that would violate Einstein's week equivalence principle and its many physicists have found.
They regret messing with Einstein, never really works. And now the base collaboration has confirmed Einstein's right within the strict boundaries of their experiment and its parameters, anti mad. It does in fact, respond to gravity exactly the same way as matter. Does the findings reported in the journal nature actually came from a different experiment.
The one they were trying to commit. It was examining the charge to mass ratios of protons. And antiprotons one of the most important measurements that determine if there's a key difference between the two, the work involved 18 months of research at CERN's anti-matter factory yet only one of its kind in the world to make the measurements.
Physicists can find both antiprotons and negatively charged hydrogen ions, which they used as a proxy for protons in a pending. In this device, a particle follows a cyclical trajectory with a frequency close to the cyclotron frequency that scales with the traps magnetic field strength and the paddock was charged to mass ratio by feeding antiprotons and negative recharged hydrogen ions into the trap.
One at a time, the authors are able to measure under identical conditions. The cyclotrons frequencies of the two particle types, comparing their charts to mass ratio. The study's lead author. Stephen Alma's says the new results are essentially equivalent to a degree, four times more precise than previous measurements.
And the authors use these measurements to test a fundamental physics law known as the WIC equivalence principle. Now, according to this principle, different bodies, but with the same gravitational field should undergo the same acceleration in the absence of frictional force. Because the base experiment was placed on the surface of the earth, the proton and an anti-proton cyclotron frequency measurements were made in the gravitational field of the earth.
And so any difference between the gravitational interactions of protons and antiprotons would have resolved, resulted in a different space between the cyclotron frequencies, by saddling the gravitational field of the earth as the planet orbit at the sun, researchers found that matter and anti-matter responded to gravity in exactly the same way, at least up to a degree of three paths in a house.
It means the gravitational acceleration of matter and anti-matter is identical. Within 97% of the experienced acceleration. Ahmet says these sorts of measurements can lead to new physics. The 3% accuracy of the gravitational interaction of 10 in this study is comparable to the accuracy goal of the gravitational interaction between matter.
And antimatter that other research groups plan to measure using free falling anti hydrogen atoms. Now if the results from this study end up being different from those achieved by other groups, it could lead to the Dawn of a completely new type of physics. And that would be exciting. This is space time.
Still the comma, the European space agency in Russia to join forces on a new mission to the moon and the James Webb space, telescope deploys, its gold and I all that and more still to come on space time.
The European space agency will include a drill and sample analysis package a board, a new Russian mission to the moon south pole slated for launch in 2025. The mission called Luna 27. We'll fly a board, a Russian and Gara, a five heavy lift rocket from the forest and right. The Roscosmos led mission will prospect for minerals in a range of volatiles, including nitrogen, water, eyes, carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen, methane, and softer oxide.
It'll be looking in permanently shadowed areas of the moon. A Lander will have 15 sites instruments to analyze the regular plasma, the atmosphere, or at least exosphere as well as dust and seismic activity. Now Europe's contribution, then it's the prospect package will include a percussion drill designed to go down up to two meters.
There's a sample handling system called proceed, which will collect the cement that I sampled and then deposit them into a miniaturized onboard sample analysis laboratory called pro spa precise measurements. We'll hope on a sacred to the moon's history and also indicate with a feature explorers could use lunar resources on their missions to help them set up a lunar bay.
The lunar south pole Ridge and is of great interest to scientists and explorers. That's because the low angle of the sun over the horizon leads to areas of partial or even complete shadow. These shadowed areas and permanently dark crater floors where sunlight never reaches, I believe to hide water ice deposits and other frozen substances that could be analyzed to better understand the natural processes that form.
They could also be used to produce resources such as oxygen, drinking water, and even rocket propellant, as well as prospect, the European space agency. We're also adding your automated learning system for the mission as well. This report from a CTV, the prospects is really, uh, one of the stepping stones between the early robotic phase that we're seeing now and the future where a human activity on the lunar surface.
Uh, may make use of Luna resources in order to have a sustainable presence on the lunar surface. If you land anywhere on the moon, you can extract oxygen. If you land at the polls, it may be a little easier because you can get to water and other volatiles that might be there. And so volatiles are things that, um, can be very mobile so they can supply them into a vacuum.
Um, but obviously they're of interest to us because we can breathe and, uh, and drink them. So water ice, for example, is thought to be. At the Luna pillar reasons. So prospect is a combination of a drilling and sample analysis package. Uh, the drill we'll drill down to depths of up to one meter below the surface.
So it's not the first time that drilling has been employed on the moon, but it's the first time that it will have been done in these polar regions. Yeah. We're going to test the first model that has been built. We are going to test it. So to see if the Draper. All the instruments mechanism works perfectly, and we are going to perform some drilling tests and sampling coring, and simply the recovery to the sampling six steps.
We collect the two samples while, uh, after drilling one sample is collected using a dedicated man. Uh, that is, uh, that allows to collect the sample and close the chamber after the collection. So we keep the sample within a dedicated chamber for the Russian sample. And then, uh, we perform the same operation.
With the European, uh, for the European history, we don't know exactly how much water ice we might find. So in the tests, we are doing some that are dry, which have no water ice in for others. We inject a little bit of water and then we all, we range up to saturated regularly, which has a very high fraction of water in the subsurface.
One of them, the test that on which I am more curious of is the test with a 6% of what our content. So we will. The percentage of the water, we will mix like an ice cream making. Yeah. And then we will froze the discipline down to the minus 150. We see under lunar vacuum when you have a. An icy material, as soon as you expose it to a higher temperatures, immediately sublimate into the vacuum.
So it doesn't go through a melting point. It just disappears into gaseous form and you've lost your sample. The point is during the. You are producing kit, you to the mechanical three shin of the frailty and the lunar soil. This is unavoidable. So what we are doing is to balance the power injected, controlling the rotation of the coring and a rotation and the speed of the.
In order not to go too fast. And so not to produce too much heat. The prospect is the European instrument. Uh, that is part of prospector. It will be based on miniaturised oven, which will receive the samples from the drill. It will seal the heavens and, uh, it will perform, uh, the measurement, uh, uh, of the contents prospect contains.
Uh, smaller, uh, carousel, um, and with a disk on which 25 ovens are mounted, we started many years ago in studying coding and thrilling systems. Uh, actually, uh, the first drill that went to space was the Rosetta drill for the Rosette. The prospect has a great editor page from, from Rosita, from the conceptual point of view, because that is the task of.
Uh, that is the task of a collect, the sample and the, to the little, the sample to the, uh, to the instrument. And the easy to observation of the material. Our objective is not just. The single prospect payload, but also to put Europe in a position where we can also work on the topic of Luna resources in the context of other payloads, and really to develop the expertise of the community in this area, which is already happening today from an exploration point of view, it has a potential to change the moon from a, a thing that we see in the sky to a place that we can go by understanding how we can use the resources that are there.
It then opens the door for other people to potentially exploit those resources. We really hope to go to the moon very soon and a few years from now. So this is really exciting and it has just become my hope is that with missions like prospects and the missions we are seeing coming up, that this is actually opening a new door to lunar exploration, which may actually see a bigger participation of the public.
Perhaps even see my children or grandchildren participating in that exploration and visiting or even living or working on the lunar surface. And in that report from SCTV, we heard from prospect project manager, Richard Pfizer, Zachary ISA prospect, project scientist, Elliot sifter, Nash prospect, project manager for Leonardo Andrea Zambia.
Proceeds system engineer for Leonardo Christian Panza project engineering manager for Leonardo Andrea Russ county and software prospect in Geneva with Leonardo, Patricia Polonia. This space. Still the calm. The James Webb space telescope continues the complicated process of unfurling and reconfiguring itself for operations and new measurements on the asteroid upon offers, which will make a close encounter with the earth in 2020 now.
All that and more still the calm of time.
Masses James Webb space telescope has successfully unfilled its major components, marking a key milestone in the long and complicated process of reconfiguring itself for operation. The $10 billion successor to the Hubble space telescope has launched a bot, an ion five rocket from the European space agencies, curious space center in French Guiana into a highly elliptical orbit that'll seat position one and a half million kilometers away in what's known as LaGrand, G and L to position a sort of gravitational.
Well, that will always keep James Webb on the opposite side of the earth from the sun. But in order to reach space in the first place, the giant 21 by 14 meter telescope first had to be folded up or a gummy style. So it would fit in the payload ferrings of the launch vehicle. It'll take about a month to reach its eventual purchase some four times further away than the moon and another five months to begin science, operations, X, assuming this complicated process of unfurling, the giant observatory continues to proceed as planned.
And there's a lot that could still go wrong. The origami like process of setting the telescope up in orbit takes several weeks with hundreds of release mechanisms, need to operate exactly as planned for the seven ton observatory to expand to its full operational size its solar array and five layered sun showed with the first one fell and lock into place that all went smoothly.
They were followed by the secondary mirror and the AFT deployable instrument, radiator, a specialized assembly necessary for the websites instruments to reach their stable operating temperatures then came the golden primary mirror composed of 12 octagonal segments, which were folded into three sections for transport over the weekend.
The two wing sections successfully opened out and latched into position. This was a major milestone in the telescope. Reconfiguring itself for operations. Started our deployment into the deployed hard stops. And our current looks really good. A nice and low Mount coffee. Deployment engineers confirming that everything looks good with our mission operations manager.
It's going to be momentous when it finally comes into the first wing was successfully deployed yesterday. And, uh, and now this is the, the final part of the primary mirror being, uh, being put in place. Give us a sense of the scale. Uh, you'd be these mirror segments. I mean, I had the honor of watching this being built a lot of it at Goddard.
How, how big across for example is, is, is one of those hexagons other about. Meet her and a half across all from tip to tip, the hexagons are quite large. It's amazing to actually be in the clean room and look up to see the whole mirror assembled towering above you. There's no amount of seeing it on photos that kind of gives you the sense of actually standing next to it in a clean room when it was assembled.
Uh, once it, uh, fully into position here, that final shape that our primary mirror is going to be called a Tri-County. That's about a polygon is definitely done about three quarters of the way through the deployment and everything still looks really good. Self we'll be we'll be concave. Also as the mirror comes forward, there's a thing called it's called the bat wing.
And it's a, it's a shade that falls down behind the mirror to help shade any light or heat that might be coming in. Through the, a hole in the sunshade from keeping any of the backside of the telescope warm there's one on each side that comes down passively as the motor moves this forward. This is that lead on ops.
We have reached the end of deployment and we are pre-loading into the last patch.
Okay. You see people clapping. Yes. Wonderful. Everyone's clapping. The, the primary mirror has successfully deployed. This is a first, we have made them a space observatory. That was the mirror was so large that it had to be folded up to fit inside the room. Oh, see, at the time we're ready to continue with 6, 9, 3 dash 0 4 6 enable activate a CSQ 56.
That command line looks good. You're good to execute. Okay. So if you can hear the relief in our deployment. And your to enable activate. I it's, I have to say it. I just feel this kind of glow, you know, in my, in my, my chest right now, because seeing that, that mirror all deployed altogether, the size of a mirror allows us to collect more light from fainter objects and a lot of cases that means farther away objects that like took many billions of years to travel to us a chance to see the universe as.
Perhaps only a couple of hundred million years after the start, after the big bang, the sensitivity of this mirror will allow that. And, uh, and the size of the mirror also gives us a clearer, a higher resolution, able to see more detail in space than ever before. So this was something that absolutely had to happen.
You know, we had to, I had to unfold this mirror, the secondary focusing mirror had to come out and then a little bit more than a week ago, the, of the amazing sunshield we are live at the space telescope science Institute and, um, Successfully unfolded the last part of the primary mirror after this, there is, are still more commissioning acts to come very important ones.
For example, because of its distance from earth. If anything does go wrong during this process, NASA, won't be able to send astronauts out to repair it as they did with hobble following it's launching the space shuttle discovery back in 1990. The hundreds of components have repeatedly been tested on the ground and in simulated space conditions to ensure they work exactly as planned.
But there are always concerns to find the rigors of launch. Once operational James Webb, six and a half meter mirror will pay back through space time. It is some of the earliest days of the universe back to a time more than 13.4 billion years ago when some of the very first stars in the universe began to shine.
Now, unlike its predecessor Hubble, which viewed the universe, mostly invisible light and the dipping very slightly into the infrared on one side and the ultraviolet on the other James Webb will focus on the near infrared part of the spectrum that will allow it to see the ultraviolet light from the very first stars, which has been stretched into the infrared by the fiscal expansion of the universe.
So. As well as studying the first stars and galaxies, James Webb will also explore planets orbiting, distant stars, searching for signs of life in their atmospheric composition. This telescope will chain sciences understanding of the universe just as humbled did before. It it'll answer questions we haven't even began to ask yet.
And of course, it'll raise lots of new questions for future experiments in the termination. This spaced out. Still to come the latest measurements and was once considered the Armageddon asteroid upon office. And later in the science report, as we continue plowing through the holiday season and you study, it showed that for the most part hangover, cures simply don't work, all that and more static.
A new forecast by the Russian emergencies ministry. Once at the Astor at apotheosis close in cattle with the earth in 2029. We'll see the mountain side space rock skim over the planet surface at an altitude of 35,800 kilometers, closer than the orbits of many geostationary satellites and some 2000 kilometers nearer than previous estimate.
The 380 meter wide asteroid triple 9, 4 2 upon office has long been the poster child for hazardous near-Earth asteroids, by the way, that name upon office. Well, it was the name of the ancient Greek God of chaos, NASA once classified a path us as a potential earth impactor at was until more detailed observations of its orbit, ruled that out.
But on April the 13th, 2029 upon us we'll hurdle past the earth at some 7.42 kilometers per hour. It won't hit us, but it will come awfully close. In fact, during the 2029 close encounter, a poverty will be clearly visible to people on the ground in Europe, Africa, and Western Asia, without the need of a telescope or binoculars, it will be the closest asteroid of its size in recorded history.
Astronomers estimate it should be as bright as magnitude 3.1 and visible with the unaided eye from rural and DACA, suburban areas, and clearly visible with binoculars from most locations, calculation suggests that we're a profits that directly impact the earth. It will hit with a force of 1,717 mega tons of tent.
By comparison, the impacts, which created medial crater in Arizona, 50,000 years ago, and the tango Husker event in Siberia in 1908 arrests made it to have only been between three and 10 megatons. The biggest hydrogen bomb ever exploded. The Soviet union SAR Bomba was around 57 megatons and the 1883 eruption of cracker tour.
And what is now, Indonesia was the equivalent of roughly 200 megawatts. So anyway, you look at it and a Puffer's impact would be devastating while not a sonnet killer, certainly enough to wipe out a continent. Of course, the exact effects of any impact would vary based on the asteroids composition, the location of ground zero and the actual angle of color.
It's still, it's fair to say that any impact with this matter, an era of thousands of square kilometers, creating an impact, create a more than five kilometers wide and triggering major tsunami, seismic activity and climate changing to clouds. Scientists say the earthquake caused by such an impact within a radius of say 10 kilometers from ground zero could be as much as 6.5 on the open-ended Richter scale with wind speeds reaching at least 790 meters per second.
The European space agency center for near earth objects is that 2021. So more than 3000 near-Earth asteroids added to the list in a single year. For the first time, the update means there are now some 27,764 asteroids and 117 comments classified as near earth objects. That is celestial objects is orbital path takes them close to or crosses Earth's orbit around.
This is space, time
and time that a take a brief look at some of the other stories. Making news in science this week with the science report, a new study is found that microplastics detected in Southern France could have been transported for more than four and a half thousand kilometers from their source traversing, entire continents and oceans.
The findings reported in the journal nature communications are based on microplastic pollution samples collected from the atmosphere of the Peronists in Southern France, impute and modeling shared that these particles traveled an average of 4,550 kilometers over the previous week from their points of origin in the Americas and Africa, the findings show, how microplastic pollution spreads globally, even reaching remote regions that don't use much.
Paleontologist have identified a new species of long neck theropod, dinosaur in China, Sarah parts of those dinosaurs with the elephant, like bodies and legs. I really long neck and small head at one end and a really long tail at the other sort of like Fred Flintstones. Petina a new dinosaur named Romella Pakis turbine answers.
Roam the earth during the lecture Rassie park, approximately 155 million years ago. The giant herb of all was around 25 meters or 86 feet long. The findings reported in the journal vertebrate paleontology Clemet was a member of a group of dinosaurs, which had spread across Asia and Africa during the Jurassic and early Cretaceous.
These dinosaurs added extra vertebrae in their necks to elongate them. And in addition to this, they made each individual neck vertebra. Scientists don't know why they did this, but they presume it was either a feeding adaption or for sexual selection. And you study it shown that for the most part hangover, cures don't work.
The findings are reported in the journal addiction assist 21 placebo controlled randomized trials, looking at different hangover cure. These included things like clove extract, ridging scene curcumin, prickly pear cheap plaque pro AP for probiotics, artichoke extract, rapid recovery locks, a proven third fruit extract, Ray and pear juice extract of clove buds morning fit, which is made from dried yeast and thymine nitrate pyridoxine hydrochloride and riboflavin, a polysaccharide extract and numerous other proposed hangover cure.
The systematic review was carried out by scientists from King's college, London, but a fan only a very low level of evidence sustaining any of these hangover cure claims. Now, the studies did have their problems of the 21 included studies, eight were conducted exclusively with male participants. They were generally limited in their reporting of the nature and timing of the alcohol challenge that was used to assess the hangover.
And there were considerable differences in the type of alcohol given and whether or not it was consumed alongside food. Common painkillers, such as paracetamal and aspirin were not evaluated in this trial. Now, according to the researchers, future studies will need to be far more rigorous in their methods.
For example, they need to use a validated scaling system to assess hangover symptom. The funny thing about being a kid is that no matter who you are, what your cultural background is or where you come from, you're always grew up hearing about ghost stories in the paranormal, from fairytales to science fiction and horror movies.
It's clearly something about the paranormal, which triggers the imagination of people. And once you place a religious interpretation on it, it becomes aware to connect with the past, ask fundamental questions about the nature of humanity and even postulate. What happens after death and anything that ingrained the human psyche.
Must've been an important part in the development and evolution of homosapiens. Most cases, the paranormal come from a misinterpretation of personal experiences, the human brain, trying to make sense that it's something it really doesn't understand. But Tim Mendham from Australian skeptics points out there is another aspect of all this worth, considering who doesn't let the paranormal.
Yeah. Cause it's it's. Yeah, it depends on which area you're looking at. It it's a lot of fun. I mean, half the time you said, if we get you to make ghosts or you're talking about UFO's and that sort of thing from a skeptical point of view, that's the fun, lastly, the fun end of the scale. That's where we all like to play sometimes.
And it's good. But the thing is, of course it's not necessarily true. It's like a lot of fun things. Not necessarily. Yeah. Well, it ain't necessarily, so, um, but, uh, yeah. Well, hang on, you're a skeptic. You can't tell you absolutely. That these things are not good points, but you can be pretty sure. Right. You can be pretty sure.
I'm not sure they're not true, but I mean, yeah. How do you explain people enjoying the paranormal? Because it is fun, but when you get this half fun thing, people are going to be on the phone and they start trying to get scientific about it. Funny that skeptics would you believe? Yeah, my friend George believes he tells me, believes in ghosts totally believes in terracotta.
And all that sort of thing. Yeah, absolutely. Certain that this stuff's all real and you cannot convince him otherwise. It's just that I'm not bright enough to know and understand what he's, what he's on about. That's the problem. That's right. Yep. And keeping in close mind. Yes. As opposed to a open-minded.
It equals an empty head. Anything in the past was dropped since basically you mean there's always people trying to turn it into a scientific analysis of it, et cetera. The paranormal investigators who set up a little, um, little groups that go out and check out. Coatings and that sort of thing. For some reason, they always wait camouflage at night, which struck me, you know, go sleep at night.
Like we do. Well, I don't know. I don't know once it was at night, but it was always at night. It's more effectively scary. Right? You go, I mean, surely it goes to be there anytime you, they don't sleep if you're saying, but anyway, and leave. It's an obvious question. Are they close? Become ghost stew when they die, I guess is what I'm asking about.
Why don't they a sheep in this little holes for the eyes? I don't know. No one knows this is, this is one of the, one of the problems, things that goes, you know, do they look like when they died, which would be pretty scary if someone died in a horrible car accident or
in London is pretty good. Actually, that's got people who've died and they looked like how they, you know, how they died, but unless you sort of believe in Titanic and you come back as a, as a younger, a younger. And how you used to look in the and go just like Kate Winslet, but, um, it's, it's a dilemma. It's just, you know, do they weigh clothes?
Do they wear the clothes they died in? Do they hold the place that I died in that I know guys on out stories of guys who supposedly whole buildings, they never occupied. It's like those two billings that never were there when they had. Uh, you know, there's a few problems with this. The scientific in quotes, paranormal investigators go into a haunted house with all their little machines and things, things like beep and they might get very critical of the TV shows, which they say are full of BS.
You know, that they, they don't really sort of do it very well. So on and so on, but really they're, uh, they're struggling or they don't come up with any, for them evidence either in anyway, whether they using things that Toby or whether just going in, they wasn't to be scared. It always comes down to something.
They feel doesn't it in the end. Yeah. Yes. I feel the change of temperature where they feel, you know, and I've seen so many ghost videos and things. This is absolutely approved. If you're saying that it's not as rubbish, it's obviously faked or it's just so vague. You can't see anything signs of the voices you hear.
You got only hear the words that supposedly saying, if you've already, already been told that I could see if they supposedly say, yeah, I would say the ghost hunters things or people who claimed as a ghost, they got a recording plaintiffs on it, but don't tell them what it is or what's. It doesn't even say if the guy's just like, and see if they come up with the same results, 99 times out of a hundred, they went, but yeah, technology, no technology, sensitivities, no sensitivities.
There was still, unfortunately, no evidence. And I raised them to believe and you know, anything put forward is if the GBS energies and that sort of thing, if the real, unfortunately, you know, That's to Mendham from Australian skeptics.
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