Oct. 20, 2021

Earth’s Solid Inner Core Could be Mushy

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The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science...


To become a SpaceTime supporter and unlock commercial free editions of the show, gain early access and bonus content, please visit https://bitesz.supercast.com/ . Premium version now available via Spotify.
The Astronomy, Technology, and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 119
*Earth’s solid inner core could be mushy
A new study suggests that the Earth’s inner core might be mushy rather than solid. Data based on seismic readings going back to the 1950s indicates the planet’s core comprises a molten iron and nickel metal outer core surrounding a solid metallic inner core located some 5150 kilometres beneath the surface.
*Space Rider to fly in 2023
The European Space Agency’s proposed Space RIDER orbital space plane is now expected to undertake its maiden flight in late 2023.
*Mars Ingenuity helicopter sees the road ahead
NASA’s Mars Ingenuity helicopter has identified a potential interesting path forward for the missions Perseverance Rover.
*The Science Report
4 in every 10 heat-related deaths around the world can be attributed to climate change.
Pollution leaving many vulnerable and endangered turtles at greater risk of disease.
Archaeologists have uncovered a 2700 year old toilet at a dig site in Jerusalem.
Alex on Tech: New security patches for Apple products, Google Chrome, and Windows 11.
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The Astronomy, Space, Technology & Science News Podcast.

Transcript

SpaceTime S24E119 AI Transcript

Stuart: This is space-time series 24 episode 119 four broadcast on the 20th of October, 2021. Coming up on space time and you study, he says earth solid in a core could actually be quite mushy Europe space rider to fly in 2023. And this is Mars ingenuity, helicopter searches the road ahead, all that a more coming up on SpaceTime

VO Guy: Welcome to SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

Stuart: New studies suggest the at Earth's in a core might be mushy rather than. Data based on seismic ratings, going back to the 1950s indicates that the planet's core comprises a molten iron and nickel metal article surrounding a solid metallic inner core located some 5,150 kilometers beneath the surface.

However, nearest search suggested the solid in a sphere is in fact endowed with a range of liquid soft and hard structures, which vary across the top 250 kilometers of the inner core. The findings reported in the journal physics to the earth and planetary interiors are based on new, more detailed seismic data illuminated by earthquakes and the crust, the upper metal, and observed by a seismic observations across the earth surface seismology offers the only direct way to investigate the inner court's process.

C as seismic waves generated by earthquakes move through various layers of the earth. They speed changes and they may reflect or refract depending on the minerals, temperature and density of the layers they're passing through. In order to infer features from the core, the authors utilize data from seismometers directly opposite the location where the earthquake was generally.

Using Japan's a simulator computer. They assess five pairings to broadly cover the inner core region, tongue or Algeria, Indonesia, Brazil, and three between Chile and China. The study's lead author read battler from the university of Hawaii sits in stark. Contrast to the homogeneous. Soft iron aloe is considered an all earth marvels of the intercourse.

Since the 1970s, the new data suggests there are adjacent regions of hard, soft, and liquid or mushy iron alloys in the top 250 kilometers of V a core, the findings place, new constraints on the composition, thermal history and evolution of the earth. The study of the intercourse discovery of a Tetra genius structure, providing port new information about the dynamics, the boundary between the inner and outer core, which is important because it impacts Earth's magnetic field.

See the Earth's core acts like a jet dynamo generating the planet's protective magnetic field, which shields the earth from the sun, solar wind and space weather event. The researchers plan to model the earth in the core in much finer detail, using the earth simulator and compare how that structure compares to various characteristics of earth geomagnetic field.

This is space time still to come the European space agency space, right? A space plane to fly in 2023. And NASA's Mars ingenuity helicopter identifies a potential interesting path forward for the missions perseverance Rover, or that are more of. Um, space-time

the European space agencies propose space rider, orbital space. Plane is not expected to undertake its maiden flight in late 2023. The reasonable space craft, which we're launching on a Vegas sea rocket is designed to deploy and retrieve payloads up to 800 kilograms in lower earth orbit like it's American X 37 B counterpart space ride.

It will also serve as an unmanned space laboratory capable of oval operations for periods of several months. The space router system is based on the Vegas seas of ORM plus stage and ISAs intermediate experimental vehicle, or I X V, which flew in 2015. The other room plus upper stage will act as space riders, service module, providing power attitude control, and the orbit engines.

It's I X V. Heritage will be filled with landing gear and a multi-purpose environmentally controlled cargo bay with 1200 liters of payload, volume and access to 600 Watts of power supply as well as thermal control data handling and telemetry capabilities. Uh, the features will include sophisticated new avionics for maneuvering and space in the orbiting.

The 300 kilogram reusable lifting body design will provide a smooth ride back to worth with a soft power for a landing. This is director of space transportation. Daniel says the spacecraft will be capable of being reused for at least six flight. It's a fact that today or Europe does not have this capacity.

And in fact, uh, at ISA, we had already a technology demonstration of a re-entry, uh, honors, which took place a few years ago and the experimental vehicle called ISV. And based on this experience, which was highly successful. And launched Vega by the way. Uh, we are now developing space rider during, uh, lowers or with operation in my karate.

So a vehicle can, uh, turn a maneuver according to the mission it has. And then at the moment in time, you start the re-entry on earth. In fact, you have a dedicated angle of that. You start to enter into the atmosphere. This is what we call a lifting body. Meaning there are no, uh, no plane type of structures.

It's just, uh, it's a body which has a certain angle of attack enters into the upper parts of the atmosphere. At high speed, we call it hypersonic and then the speed is decreased through the drag. And when it starts to become subsonic, uh, you have lowered significantly. The speed. Once you have reached a certain level, you can deploy your power foil.

And once with the power of five deployed, you can have a position landing on the runway. Somewhere in Europe, we do a call for opportunities and we will have a different flight opportunities, uh, planned, uh, for example, in microgravity research. So if you're coming from a university, that's for sure an opportunity like a, in a material sciences or pharmaceutical.

Field biological field that large-scale second. We will work on commercial opportunities and here we have already quite good exchanges again with the pharmaceutical industry. And we will look for further, uh, in-orbit validation and demonstration, uh, of technologies, which have to be tested and qualified in space before they go on big and costly missions.

This is director of space, transportation, Daniel, no instructor. And this is space time still. The calm messes Mars ingenuity helicopter identifies a potentially interesting path forward. And later in the science report, archeologist feel flushed with success after discovering a 2,700 year old Dani or that a more static.

Um, space-time

this is MAs ingenuity helicopters identified a potentially interesting path forward for the missions perseverance road. Like other Mars missions, ingenuity and perseverance have been stationary for the past couple of weeks. As the red planet passes through solar conjunction. The period when Mars has orbit moves it behind the sun has seen from earth making radio communications difficult.

Now with operations, getting ready to resume. Perseverance mission manages that taking a close look at the south SITA region, which is showing signs of significant scientific interest. Based on ingenuity data. Researchers believe this site could potentially be a treasure trove of complex geology providing information that could play a valuable role in the nation's search for past microbial life on the red planet, ingenuity obtained 10 images of the area as it flew over the south city or region at an altitude of 10 meters.

169.5. Second flight was the longest and one of the most complicated undertaken by the tiny 1.8 kilogram rotor copter. Since the mission first landed on the ancient dried up river Delta in Jezreel crater, back on February the 18th. The latest flight included moddable way points as ingenuity flew from relatively nondescript terrain outside south third, here in a much more varied terrain inside then back out again, looking for signs of layered sedimentary rock that could have been deposited by water.

The flight spotted, intriguing Rocky outcrops, accessible to the Rover and safe routes the Rover could take into and back out of the area. Mission managers are always concerned about the possibility of getting bogged in a Sandra. Perseverance project scientist can folly from NASA jet propulsion laboratory in Pasadena.

California says that from a science perspective, a new south setter images are the most valuable ingenuity is taken so far. This space-time

And time Meditech, another brief look at some of the other stories, making news in science this week with a science report and you study warns that at least four in every 10 hate related deaths around the world can be attributed to human induced climate change. The findings reported at the journal nature are based on data from 732 locations, including Australia.

Side has found that 37% of warm season heat related deaths can be attributed to anthropogenic climate change. And that increased mortality was evident on every continent for Australia. The figure was in line with the global average at around four in 10 heat-related deaths, or about 1% of all deaths.

And you study is found that human pollution is leaving many vulnerable and endangered turtles at greater risk of disease. Uh, report of the journal. Plus one, looking at endangered sea turtles found that human pollution, the oceans is compromised, their immune systems, leaving them more vulnerable to illness.

The studies authors say there's a wide knowledge gap between sea turtle disease and the microbes that are causing them. And this is posing a major threat for six out of seven endangered sea turtle species. Archeologists have uncovered a 2,700 year old toilet at a dig site in Jerusalem. The ancient outhouse was found the, what appears to have been an oil metal garden filled with fruit trees and aquatic plants.

Scientists say the Jewish John was made of limestone and designed for comfortable contemplation, pottery, and various architectural items, including stone, capitals and columns that served as railings for windows were found near by the primitive of. You security patches and bug resolutions have been rolled at the apple products, Google Chrome and windows.

With the details on these stories and more we're joined by technology. It's Alex from ity.com. Yeah. Apple launched iOS and iPad iOS 15.0 0.2. They fixed the 17th major zero day vulnerability in iOS 14. And now of course, retired vulnerability is a bug or a software problem or ability that is unknown to the company.

And it's not yet fixed or past. And users aren't patched with this either. And if the hackers know how to exploit it properly, they can then load any software they want onto your phone or tablet. They can copy whatever data they could buy on you, you know, activate your cameras and microphones. I mean, they effectively have full control of your device and this could browse everything.

Yeah. And in the case of the iPhone and iPad, there is no security software like Norton internet security or Kronos. Protect time office. And even if you do have those particular protective programs on your PC or Mac, if those programs don't know about the zero day vulnerability, they can't protect against it either.

So it wouldn't even help you to have that sort of software. I have heard of that. Protecting you against vulnerabilities that are known, but not yet patched by you, but protected by the those particular programs. But those programs that exist on iPhones and iPads and, you know, there were also other patches for, for example, if you had copied some photos from a message sent to you via the I message program, and then you deleted that message thread, it would delete the photos that you typed to your photo.

It was serious buck, but that's been patched also the ability to restore a backup onto a new iPhone 13 model or the new iPad mini six generation. If you're using finder on Mac or iTunes on a PC without this 15.0 0.2, that restore might not have worked, which would mean that you wouldn't be able to restore your device unless you were doing it from the cloud.

And it wasn't just apple, Google Chrome and windows as well. Yeah. Well, Google patch, major Buffalo zero-day vulnerabilities. There were newspaper articles. Google Chrome now, which were then updated to say, oh, just update deleted. Not that we're panicking here or anything. Those were also zero day vulnerabilities that hackers could use.

If I knew how to exploit the bugs to load software onto your, onto your computer. And it's very important that when you tap on those little three dots on the right-hand side of the Google web address bar, and then you see the menu, you go down to help, and then you. About Google Chrome, you will then see an update screen and you'll see the updates downloading and installing.

But until you actually shut Google crime down and restart it again, your browser is still vulnerable. So it's very important to put updates on to either close the programs down or to restart your computer so that the patches are installed and our operation. I must admit I use Google, but I use it in Firefox.

Well, a lot of people also are now using Microsoft edge, which is based on the same code as Google Chrome, as Microsoft's ability to spawn you as opposed to Google, which is probably not that much of a difference. But I do know that a friend had an oldest seller on computer running windows 10, and we were trying to.

Binge and stand, which are a couple of subscription video on demand programs in Australia and on Google crime that we're stopping and starting. And you could see it was tracking along, but on using edge, it was actually running just fine. So Microsoft has clearly optimized the chromium code to take advantage of whatever internal knowledge it has, of how windows works to make it run a lot better.

So just as safari is the best browser to use. A match edge and edge is probably the best use browser to use on your windows machine.

I mean, I was using all those, you know, back in the early days, I still remember things like gopher and the wind sock, 3.1 or something for the windows 3.1 on Thursdays where a long time ago. I mean, now of course we're on the windows. And as you mentioned, windows 11 has had some bugs too. One of the bugs, one of the bugs was causing them.

They processes to deliver slow performance by that three to 5% in certain apps and five to 15% in certain games, something to do with a level, two case, something properly written in the code that Microsoft and AMD have to fix it, which they're going to do. There was also a problem with Intel network cards, where there was some sort of bag there, there was a memory leak in Microsoft edge where eventually you would have to reboot your computer to plug that late.

I saw little loop. And things was winners live in another good reason why you shouldn't always rise to update to a latest operative straightaway. It's always good to let some of the bugs behind that first Roy from ity.com

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Alex Zaharov-Reutt

Technology Editor

Alex Zaharov-Reutt is iTWire's Technology Editor is one of Australia’s best-known technology journalists and consumer tech experts, Alex has appeared in his capacity as technology expert on all of Australia’s free-to-air and pay TV networks on all the major news and current affairs programs, on commercial and public radio, and technology, lifestyle and reality TV shows.